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Psych 321 Exam 4 (Chapters 12-15)

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Evidence from questionnaire studies supports Rogers’s theory
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True
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Rogers thought that clinical experience demonstrated the effectiveness of his therapy, making research unnecessary.
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False
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A criticism of humanistic psychology is that it encourages
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Narcissism and selfishness
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“Live each moment to the fullest,” is Jennifer’s motto. Rogers would probably evaluate this motto as
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Evidence of good emotional health
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Compared to other psychotherapists, Rogers was more likely to
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Restate what the client said
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Which psychologist had the most influence on early humanistic psychology?
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Alfred Adler
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Which of the following was true of Rogers’ therapy when films of his client-therapist interactions were later reviewed?
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Rogers was not as non-directive as his client-centered therapy is typically portrayed.
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When Rogers described a person as “fully functioning,” he meant the person was physically healthy, but not necessarily psychologically healthy.
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False
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According to Rogers, which of the following is not in the list of characteristics needed for a fully functioning, healthy person?
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Incongruence
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Which of the following was not one of the characteristics of a fully functioning person listed by Rogers?
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Social Interest
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For a parent who wants to have a child who gets good grades, what is likely to be a condition of worth?
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Doing homework
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Rogers called his therapeutic method
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Client-centered therapy
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Rogers recommended that therapists should allow clients to accurately know how they (the therapists) feel toward them, in most cases.
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True
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Roger’s believed that work employee / employer relationships would benefit from all of the following except
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Traditional authority patterns
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If a therapist likes a client, Rogers said that
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This feeling may be communicated to the client.
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Rogers has been criticized for underestimating the human capacity for
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Evil
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Maya Angelou generally followed her own feelings, whether anger toward racial insults or discomfort about burning chemical treatment of her hair. This trust of her own feelings illustrates Rogers’s concept of
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the organismic valuing process.
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“Prizing” is another term for
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unconditional acceptance of the client.
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If a person is “incongruent,”
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the real self and the ideal self are in conflict.
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Changes in psychotherapy are measured by Rogers’s
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Process Scale.
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Actualization is always a healthy process.
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True
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Rogers’s concept of unconditional positive regard refers to
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the therapist’s acceptance and positive valuing of the client, which is not dependent on particular “good” behaviors.
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Rogers thought that it was most important for the therapist to know
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the subjective experience of the client.
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Rogers called his therapy groups “__________.”
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encounter groups
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Rogers opposed mysticism and research on paranormal phenomena.
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False
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As a client makes progress in therapy, what happens?
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The client more freely experiences and expresses emotions.
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Which parental statement illustrates “conditional positive regard”?
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“Be good or no one will love you.”
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Rogers recommended that therapists be objective, communicating neither liking nor dislike of a client as a person.
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False
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Rogers recommended that therapists should clearly communicate to clients what behavioral standards they must reach.
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False
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Self-actualization is always healthy
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False
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The broad, general tendency toward development in nature is called _________, which contrast to __________
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formative tendency, randomness
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Which statement would Rogers most likely have made at the beginning of a group session?
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“Here we are. We can make of this group experience exactly what we wish.”
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Therapists are not responsible to learn of their clients’ culture if they proceed with counseling a culturally different individual
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False
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Adolescents who are creative are likely to have had parents who
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encouraged their children’s curiosity in early life.
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Rogers focused on __________ in therapy.
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the client’s experience
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Which of the following would be characteristic of “authoritative” parenting?
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“Which would be easier: for you to finish your homework before you play, or go play before you finish your homework?”
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What does Rogers recommend that parents provide for their children?
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unconditional positive regard
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When people are unhealthy, immature or criminals, Rogers blamed
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Social forces
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Rogers’s therapeutic techniques followed the medical model of treatment like other therapies of the day.
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False
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A person who uses defense mechanisms to seem better than he or she is (“Me? Angry? Never!” or “Tired? No, I always have energy to help a friend!”) is losing touch with __________.
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The real self
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Rogers encouraged parents to set high standards for their children’s behavior.
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False
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Cramer’s research on friendship found that
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friends, like therapists, can facilitate personal growth.
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Rogers described the ideal therapist as someone whose inner experience
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is largely transparent to the client.
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How parents interact with their preschool children is related to the creativity of the children years later, in adolescence.
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True
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Jenny didn’t listen to her parents and then made a mistake; however, her parents still love her. Jenny’s parents likely have ____ towards her.
