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psych ch 16

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Josef Breuer
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Sigmund Freud is inspired by the landmark case of Anna O (Bertha Pappenheim), who studied Anna O? Her physical symptoms were alleviated when she talked to her therapist about traumatic events.
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the talking cure
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what did Anna O call her treatment (psychoanalysis)?
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400
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how many approaches to treatment may be available?
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insight, behavior, biomedical
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what are the three major categories of therapy?
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insight
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_____ therapy: talk therapy; clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their therapists; goal is to pursue increased insight regarding the nature of the client’s difficulties and to sort through possible solutions; ex. family/couple therapy
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behavior
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_____ therapy: based on the principles of learning; make direct efforts to alter problematic responses (phobias) and maladaptive habits (drug use)
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biomedical
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_______ therapy: drugs and shock therapy; interventions into a person’s biological functioning;
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depression; anxiety
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what are the two most common disorders that people seek therapy for?
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50%
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what percent of therapy-seekers actually have a mental disorder?
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don’t
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It appears that many people who need therapy (do/don’t?) receive it.
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clinical; counseling
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what are the two types of psychologists? they specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems. they both need a PhD
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clinical
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______ psychologists training emphasizes the treatment of full-fledged disorder
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counseling
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______ psychologists training is slanted toward the treatment of everyday adjustment problems
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psychiatrists
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these are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. they also treat everyday behavioral problems. primarily deal with more serious disorders like schizophrenia
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psychoanalysis
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an INSIGHT THERAPY that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
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free association and dream analysis
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what are the two methods of probing the unconscious?
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free association
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clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
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dream analysis
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the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams
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interpretation
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this refers to the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the client’s thoughts, behaviors, feelings, and memories
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resistance (like in the Mr. N example)
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refers to largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
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transference
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occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
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Carl Rogers
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who came up with client-centered therapy (or person-centered)? he is a humanist.
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client-centered
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____-______therapy: is an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
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b
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which of the following is not a condition a therapist should provide? a. genuineness b. candidness c. unconditional positive regard d. empathy
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clarification
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what is the therapist’s primary task in person-centered therapy?
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positive psychology
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this uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence. inspired well-being therapy and positive psychotherapy
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well-being
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___-_____ therapy: created by Giovanni Fava and his colleagues. seeks to enhance clients’ self-acceptance, purpose in life, autonomy, and personal growth. successfully used with mood/anxiety disorders
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positive
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____ psychotherapy: developed by Seligman. used mainly for depression. attempts to get clients to recognize their strengths, appreciate their blessings, savor positive experiences, forgive others, and find meaning in their lives.
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group therapy (participants are therapists for one another)
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this therapy came of age around WWII and its aftermath in the 1950s. it’s the simultaneous psychological treatment of several clients. consists of 4-12 people usually. 6-8 is ideal number. reassuring to be surrounded by other people who are suffering.
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couples (or marital)
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_______ therapy: involves the treatment of both partners in a committed, intimate relationship, in which the main focus is on relationship issues
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family
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_______ therapy: involves treatment of a family unit as a whole, in which the focus is on family dynamics/communication
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spontaneous remission
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a recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment
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true
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true or false: insight therapy is suggested to be superior to no treatment/placebo treatment and that the effects of therapy are reasonably durable. insight therapy has roughly equivalent results to drug therapy
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true
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insight therapists treat pathological symptoms as signs of underlying problems whereas behavioral therapists treat symptoms as the problem (true or false?)
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behavior
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______ therapies: involve the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change clients’ maladaptive habits
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Wolphe
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who devised systematic desensitization; a behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients’ anxiety responses through counterconditioning
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anxiety hierarchy; relaxation
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the first step of systematic desensitization: therapist helps client build _____ ______; second step: training the client in deep muscle ______; third step: c;oems tries to work through what was built in step one, learning to remain relaxed while imagining each stimulus
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exposure
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______ therapies: clients are confronted with situations that they fear so that they learn that these situations are really harmless (systematic desensitization!)
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aversion
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______ therapies: very controversial and only something you sign up for if desperate, a behavior therapy in which a stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response (ex. causing nausea/vomiting)
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cognitive-behavioral
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_____–_______ treatments: use varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking
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cognitive
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_____ therapy: uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders. originally for depression.goal is to CHANGE negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs
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d
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elimination of maladaptive behaviors or symptoms a. psychoanalysis b. client-centered therapy c. cognitive therapy d. behavior therapy
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b
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acceptance of self, personal growth a. psychoanalysis b. client-centered therapy c. cognitive therapy d. behavior therapy
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a
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recovery of unconscious conflicts, character reconstruction a. psychoanalysis b. client-centered therapy c. cognitive therapy d. behavior therapy
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c
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detection and reduction of negative thinking a. psychoanalysis b. client-centered therapy c. cognitive therapy d. behavior therapy
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biomedical
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______ therapies: physiological interventions (drugs) intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders
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psychopharmacotherapy (drug therapy)
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the treatment of mental disorders with medication
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anti anxiety, anti psychotics, antidepressants, mood-stabilizing
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what are the 4 categories of therapeutic drugs?
