Psych 405 Test 1

Materialism is the belief that
all things can be described in physical terms

Stumpf’s method of observation was
phenomenology

Contemporary cognitive psychologists’ computer model of AI is a direct descendent of
Babbage’s calculating machine

Psychology was founded by
Wundt

Kulpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Kulpes view is known as
Imageless thought

The term Zeitgeist refers to
the intellectual and cultural climate of the times

James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a
machine

The Zeitgeist of 17th-19th century Europe and of US was marked by
mechanism

As his measure of learning, Ebbinghaus adapted a method from
the associationists

Which of the following idea has psychology borrowed from natural physics
effects are predictable and measurable

In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus he is an intellectual ancestor of
S-R psychology

______are mechanized figures that almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.
Automata

Aristotle held that the mind was a wax slate upon which impressions are made. Locke invoked the metaphor of the ___ to illustrate the same phenomenon.
tabula rasa

Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings/
pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, excitement/depression

Descarte’s dualism was novel in its emphasis on the
influence of the body on the mind

The doctrine of_____is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists.
innate ideas

If a tree falls in the forest and no one is present to hear it, then the fall makes no sound. Using Locke’s distinctions, this conclusion assumes that the sound is a___
secondary quality

Berkeley’s basic difference with Locke was the former’s arguement that
there are no primary qualities

The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the
extirpation method

Kulpes method emphasized all of the following except
investigation of unconscious processes

In the US, the ____brothers had a profitable and extensive business in selling phrenology readings.
Fowler

Fechner’s work had proved Kant wrong when Kant said that
psychology could never be a science

The researcher credited with the finding that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is
Galvani

German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because
there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike

Wundt’s system is most accurately called
experimental psychology

According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain
where the mind and body interact

The cultural psychology of Wundt examined evidence from
examination of language, myths, customs, law, and morals

Who invented the opthalmoscope
Helmholtz

Wunts term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the
power of the will to organize the contents of the mind

Weber’s Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the
just noticeable difference

Bessel began the study of individual differences in perception by noting that
astronomers differed in their time estimates in measuring the transit of a star

Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of
Comte

Which of the following is true of Fechner
All of the above. (taught at Leipzig, pleasure principle, damaged eyes w colored glasses, cured of symptoms by eating raw ham)

Brentano’s system of psych was called ____ psychology
act

The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes is a definition of
psychophysics

_____ created phrenology, which proposed that the topography of a person’s skull revealed his or her intellectual and emotional characteristics.
Gall

In Fechner’s law, S is the ___
magnitude of the sensation

In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29 yr old William Wundt found that he could
not pay attention to two things at once

For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was
consciousness

According to Wundt, psychology should be concerned with the study of
immediate experience

Fechner’s most important contribution to psychology was the
quantification of the mind-body relationship

Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because
it was not seen as having practical value

One of Helmholtz’s particular contributions to psychology was his work on
vision

Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he
successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory

The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables is to
control for previous learning

What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”?
clock

Ebbinghaus developed a _____, considered by some to be the first successful test of higher mental process and used today, in modified form, in cognitive ability tests.
sentence-completion exercise

Stumpf’s method of observation was
phenomenology

What is the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli?
just noticeable difference

While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed
contiguity; repetition

Ebbinghaus’s work on learning and forgetting has been judged one of the great instances of original genius in experimental psychology.
True

Comte would argue that because God perceives the world, objects in it remain constant
False

There was little difference between James Mill and son John Stuart Mill in their interpretation of human mental functioning.
False

Broca’s area was discovered using the extirpation method
False

If you look at a rose and report “The rose is red” then you are describing immediate experience
True

Locke used simple and complex ideas to describe his theory of association, now known as learning.
True

Helmholtz produced the first empirical evidence that thought and movement are successive and not concurrent.
True

Wundts cultural psychology gained acclaim by distinguishing itself from philosophy
False

The essence of Weber’s Law is that the just noticeable difference depends on the relative difference between two intensities of stimulation
True

For Descarte, the functions of the body operate according to mechanical principles
True