psych chap 17 therapy

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electroconvulsive therapy is most useful in the treatment of a. schizophrenia b. depression c.personality disorders d. anxiety disorders
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b. depression
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the technique in which a person is asked to report everything that comes to his or her mind is called ___; it is favored by ____ therapists a. active listening; cognitive b. spontaneous remission; humanistic c. frees association; psychoanalytic d. systematic desensitization; behavior
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c. frees association; psychoanalytic
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of the following categories of psychotherapy which is known for its non directive nature? a. psychoanalysis b. humanistic therapy c. behavior therapy d. cognitive therapy
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b. humanistic therapy
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which of the following NOT a common criticism of psychoanalysis a. it emphasizes the existence of repressed memories b. it provides interpretations that are hard to disprove c. it is generally a very expensive process d. it gives therapists too much control over patients
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d. it gives therapists too much control over patients
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Which of the following types of therapy does NOT belong with the others a.cognitive therapy b. family therapy c. behavior therapy d. psychosurgery
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d. psychosurgery
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which of the following is NOT necessarily an advantage of group therapies over individual therapies a. they tend to take less time for the therapist b. they tend to cost less money for the clients c. they are more effective d. they allow the client to test new behaviors in a social context
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c. they are more effective
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Which biomedical therapy is MOST likely to be practiced today a. psychosurgery b.electroconvulsive therapy c. drug therapy d. counterconditioning
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c. drug therapy
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there effectiveness of psychotherapy has been assessed both through clients’ perspectives and through controlled research studies. What have such assessments found? a. clients perceptions and controlled studies alike strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy b. whereas clients’ perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, studies point to more modest results c.whereas studies affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, many clients feel dissatisfied with their progress d. clients’ perceptions and controlled studies alike paint a very mixed picture of the effectiveness of psychotherapy
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b. whereas clients’ perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, studies point to more modest results
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cognitive- behavioral therapy aims to a. alter the way people act b. make people more aware of their irrational negative thinking c. alter the way people think and act d. counter condition anxiety- provoking stimuli
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c. alter the way people think and act
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The results of outcome research on the effectiveness of different psychotherapies reveal that a. no single type of therapy is consistently superior b. behavior therapies are most effective in treating specific problems, such as phobias c. cognitive therapies are most effective in treating depressed emotions d. all of these statements are true
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d. all of these statements are true
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The antipsychotic drugs appear to produce their effect by blocking the receptor sites for a. dopamine b. epinephrine c. norepinephrine d. serotonin
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a. dopamine
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Psychologists who advocate a ____ approach to mental health contend that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing the disturbed individual’s ____ a. biomedical; diet b. family; behavior c. humanistic; feelings d. preventive environment
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d. preventive environment
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an eclectic psychotherapist is one who a. takes a non directive approach in helping clients solve their problems b. views psychological disorders as usually stemming from one, cause such as a biological abnormality c. uses one particular technique, such as psychoanalysis or counterconditioning, in treating disorders d. uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem
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d. uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem
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the technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a non directive manner is called a. active listening b. frees association c. systematic desensitization d. transference
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a. active listening
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unlike traditional psychoanalytic therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy a. helps people gain insight into the roots of their problems b. offers interpretations of patients’ feelings c. focuses on current relationships d. does all of these things
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c. focuses on current relationships
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the technique of systematic desensitization is based on the premise that maladaptive symptoms are a. a reflection of irrational thinking b. conditioned responses c. expressions of unfulfilled wishes d. inner conflicts
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b. conditioned responses
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the operant conditioning technique in which desired behaviors are rewarded with points or poker chips that can later be exchanged for various reward is called a. counterconditioning b. systematic desensitization c. a token economy d. exposure therapy
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c. a token economy
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One variety of ___ therapy is based on the finding that depressed people often attribute their failure to ____ a. humanistic; themselves b. behavior; external circumstances c. cognitive; external circumstances d. cognitive; themselves
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d. cognitive; themselves
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a person can derive benefits from psychotherapy simply by believing in it. This illustrates the importance of a. spontaneous recovery b. the placebo effect c. the transference effect d. interpretation
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b. the placebo effect
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Before 1950, the main mental health providers were a. psychologists b. paraprofessionals c. psychiatrists d. the clergy
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c. psychiatrists
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Carl Rogers was a _____ therapist who was the creator of ______ a. behavior; systematic desensitization b. psychoanalytic; insight therapy c. humanistic; client- centered therapy d. cognitive; cognitive therapy for depression
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c. humanistic; client- centered therapy
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using techniques of classical conditioning to develop an association between unwanted behaviors and an unpleasant experience is known as a. aversive conditioning b. systematic desensitization c. transference d. electroconvulsive therapy