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anti anxiety
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_____ ______ drugs: relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness. most popular are valium and xanax (trade names for diazepam and alprazolam)
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tranquilizers
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valium and xanax are often called what? they exert their effects almost immediately, but are relatively short-lived
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antipsychotic
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_________ drugs: used to GRADUALLY reduce symptoms such as hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions. the most common trade names for these are thorazine, mellaril, and haldol. decrease activity at certain subtypes of dopamine synapses
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tardive dyskinesia
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a neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic like movements of the mouth, tongue, face, hands , or feet
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no
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is there a cure for tar dive dyskinesia?
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antidepressants
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GRADUALLY elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression. most common are prozac, paxil, and zoloft
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SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
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wwhat class of antidepressants is most commonly prescribed nowadays?
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SNRI
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what’s the newest class of antidepressants? they produce slightly stronger effects than SSRIs.
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mood stabilizer
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drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders… for many years, lithium was the only successful drug in this category
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Valproate
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What drug has become more widely used than lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorders and has fewer side effects?
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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A biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions. Unilateral shock to the right hemisphere is the preferred treatment today. Arguably effective for major depression. Seriously high relapse rates. electrodes attached to head and a little bit of anesthesia and other drugs given to patient.
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TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
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NEW technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain. magnetic coil mounted on small paddle is held over specific areas of the head to increase/decrease activity in discreet regions of the cortex. mostly used for depression.
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DBS (deep brain stimulation)
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NEW technique where thin electrode is surgically implanted in the brain and connected to an implanted pulse generator so that various electrical currents can be delivered to brain tissue adjacent to the electrode. helps with parkinson’s disease, tardive dyskinesia, and some seizure disorders. will never be frontline therapy option because is extensive.
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yes (value in focusing on different schools of thought)
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yes or no, do people blend approaches to treatment?
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eclecticism
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the practice of therapy involves drawing ideas from 2+ systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system.
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theoretical integration
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in ________ ______, 2 or more systems of therapy are combined/blended to take advantage of the strengths of each.
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technical eclecticism
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_____ _______ involves borrowing ideas, insights, and techniques from a variety of sources while tailoring one’s intervention strategy to the unique needs of each client. Lazarus advocates this.
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true
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true or false: minorities are less likely to seek out/receive treatment than whites.
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mental hospital
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_____ ____: a medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders
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deinstitutionalization
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this refers to transferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities that emphasize out-patient care. this shift was inspired by 1) effective drug therapy and 2) the community mental health movement
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e
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which of the following is true: a. psychotherapy is an art and a science b. psychotherapy can be harmful/damaging to a client c. psychotherapy doesn’t have to be expensive d. the degree the professional holds is relatively unimportant e. all of the above
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true
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true or false: Modern psychotherapy was spawned by a cultural milieu that viewed the self as an independent, rational being
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d
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SSRIs can be helpful in what? A. Depression B. Schizophrenia C. OCD D. A and C
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side effects
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After being released from a hospital, many schizophrenic patients stop taking their antipsychotic medicine because of what?
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cognitive
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A therapist openly challenges a client’s statement that she is a failure as a woman because her boyfriend left her, insisting that she justify it with evidence. Which type of therapy is being used?
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clarification
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They key process in client centered therapy is ________ of the client’s feelings
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transference
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Because Suzanne has an unconscious sexual attraction to her father, she behaves seductively to her therapist. Suzanne’s behavior is a form of _____
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PHD
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spent 5 years getting a doctorate in clinical psychology, been trained to seen clients and understand these illnesses. Highly trained to also do research, done many dissertations, gathered a lot of information. incredibly competitive.
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psy.D
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Spend same five years, but haven’t gotten a lot of training in research. It is solely to see clients, not as competitive as PhD.
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masters
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2 year degree, if you want to be licensed to see clients, you need to do 2,000 hours after your get your degree and supervised over someone with a doctorate.
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doctorate (EdD)
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Trains people to help those solve problems, People with these degrees will see the same people with PhD. In psychology
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social worker
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you can can a specific training in psychiatric social work and after 2000 hours you can practice independently with a degree in social work
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psychiatrists
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have Mds, did all the things that medical students did. Only mental health people who can write prescriptions.
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counterconditioning
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you want to stop smoking, everyone in your family is going to be given an airhorn and every time you smoke, they’ll make you miserable – you cant do that with depression.