Psych ch 2 brain

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Brainstem
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Area of the brain that houses parts of the hindbrain, midbrain, and forbrain, and helps regulate reflex activities critical for survival.
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Hindbrain
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Collection of brain structures including the medilla, cerebellum, and pons.
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Medulla
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Structure responsible for automatic body functions such as breathing and heartbeat. An extension of the spinal cord, with many nerve fibers passing through it carrying information to and from the brain.
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Cerebellum
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Responsible for coordinating fine muscle movement, balance, and some perception and cognition.
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Pons
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Located above the cerebellum and medulla, involved in respiration, movement, waking, sleep, and dreaming.
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Mindbrain
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In the middle of the brain responsible for coordinating movement patterns, sleep, and arousal. Works with the pons to control sleep and arousal. Also contains a small structure involved with the neurotransmitter dopamine.
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Forebrain
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Upper level brain structures including, the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex.
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Thalamus
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Relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex, and directs this information to the appropriate cortical areas.
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Hypothalamus
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Lies beneath the thalamus, called the “master control center”. Helps govern drives by regulating endocrine system (hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression)
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Limbic System
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Interconnected group of fore brain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory.
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Hippocampus
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Part of the limbic system involved in forming and retrieving memories , also a major focus is the production and regulation of emotions.
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Amygdala
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Limbic system structure linked to the production and regulation of emotions. Another major function is its role in pleasure or reward.
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Cerebral Cortex
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Thin surface layer on the cerebral hemispheres that regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes. Considered the “essence of life”
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Frontal Lobes
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Two lobes at the front of the brain governing motor control, speech production, and higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion, and memory.
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Brocas Area
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Crucial role in speech production in the left frontal lobe, and only in left hemisphere.
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Parietal Lobes
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Two lobes at the top of the brain just behind the frontal lobes, contain somatosensory cortex, which interpret bodily sensations including pain, touch, temperature, and location of body parts.
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Temporal Lobes
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Two lobes on each side of the brain above the ears involved in hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control. Left temporal lobe- Wernicke’s area: Patients with damage could not understand what they read or heard, but could speak quickly and easily.
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Auditory Cortex
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Processes sound and is located at the top front of each temporal lobe.
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Occipital Lobes
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Located at the lower back of the brain, are responsible for vision, shape, color, motion, and visual perception.
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Association Areas
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So- called quiet areas in the cerebral cortex involved in, interpreting, integrating, and acting on information processed by other parts of the brain.
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Motor Cortex
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Part of frontal lobe, controls voluntary movement.
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Visual Cortex
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Part of occipital lobe, receives and processes visual information.
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Somatosensory Cortex
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Part of parietal lobe, receives sensory messages.
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Corpus Callosum
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Bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brains left and right hemispheres.

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