Psych 405 Test 1

Materialism is the belief that
all things can be described in physical terms
Stumpf’s method of observation was
phenomenology
Contemporary cognitive psychologists’ computer model of AI is a direct descendent of
Babbage’s calculating machine
Psychology was founded by
Wundt
Kulpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Kulpes view is known as
Imageless thought
The term Zeitgeist refers to
the intellectual and cultural climate of the times
James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a
machine
The Zeitgeist of 17th-19th century Europe and of US was marked by
mechanism
As his measure of learning, Ebbinghaus adapted a method from
the associationists
Which of the following idea has psychology borrowed from natural physics
effects are predictable and measurable
In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus he is an intellectual ancestor of
S-R psychology
______are mechanized figures that almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.
Automata
Aristotle held that the mind was a wax slate upon which impressions are made. Locke invoked the metaphor of the ___ to illustrate the same phenomenon.
tabula rasa
Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings/
pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, excitement/depression
Descarte’s dualism was novel in its emphasis on the
influence of the body on the mind
The doctrine of_____is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists.
innate ideas
If a tree falls in the forest and no one is present to hear it, then the fall makes no sound. Using Locke’s distinctions, this conclusion assumes that the sound is a___
secondary quality
Berkeley’s basic difference with Locke was the former’s arguement that
there are no primary qualities
The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the
extirpation method
Kulpes method emphasized all of the following except
investigation of unconscious processes
In the US, the ____brothers had a profitable and extensive business in selling phrenology readings.
Fowler
Fechner’s work had proved Kant wrong when Kant said that
psychology could never be a science
The researcher credited with the finding that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is
Galvani
German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because
there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike
Wundt’s system is most accurately called
experimental psychology
According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain
where the mind and body interact
The cultural psychology of Wundt examined evidence from
examination of language, myths, customs, law, and morals
Who invented the opthalmoscope
Helmholtz
Wunts term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the
power of the will to organize the contents of the mind
Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the
just noticeable difference
Bessel began the study of individual differences in perception by noting that
astronomers differed in their time estimates in measuring the transit of a star
Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of
Comte
Which of the following is true of Fechner
All of the above. (taught at Leipzig, pleasure principle, damaged eyes w colored glasses, cured of symptoms by eating raw ham)
Brentano’s system of psych was called ____ psychology
act
The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes is a definition of
psychophysics
_____ created phrenology, which proposed that the topography of a person’s skull revealed his or her intellectual and emotional characteristics.
Gall
In Fechner’s law, S is the ___
magnitude of the sensation
In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29 yr old William Wundt found that he could
not pay attention to two things at once
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
consciousness
According to Wundt, psychology should be concerned with the study of
immediate experience
Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was the
quantification of the mind-body relationship
Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because
it was not seen as having practical value
One of Helmholtz’s particular contributions to psychology was his work on
vision
Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he
successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory
The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables is to
control for previous learning
What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”?
clock
Ebbinghaus developed a _____, considered by some to be the first successful test of higher mental process and used today, in modified form, in cognitive ability tests.
sentence-completion exercise
Stumpf’s method of observation was
phenomenology
What is the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli?
just noticeable difference
While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed
contiguity; repetition
Ebbinghaus’s work on learning and forgetting has been judged one of the great instances of original genius in experimental psychology.
True
Comte would argue that because God perceives the world, objects in it remain constant
False
There was little difference between James Mill and son John Stuart Mill in their interpretation of human mental functioning.
False
Broca’s area was discovered using the extirpation method
False
If you look at a rose and report “The rose is red” then you are describing immediate experience
True
Locke used simple and complex ideas to describe his theory of association, now known as learning.
True
Helmholtz produced the first empirical evidence that thought and movement are successive and not concurrent.
True
Wundts cultural psychology gained acclaim by distinguishing itself from philosophy
False
The essence of Weber’s Law is that the just noticeable difference depends on the relative difference between two intensities of stimulation
True
For Descarte, the functions of the body operate according to mechanical principles
True