Psych 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind

Those working in the interdisciplinary field called —- study the brain activity associated with perception, thinking, memory, and language
Cognitive Neuroscientists

Why did psychologists abandon the study of consciousness during the first half of the twentieth century?
Difficulty of scientifically studying consciousness
This led them to look at behaviorism

How do most psychologists define consciousness?
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

What does consciousness help us do?
Assemble information from many sources as we reflect on our past and plan for our future
Ex. Driving a car becomes “Semi-Automatic”

What evidence suggests that a person who appears to be in a vegetative state (non-communicative) may actually understand what they hear?
Ex. When asked to imagine playing tennis, parts of the brain that control arm and leg movement were activated when looking through the fMRI

What do psychologists mean by “dual processing”?
“We know more than we know”

EXAMPLE: BIRD
-When we look at bird flying, we are consciously aware of the result of our cognitive processing (“It’s a hummingbird!”) but not of our sub-processing of the bird’s color, form, movement, and distance
neuroscience is that much of our brain work that occurs offstage, out of sight

Two Levels of: Dual Processing
Two Levels: a conscious, deliberate “high road” and an unconscious, automatic “low road”

What is blindsight?
“When the Blind can see”
Example of blindsight and the two-track mind:
Researchers Lawrence Weiskrantz trails a blindsight patient down a cluttered hallway
-Although told the hallway was empty, the patient meandered around all of the obstacles without any awareness of them

Dual Processing Defintion
The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

Blind Sight: DF Patient Carbon Monoxide damage
– Could put the postcard in a mail slot without error
-Sure enough, a scan of DFs brain activity revealed normal activity in the area concerned with reaching for, grasping, and navigating objects, but there was damage in the area concerned with consciously recognizing objects

Blindsight Defintion
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it

What have researchers such as Goodale and Milner learned about vision from studying people with blindsight?
Goodale and Milner concluded: Vision is actually: a dual processing system
A “visual perception track” enables us “to think about the world” – to recognize things and plan for the future actions
A visual action track guides our moment to moment movements

Myers uses the example of driving a car to illustrate the difference between unconscious and conscious processing. For an experienced driver, what part of driving is controlled below the level of consciousness?
Traveling by car on a familiar route, your hands and feet do the driving
Below level of consciousness: while your MIND rehearses your upcoming day

On a rare occasion: The Two Conflict
Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face

-Yet they will unhesitantly and accurately reach into the mask to flick off a bug-like target stuck on the face
What their conscious mind doesn’t know, their hand does

EXAMPLE: Another patient, who lost all his left visual cortex, leaving him blind to objects on the right side of his vision field
** can nevertheless sense the emotion expressed in faces he does not consciously perceive

The same is true of normally sighted people whose visual cortex has been disabled with magnetic stimulation – This suggests that brain areas below the cortex are processing emotion-related information

Brain waves jump at about
0.35 seconds before you consciously perceive your decision to move

This readiness potential of 0.35 brain wave jump before you act, has enabled researchers to using fMRI to predict
using fMRI to predict with 60% accuracy and up to 7 seconds ahead – participants decisions to press a button with their left or right finger
-The startling conclusion: Consciousness sometimes arrives late to the decision making parking

Consciousness – “Our minds CEO”
Consciousness
-Enables us to exert voluntary control over behavior
– Allows us to communicate about our mental states
– Is serial processing – slow and limited in capacity
– Is used to solve novel problems

The bottom line:
In everyday life, we mostly function like an automatic point and shoot camera, but with a manual (conscious) override

Unconscious processing is much faster than conscious processing because it makes use of __________________ processing.
Unconscious: familiar processing (A skilled tennis player’s brain and body respond automatically to an oncoming serve before becoming consciously aware of the balls trajectory (which takes about 3/10 of a second)
**Has neural assistants

Conscious: Actually moving (Hitting the tennis ball)

Unconscious Parallel Processing
Unconscious is much faster than Sequential Processing

But both are essential

Sequential Processing
Skilled at solving new problems, which require our focused attention

Latent Content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).

alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).

barbiturates
drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.

Manifest Content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

Change Blindness
failing to notice changes in the environment.