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Unconditional positive regard
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Delay of Gratification
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The ability to give up immediate gratifications for larger, more distant rewards
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Personality Coefficient
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The average relationship between self-report personality measures ad behavior, estimated by Mischel at r=0.30
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Trait-versus-situation debate
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The controversy over which explains more of the variation in behavior: traits or situations (i.e. personality or the environment)
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Consistency Paradox
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The mismatch between intuition, which says that people are consistent, and research findings, which say they are not
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CAPS Model
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The Cognitive Affective Personality System model that Mischel offers as an alternative to an overly generalized trait model of personality
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Cognitive person variables
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Cognitive factors within a person, less global than traits, which influence how an individual adapts to the environment
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Cognitive Affect Unit (CAU)
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Cognitive factors within a person, comprising cognitive and emotional aspacts, that influence how a person adapts to the environment; (later terminology that cognitive person variables, in Mischel’s theory)
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Personal Contructs
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Trait terms that people use to describe themselves and other people
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Encoding Strategies
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Person variables concerned with how a person construes reality
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Prototype
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A typical example of an object or type of person; a “fuzzy concept” typical of the categories people use in perceiving others
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Competencies
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Person variables concerned with what a person is able to do
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Expectancies
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Subjective beliefs about what will happen in a particular situation (including behavior outcomes, stimulus outcomes, and self-effacies)
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Behavior-outcome expectancies
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Expectancies about what will happen if a person behaves in a particular way
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Stimulus-outcome expectancies
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Expectancies about how events will develop in th world, that is, what events will follow other environmental stimuli
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Self-effacy expectancies (or self-effacy)
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Subjective beliefs about what a person will be able to do
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Subjective stimulus value
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How much an outcome is valued by an individual
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Self-regulatory systems and plans
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Ways that a person works on complicated behavior (e.g., by setting goals and by self-criticism)
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Reciprocal determinism
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The interacting mutual influences of the person, the environment, and the behavior
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Self-system
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Personal constructs that people use to describe themselves; cognitive structures and subfunctions for perceiving, evaluating, and regulating behavior ()not a psychic agent that controls action)
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Outcome expectancies
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The belief about what desirable or undesirable things will occur if a behavior is successfully performed
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Attentional Processes
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Noticing the model’s behavior (a prerequisite for learning by modeling)
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Retention Process
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Remembering what a model has done
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Motor reproduction process
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Being able to do what one has seen a model do
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Motivational Process
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Deciding whether it is worthwhile to behave as a model has behaved
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Modeling
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Learning by observing others’ also called vicarious learning
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Vicarious learning
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Learning by observing others, without being directly rewarded oneself
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Collective Agency
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The sense that a group can do what is to be done
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Moral Disengagement
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Failure to regulate one’s behavior to live up to high moral standards
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Actualizing Tendency
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The force of growth and development that is innate in all organisms
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Organismic Valuing Process
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Inner sense within a person, which guides him or her in the directions of growth and health
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Fully Functioning
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Roger’s term for a mentally healthy person
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Ideal Self
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What a person feels he or she ought to be like
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Real Self
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The self that contains the actualizing tendency
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Conditions of Worth
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The expectations a person must live up to before receiving respect and love
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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Accepting and valuing a person without requiring particular behaviors as a prerequisite
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Prizing
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Characteristic of a good therapist, which involves positively valuing the client; also called unconditional positive regard
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Congruence
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A feeling of consistency between the real self and the ideal self
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Empathetic Understanding
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The ability of the therapist to understand the subjective experience of the client
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Encounter Group
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Growth-enhancing technique in which a group of people openly and honestly express their feelings and opinions
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Facilitator
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Th leader of an encounter group
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Person-centered
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Roger’s orientation to therapy and education, which focuses on the experience of the client or student rather than the therapist or teacher
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Satellite relationships
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Side relationships, which supplement a person’s primary committed relationship
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Method Centered
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An approach to science that emphasizes procedure over context
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Problem-Centered
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An approach to science that emphasizes subject matter over procedure
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Third Force
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Maslow’s term for his theory; emphasizing its opposition to psychoanalysis and behaviorism
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Taoism
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Maslow’s alternative to the traditional scientific method, emphasizing values and subjectivity (instead of objectivity)
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Hierarchy of Needs
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Ordered progression of motives, from basic physical needs upward to motives of the most developed human beings
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Deficiency Motivation
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Motication at lower levels of development
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Basic Need
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A fundamental deficiency need
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Being Motivation
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Higher-level motivation in which the need for self-actualization predominates
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Metamotivated
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Motivated by needs at the top of the hierarchy
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B-love
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Nonpossessive love, characteristic of a self-actualized person
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D-love
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Selfish love, characteristic of a person who is not self-actualized
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Self-actualization
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Development of a person’s full potential
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Peak Experience
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Mystical states of consciousness, characteristic of many but not all self-actualized people
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Eupsychia
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A utopian society in which individual and societal needs are both met and where society supports individual development
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Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)
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The most popular measure of self-actualization
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Inner Directed Supports
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Scale of the Personal Orientation Inventory measuring a person’s tendency to obtain support from himself or herself rather than from other people
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Time Competence
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Scale of the Personal Orientation Inventory that measures a person’s concern with the present rather than the past or future
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Human Potential movement
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Social trend to foster the full development of individuals, reflected in the development of growth centers and in transformation of social institutions
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Desacralization
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Loss of a sense of the sacred or spiritual
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Positive Psychology
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Current movement in psychology that emphasizes healthy functioning, with concern for immediate experience and positive emotions such as happiness
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Subjective well-being
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How happy or satisfied an individual is with his or her life
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Flow
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A state of deep engagement in an activity that is characteristic of creative individuals
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Intrinsic Motivation
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Motivation to perform an activity for its inherent satisfaction (rather than as a means to some other goal)
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Resiliency
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The strength to survive stressful situations or those in which one is mistreated, without experiencing the usual negative consequences of such experiences
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Positive emotions are/do not
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Enhanced by drugs
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Compared to D-motivation, B-motivation is
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later to develop.