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a. aversive conditioning
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which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual’s inherent potential for self- fulfillment a. behavior therapy b. psychoanalysis c. humanistic therapy d. biomedical therapy
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c. humanistic therapy
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Light- exposure therapy has proven useful as a form of treatment for people suffering from a. bulimia b. seasonal affective disorder c. schizophrenia d. dissociative identity disorder
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b. seasonal affective disorder
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Which type of psychotherapy focusses on changing unwanted behaviors rather than on discovering their underlying causes a. behavior therapy b. cognitive therapy c. humanistic therapy d. psychoanalysis
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a. behavior therapy
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The techniques of counterconditioning are based on principles of a. observational learning b. classical conditioning c. operant conditioning d. behavior modification
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b. classical conditioning
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In which of the following does the client learn to associate a relaxed state with a hierarchy of anxiety- arousing situations a. cognitive therapy b. aversive conditioning c. counterconditioning d. systematic desensitization
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d. systematic desensitization
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Principles of operant conditioning underline which of the following techniques? a. counterconditioning b. systematic desensitization c. stress inoculation training d. the token economy
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d. the token economy
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Which of these therapies emphasizes that we are all integrated biopsychosocial systems a. interpersonal psychotherapy b. cognitive therapy c. therapeutic life- style change d. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
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c. therapeutic life- style change
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Which type of therapy focuses on eliminating irrational thinking a. EMDR b. client- centered therapy c. cognitive therapy d. behavior therapy
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c. cognitive therapy
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Antidepressant drugs are believed to work by affecting serotonin or a. dopamine b. lithium c. norepinephrine d. acetylcholine
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c. norepinephrine
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After many years of taking antipsychotic drugs, Greg’s facial muscle sometimes twitch involuntarily. This behavior is called a. tardive dyskinesia b. spontaneous recovery c. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation d. EMDR
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a. tardive dyskinesia
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Which of the following is the mood- stabilizing drug most commonly used to treat bipolar disorder a. Ativan b. chlorpromazine c. Xanax d. lithium
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d. lithium
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The type of drugs criticized for reducing symptoms without resolving underlying problems are the a. anti anxiety drugs b. antipsychotic drugs c. antidepressant drugs d. amphetamines
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a. anti anxiety drugs
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Which form of therapy is most likely to be successful in treating depression a. behavior modification b. psychoanalysis c. cognitive therapy d. humanistic therapy
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c. cognitive therapy
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Although Moniz won the Nobel Prize for developing the lobotomy procedure, the technique is not widely used today because a. it produces a lethargic, immature personality b. it is irreversible c. calming drugs became available in the 1950s d. of all of these reasons
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d. of all of these reasons
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Unusual emotions tend to return to their average state. This phenomenon is called a. regression toward the mean b. resistance c. counterconditioning d. systematic desensitization
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a. regression toward the mean
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Among the common ingredients of the psychotherapies is a. the offer of a therapeutic relationship b. the expectation among clients that the therapy will prove helpful c. the chance to develop a fresh perspective on oneself and the world d. all of these are common ingredients
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d. all of these are common ingredients
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Family therapy differs from other forms of psychotherapy because it focuses on a. using a variety of treatment techniques b. conscious rather than unconscious processes c. the present instead of the past d. how family tensions may cause individual problems
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d. how family tensions may cause individual problems
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One reason that aversive conditioning may only be temporarily effective is that a. for ethical reasons, therapists cannot use sufficiently classical conditioning b. patients are often unable to become sufficiently relaxed for conditioning to take place c. patients know that outside the therapist’s office they can engage in the undesirable behavior without fear of aversive consequences d. most conditioned responses are elicited by many nonspecific stimuli and it is impossible to counter condition them all
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c. patients know that outside the therapist’s office they can engage in the undesirable behavior without fear of aversive consequences
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During a session with his psychoanalyst, Jamal hesitates while describing a highly embarrassing thought. In the psychoanalytic framework, this is an example of a.transference b. insight c. mental repression d. resistance
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d. resistance
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During psychoanalysis Jane has developed strong feelings of hatred for her therapist. The analyst interprets Jane’s behavior in terms of a ___ of her feelings toward her father
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transference
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given that Jim’s therapist attempts to help him by offering genuineness, acceptance, and empathy, she is probably practicing a. psychoanalysis b. behavior therapy c. cognitive therapy d. client- centered therapy
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d. client- centered therapy
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To help Same quit smoking, his therapist blew a blast of smoke into Sam’s face each time Same inhaled. Which technique is the therapist using? a. exposure therapy b. behavior modification c. systematic desensitization d. aversive conditioning
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d. aversive conditioning
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After Darnel dropped a pass in an important football game, he became depressed and vowed to quit the team because of his athletic incompetence. The campus psychologist used gentle questioning to reveal to Darnel that his thinking was irrational. His “incompetence” had earned hi an athletic scholarship. The psychologist’s response was most typical of a ___ therapist a. behavior b. psychoanalytic c. client- centered d. cognitive