Meth
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.

narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

Delta Waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.

Near Death Experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

Nicotine
a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.

Night Terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

Opiates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

Hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.

amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speededup body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.

circadian
rhythm the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.

Depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).

Ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.

selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.

sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

alcohol dependence
(popularly known as alcoholism). Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and a drive to continue use.

consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.

hallucinogens
psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

Sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. (Adapted from Dement, 1999.)

stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.

tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.

withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.

psychoactive drugs
Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and a wide variety of other chemical agents that alter perceptions and moods are called

Which of the following drugs is most likely to produce a euphoric high and feelings of social intimacy?
Ecstasy

Pushing back school start times has been found to ________ adolescent mood states and ________ adolescent alertness.
improve, improve

While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well-balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of
posthypnotic suggestion

The emotional tone of our dreams is especially likely to be influenced by activation of the ________ during REM sleep.
Limbic = emotional

Prior to the twentieth century, psychology was considered to be the study of
consciousness

Margie insists that she never dreams, but her roommate feels she can prove otherwise. To prove that Margie does dream, the roommate should
wake Margie after 5 minutes of REM sleep and ask her what she’s dreaming

The ability to consciously recognize and name the color of an object while we simultaneously and unconsciously monitor the object’s shape and movement illustrates
Dual-Processing

Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn’t perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates
selective attention

What is the cocktail party effect?
Your ability to attend to only one voice among many

What signal can you use to assess if your friend is focused on what you are saying?
-Let another voice speak your name and your cognitive radar, operating on your mind’s other track, will instantly bring that voice into consciousness

Example: Northwest Airlines pilots “lost track of time” engrossed in their conversation, they ignored alarmed air traffic controllers attempts to reach them as they overflew their Mpls destination by 150 miles – if only the controllers had known and spoken their names

Why are you less likely to make a mistake while driving if you are having a conversation with a passenger in your car rather than talking on a cell phone to a person who is not in your car?
Because multitasking distracts from brain resources allocated to driving
Areas in the brain that are vital to driving DECREASE by 37% on average when a driver is attending to a conversation

Inattentional Blindness Definition
Definition: Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

Inattentional Blindness Example
Robert Becklen and Daniel Cervone demonstrated this with a one-minute video with 3 men in black shirts, and 3 men in white shirts. They were asked to press a key each time the black shirted people passed the ball
*most focused the attention so completely on the game that they failed to notice a woman carrying an umbrella across the screen mid way

Low doses of alcohol enliven a drinker by acting as a
disinhibitor

Caged rats respond to foot shocks with unusually high levels of aggression after ingesting
Cocaine

Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning, because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the
circadian rhythm

Jana developed a habit of drinking several beers after work each day. Her diminishing feeling of intoxication from the drinks is indicative of
Tolerance

Sleep apnea is a disorder involving
temporary cessations of breathing during sleep

Research indicates that hypnotherapy is especially helpful for the treatment of
Obesity

An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of
LSD

According to Freud, people dream in order to
give expression to personally threatening drives and wishes

Felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend’s good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of
Selective attention

Dissociation refers to
a state of divided consciousness

Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Larisa’s breathing slowed, her pupils constricted, and her feelings of anxiety were replaced by blissful pleasure. Larisa most likely experienced the effects of
Heroin

One study of long-haul truck drivers showed that they were at 23 times greater risk of a collision while texting. This best illustrates the impact of
Selective Attention

Repeated use of amphetamines has caused Aaron legal problems, which threaten his job. However, he continues to use the drugs. Aaron most clearly shows symptoms of
substance-related disorder

One version of neural activation theory best helps to explain why
people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep

Methamphetamine enhances energy and mood by triggering the release of the neurotransmitter
dopamine

When light strikes the retina, it signals the suprachiasmatic nucleus to suppress the production of ________by the pineal gland.
Melatonin

Which of the following typically occur(s) during REM sleep?
Genital Arousal

The experience of blindsight in certain people who have suffered brain damage best illustrates the importance of our normal human capacity for
dual processing

A form of intentional blindness: CHANGE BLINDNESS:
Failing to notice changes in the environment “out of sight, out of mind”