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A meaningful life and quest for meaning in life is always happy.
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False
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Which of the following characteristics is typical of D-love?
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Jealousy
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Self-actualization is not universally developed because
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It has to compete with the lower-order needs such as adequate food and housing
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A person who is resilient has the strength to survive stressful situations but still experiences the usual negative consequences of those experiences.
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False
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Maslow suggested that we could learn most about personality by studying unhealthy populations.
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False
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of self-actualized people?
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Enculturation
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In order of their emergence, the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are
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Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization.
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Which of the following illustrates B-motivation?
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Beauty, truth, and justice
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Which of the following personality traits is NOT predictive of positive outcomes?
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Desire to learn
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Esteem needs are satisfied when other people think well of us, even if that reputation is based on erroneous information.
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False
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Which of the following is a scale measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory?
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The Inner Directed Supports scale
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People who are self-actualized are most likely to laugh at
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The human condition
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Self-actualized people have human faults, like the rest of us.
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True
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People who are optimistic have
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All of the above
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Which statement about self-actualization tendencies is most accurate?
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Maslow estimated less than 1 percent of all individuals are self-actualized.
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Which statement best describes implications of Maslow’s approach to the workplace?
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Work is more satisfying if it contributes to need fulfillment at various levels in the need hierarchy.
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Maslow’s vision of “Taoist Science” emphasizes
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Meaningful interaction with the subject matter.
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Which of the following methods did Maslow use most often in his study of self-actualized people?
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Indirect observation
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At the lower levels of the hierarchy of needs, people are motivated by
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Unmet basic needs
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Maslow criticized mainstream psychology for being
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Method centered
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The Personal Orientation Inventory measures self-actualization.
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True
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Maslow’s theory offers suggestions to business that can
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All the above
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Regarding religion, Maslow thought that
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Prophets of the past actually had “peak experiences.”
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The motivation to perform an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than as a means to some other goal is
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Intrinsic motivation
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Maslow studied sex in humans
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as both a physiological and a belongingness and love need.
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Education, according to Maslow, should encourage students’
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Curiosity
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Subjective well being includes all except
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Low self-esteem
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David Pelzer’s foster family helped him meet his needs for Love and Belongingness.
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True
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Positive psychology emphasizes people’s psychological growth and happiness.
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True
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People who are self-actualized may act conventionally for convenience, but they are detached from their culture.
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True
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Self-actualized people are particularly aware of the conflict between what is good for the individual and what is good for other people.
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False
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Maslow recommended a __________ approach to psychological research.
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Problem-centered
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Maslow advocated that businesses should only seek to meet lower-order needs as higher order needs were beyond most businesses’ scope.
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False
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Which of the following is not a trait shown to contribute to happiness and/or sense of well being?
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Making money
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Maslow envisioned a next stage in the development of psychology. This “fourth” stage would be concerned with __________ issues.
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Transpersonal
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At the first four levels of the need hierarchy, people are motivated by __________.
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Deficiency
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Maslow considered curiosity to be an early manifestation of self-actualization.
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True
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Abraham Maslow’s theory emphasizes
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the most healthy individuals
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Which test measures self-actualization?
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The Maslow Art Test
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According to Maslow, all self-actualized people have peak experiences.
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False
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The hierarchy of needs describes five levels of needs, from basic physical needs to self-actualization.
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True
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Intrinsically motivated people, according to Deci’s theory, are independent of other people.
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False
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After safety and physiological needs are adequately met, the next level to motivate people is
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love and belongingness.
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Maslow criticized the desacralization of human experience by professionals, by which he meant
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the loss of the sense of the sacred.
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At the highest level of the need hierarchy, people are metamotivated.
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True
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Transpersonal therapists may draw from a variety of sources including
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All the above
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Researchers have found that retrospective peak experiences reported among Japanese adults
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Involve interpersonal experiences
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Maslow recommended that psychological study be ____-centered rather than _____-centered.
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Problem; Method
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Maslow suggested that less than 1% of individuals ever become self-actualized.
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True
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Which of the following is an example of the second level of the need hierarchy?
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People are evacuated from a building because of a bomb threat.
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Which of the following represents the behavior of a self-actualized person?
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Brad, who always wanted to become a writer, and just became the leading journalist at his local newspaper.
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According to Maslow, the self-actualized person thinks intuitively, like an artist.
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True
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In his survey of 3,000 college students, about how many did Maslow find whom he considered to be self-actualized?
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One student
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Competence, autonomy, and relatedness are important needs, according to self-determination theory.
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True
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Which of these belong to the “three pillars of positive psychology?”
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All of the above