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d. cognitive
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Seth enters therapy to talk about some issues that have been upsetting him. The therapist prescribes some medication to help him. The therapist is MOST likely a a. clinical psychologist b. psychiatrist c. psychiatric social worker d. clinical social worker
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b. psychiatrist
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In an experiment testing the effects of a new antipsychotic drug, neither Dr. Cunningham nor her parents know whether the patients are in the experimental or the control group. This is an example of : a. meta- analysis b. within- subjects research c. the double- blind technique d. the single- blind technique
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c. the double- blind technique
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A close friend who for years has suffered from wintertime depression is seeking your advice regarding the effectiveness of light- exposure therapy. What should you tell your friend? a. “Don’t waste your time and money it doesn’t work” b. a more effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder is eye movement desensitization and reprocessing c. you’d be better off with a prescription for lithium d. it might be worth a try there is some evidence that morning light exposure produces relief
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d. it might be worth a try there is some evidence that morning light exposure produces relief
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a relative wants to know which type of therapy works best you should tell your relative that a. psychotherapy does not work b. behavior therapy is the most effective c. cognitive therapy is the most effective d. no one type of therapy is consistently the most successful
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d. no one type of therapy is consistently the most successful
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Leota is startled when her therapist says that she needs to focus on eliminatijng her problem behavior rather than gaining insight into its underlying cause. Most likely Leota has consulted a __ therapist a. behavior b. humanistic c. cognitive d. psychoanalytic
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a. behavior
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To help him overcome his fear of flying Dan’s therapist has him construct a hierarchy of anxiety- triggering stimuli and then learn to associate each with a state of deep relaxation. Dan’s therapist is using the technique called a. systematic desensitization b. aversive conditioning c. shaping d. free association
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a. systematic desensitization
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A patient in a hospital receives poker chips for making her bed, being punctual at meal times, and maintaining her physical appearance. The poker chips can be exchanged for privileges, such as television viewing, snacks, and magazines, this is an example of a. psychodynamic therapy technique called systematic desensitization b. behavior therapy technique called token economy c. cognitive therapy technique called token economy d. humanistic therapy technique called systematic desensitization
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b. behavior therapy technique called token economy
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Ben is a cognitive- behavioral therapist compared with Rachel who is a behavior therapist Ben is more likely to a. base his therapy on principles of operant conditioning b. base his therapy on principles of classical conditioning c. address clients attitudes as well as behaviors d focus on clients’ unconscious burgers
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c. address clients attitudes as well as behaviors
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A psychotherapist who believes the best way to treat psychological disorders is to prevent them from developing would be MOST likely to view disordered behavior as a. maladaptive thoughts and actions b. expressions of unconscious conflicts c. conditioned responses d. an understandable response to stressful social conditions
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d. an understandable response to stressful social conditions
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Linda’s doctor prescribes medication that blocks the activity of dopamine in her nervous system. Evidently, Linda is being treated with an ___ drug a. antipsychotic b. antianxiety c.antidepressant d. anticonvulsive
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a. antipsychotic
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Abraham’s doctor prescribe medication that increases the availability of norepinephrine or serotonin in his nervous system. Evidently Abraham is being treated with an __ drug a. antipsychotic b. mood- stabilizing c. antidepressant d. anticonvulsive
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c. antidepressant
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In concluding her talk titled “Psychosurgery Today”, Ashley states that a. psychosurgery is still widely used thought the world b. electroconvulsive therapy is the only remaining psychosurgical technique that is widely practiced c. with advances in psychopharmacology psychosurgery has largely been abandoned d. although lobotomies remain popular other psychosurgical techniques have been abandoned
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c. with advances in psychopharmacology psychosurgery has largely been abandoned
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A psychiatrist has diagnosed a patient as having bipolar disorder it is likely that she will prescribe a. an antipsychotic drug b. lithium c. anti anxiety drug d. a drug that blocks receptor sites for serotonin
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b. lithium
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which type of psychotherapy would be most likely to use the interpretation of dreams as a technique for brining unconscious feelings into awareness? a. client centered therapy b. psychodynamic therapy c. cognitive therapy d. behavior therapy
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b. psychodynamic therapy
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Of the following therapists who would be most likely to interpret a person’s psychological problems i terms of repressed impulses a. behavior therapist b. cognitive therapist c. humanistic therapist d. psychoanalyst
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d. psychoanalyst
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employ structured interactions (usually verbal) between a trained professional and a client with a problem
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• Psychological therapies
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act directly on the patient’s nervous system
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• Biomedical therapies
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an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
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• Psychotherapy
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o An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
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eclectic approach
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Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapist’s interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self- insight
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Psychoanalysis
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• Emphasizes people’s inherent potential for self fulfillment
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Humanistic Therapies
