Psych CH. 7 PPT

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Five-year old Jordan is seeing a speech therapist in his preschool once a week bc he has difficulty saying the “r” sound in his own name. When he says his name, people think it sounds like “jaw-dun.” From a language perspective, Jordan is having difficulty with a specific _______.
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phoneme
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Creative intelligence is related to:
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divergent thinking
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A mechanical problem-solving technique is also referred to as:
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trial and error
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Heuristics could also be called:
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“rule of thumb”
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A more creative method of problem-solving is the use of:
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divergent thinking
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If an instructor was referring to a stream during a lecture, a student’s mental image is likely to be
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a picture-like image
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When the solution to a problem suddenly comes to mind, it is called:
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insight
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One barrier to innovative problem solving is persisting in using techniques that have been successful in the past, also known as
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mental set
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A person with an IQ over 145 may be best categorized as:
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a genius
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________ is the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively for solving problems.
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Intelligence
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IQ is assumed to be normally distributed with a mean IQ of 100 and a typical standard deviation of about
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15
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_______ often work with individuals who have traumatic brain injury.
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clinical neuropsychologists
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If a test does not measure what it’s supposed to measure, then it lacks:
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validity
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Wechsler’s four index scales are verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and:
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processing speed
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Gardner believes that reason, logic, and knowledge are:
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different aspects of intelligence
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Which of the following images is the best example of a prototype for a fruit?
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apple
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________ is the ability to adapt and deal with new problems and challenges the first time you encounter them.
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Fluid intelligence
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Shelly took the Stanford-Binet test at age 10 and scored a mental age of 13. Using Stern’s formula, her IQ is
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130
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In the brain, creating a mental image is ________ seeing an actual image.
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almost the opposite of
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The debate over whether animals use real language centers around:
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the fact that none of the animals have achieved language development comparable to a 3-year-old human.
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The cognitive universalism theory states that:
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concepts are universal and influence the development of language.
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Kanzi, the chimpanzee, communicates with researchers by using:
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abstract symbols on a keyboard and making some sounds
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Vygotsky believed that:
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language could help a child learn to control social behavior
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The rhythm and emphasis of communicating is part of which language structure?
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pragmatics
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Piaget theorized that ______ preceded and aided the development of _______.
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concepts; language
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An important factor in the formation of prototypes is:
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Even after her girlfriends reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and his friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends. This is an example of
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confirmation bias
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__________ believed that concepts become the “pegs” from which words are “hung.”
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Piaget
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_______ is the ability to adapt and deal with new problems or challenges the first time you encounter them.
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Three-year-old Jamal is learning how to wait his turn to talk during circle time in preschool. Jamal is learning the _____ of language.
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pragmatics
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In waking up and getting ready for class in the morning, one might follow a(n)
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script
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Abby’s new puppy cries each night when left in her crate. When Abby picks up the puppy and holds her to her chest the puppy stops crying and falls asleep. However, after she puts the puppy back in the crate the crying begins again. After a few nights, Abb
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insight
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The higher one’s degree of practical intelligence,
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the less likely that person will succeed in an academic setting.
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_______ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled.
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emotional intelligence
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________, which is caused by a defect in a male gene that leads to deficiency in a protein needed for brain development, is a biological cause of intellectual disability.
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Fragile X chromosome
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Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with
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environmental factors
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If a test does not measure what it’s supposed to measure, then it lacks
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validity
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Gardner would say that an astronaut is high in:
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visual/spatial intelligence
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Examples of algorithms are:
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mathematical formulas
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Cultures like that of the Japanese, which hold to well-established cultural traditions, put less value on
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divergent thinking
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The term that refers to mental activity that takes place in the brain when a person is processing information, and includes things such as problem solving, communication, and organization of material, is:
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cognition
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_________ can help us interpret or deal with new information or events that we have never encountered.
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concepts
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Language allows people to _________ and ___________.
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communicate with one another; represent their own mental activity.
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Recent studies support Rosch-Heider’s theory of _______, rather than the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
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a cognitive universalism

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