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a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist used techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth
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Client- centered therapy
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therapist listens without interpreting and does not direct the client (patient) to any particular insight
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• Nondirective therapy
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empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger’s client- centered therapy
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• Active listening
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an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats.
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• Token economy
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the psychoanalytic term for the blocking from consciousness of anxiety- laden memories. Hesitation during free association may reflect ___
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Resistance
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– is the psychoanalytic term for the analyst’s helping the client to understand resistances and other aspects of behavior so that the client may gain deeper insights
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Interpretation
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is the psychoanalytic term for a patient’s redirecting to the analyst emotions from other relationships
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Transference
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seeks to enhance patients’ self-insight into their symptoms by focusing on childhood experiences and important relationships in addition to unconscious forces
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Psychodynamic therapy
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such as psychoanalysis and humanistic therapy aim to increase the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
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Insight therapies
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refers to the accepting, nonjudgmental attitude that is the basis of client- centered therapy
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Unconditional positive regard
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is therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of problem behaviors
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Behavior therapy
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– a category of behavior therapy in which new responses are classically conditioned to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
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Counterconditioning
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treat anxiety by exposing people to things they normally fear and avoid. Among these therapies are systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy
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Exposure therapies-
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is a type of exposure therapy in which a state of relaxation is classically conditioned to a hierarchy of gradually increasing anxiety- provoking stimuli.
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Systematic desensitization-
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– in which sensitive, anxiety- triggering stimuli are desensitized a progressive or systematic fashion
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Counterconditioning
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– progressively exposes people to simulations of feared situations to treat their anxiety
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Virtual reality exposure therapy
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– is a form of counterconditioning in which an unpleasant state becomes associated with an unwanted behavior
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Aversive conditioning
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focuses on teaching people new and more adaptive ways of thinking and acting. The therapy is based on the idea that our feelings and responses to events are strongly influenced by our thinking or cognition
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Cognitive therapy-
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– is an integrated therapy that focuses on changing self- defeating thinking (cognitive therapy) and unwanted behaviors (behavior therapy)
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Cognitive behavior therapy
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– view problem behavior as influenced by, or directed at, other members of the client’s family. Therapy therefore focuses on relationships and problems among the various members of the family.
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Family therapy
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– is the tendency for unusual events (or emotions) to return toward their average state
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Regression toward the mean
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– is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
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Meta- analysis
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is clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
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Evidence based practice-
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– is the use of prescribed medications or medical procedures that act on a patient’s nervous system to treat psychological disorders
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Biomedical therapy
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– is the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
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Psychopharmacology
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– are used to treat schizophrenia and other severe thought disorders
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Antipsychotic drugs
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– is an involuntary movement of the muscles of the face, tongue, and limbs that sometimes accompanies the long- term use of certain antipsychotic drugs
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Tardive dyskinesia
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– help control anxiety and agitation by depressing activity in the central nervous system
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Antianxiety drugs
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treat depression by altering the availiability of various neurotransmitters Also increasingly prescribed for anxiety
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Antidepressant drugs-
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– a biomedical therapy often used to treat severe depression a brief electric shock is passed through the brain
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ETC)
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– is the delivery of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to stimulate or suppress brain activity
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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– is a biomedical therapy that attempts to change behavior by removing or destroying brain tissue. Since drug therapy became widely available in the 1950s, psychosurgery has been infrequently used
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Psychosurgery
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– is a form of psychosurgery in which the nerves linking the emotion centers of the brain to the frontal lobes are severed
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Lobotomy
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– is personal strength that helps people cope with stress, adversity, and trauma
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Resilience
question

what drug provides the most help to schizophrenia patients experiencing auditory hallucinations and paranoia
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Thorazine
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what does antipsychotic drugs do
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reduces dopamine transmission
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what drug has a risk of tradeoff dyskinesia
answer

haldol
question

what specific drug blocks serotonin activity and enables awakenings
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clozapine
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what group of drugs block repute ad mimics neurotransmitters
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anti anxiety drugs
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what type of drugs block gaba and increases transmission
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anti anxiety drugs
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what type of drugs increases GABA transmission
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barbital
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what specific drug has serious side effects
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nembutal
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what drug is used for anxiety and sleep disorders but not much anymore because it is very addictive
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seconal
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what type of drugs depress the nervous system
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anti anxiety drugs
question

what drug assists patients to sleep/ reduce tension
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benzodiazepines
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what drug depresses the central nervous system and is prescribed more frequently
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xanax
question

what specific drug depresses central nervous system activity and increases gaba transmission
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valium
question

what drug blocks enzyme activity resulting in increased levels of norepinephrine and serotonin
answer

parnate
question

what drug works to block oxides and leads to an increase in serotonin and norepinephrine
answer

tricyclics
question

what specific drug reduces repute of norepinephrine
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norpramin
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most commonly used type of drugs
answer

ssri’s
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what specific drug partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses
answer

Prozac
question

what type of drug is lithium
answer

mood stabilizer

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