Choice blindness
People tasted 2 jams, and chose their favorite, but in reality were fooled because the jams were changed so weren’t getting their favorite, but didn’t notice

Pop out effect
“the only smiling face” We don’t choose to attend to these stimuli, they draw our eye and demand

ex. All faces in movie theater look sad, can’t help the emotion

One of the ways our biological clock (circadian rhythm) influences our body is by raising our body temperature in the ______________ and lowering it at ___________ .
Body temp rises in the morning
And lowers in the evening

How do younger and older people differ in when they typically reach their peak performance during the day?
-Most 20 year olds are evening-energized “owls” with performance improving across the day
-Most older adults are more morning loving “larks” with performance declining as the day wears on

What are some advantages associated with being a “morning type?’
Morning types tend to do better in school, to take more initiative, and to be less vulnerable to depression

Alcohol consumption ________ sympathetic nervous system activity and ________ self-awareness
Decreases sympathetic nervous system
Decreases self-awareness

The large, slow brain waves associated with NREM-3 sleep are called
Delta Waves

Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered
inattentional blindness

Eighty-year-old Mrs. West feels she has trouble falling asleep at night. She typically gets about 6 or 7 hours of sleep every 24 hours. What should she do about this?
relax and remind herself that her sleep patterns are normal

Nicotine triggers a ________ in blood pressure and a ________ in pain sensitivity.
Increases blood pressure
Decreases pain sensitivity

What machine is used to record brain activity during sleep?
electroencephalograph (EEG)

REM
Brain Wave Type
Experiences
Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
Also know as Paradoxical sleep – because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active

Yawning
Which can be socially contagious, stretches your neck muscles and increases your heart rate, which increases your alertness

measuring sleep
tapes electrodes to your scalp (to detect your brain waves) and on your chin (to detect muscle tension), and just outside the corners of your eyes (to detect eye movements)
-Other devices will record your heart rate, respiration rate, and genital arousal

Alpha Waves
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

NREM-1
Slowed breathing, it’s when you “slip into sleep”
Hallucinations, sensation of falling, floating – hypnagogic sensation may later be incorporated into your memory
ex. People think they are “being abducted by aliens” when they feel like their floating or pinned down onto their bed

NERM-2
Is when you relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of NERM-2 sleep. With its periodic sleep spindles: Bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity. although you could still be awakened without too much difficulty, you are now clearly asleep

NERM-3
Then you transition into the deep sleep of NERM-3
During this slow-wave sleep, which lasts about 30 minutes, your brain emits,
-large slow DELTA WAVES
-Hard to awaken

Circadian Rhythm
– Body temp lowers at night, peaks during the day
-Younger people are most alert later in the day, older people more alert earlier in the day
-Bright light resets the biological clock*
-Light sensitive retinal proteins trigger the suprachiasmatic nucleus which regulates the pineal glands production of melatonin
-Build up of adenosine in the brain makes us sleepy (is blocked by caffeine)

Sleep Stages
Waking beta- alert waking stage
Waking alpha- relaxed waking state
NERM-1: falling asleep -hallucinations and hypnogogic sensations
NERM-2: relaxed with sleep spindles
NERM-3: Delta waves, clearly asleep
REM- more awake like brain waves

Why is REM sleep described as paradoxical sleep?
Because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active

The body is internally aroused, with waking-like brain activity, yet asleep and externally calm

Sleep cycles repeat every —- minutes
90

Over a nights sleep, the amount of time spent in REM and NREM 2 sleep __________________, and time spent in REM 3 sleep __________________ .
NERM 2: 20 minutes
NREM 3: 30 Minutes

What roles do the suprachiasmic nucleus and the pineal gland play in the regulation of sleep?
The suprachiasmic nucleus: helps monitors the brains release of melatonin
Which affects our: Circadian rhythm

The altered state of consciousness that is most similar to a drug-induced hallucination is
the near-death experience

Preserving and expanding the brain’s neural pathways has been suggested as an important function of
Dreaming

NREM-2 sleep is to ________ as NREM-3 sleep is to ________.
NREM-2: Sleep Spindles
NREM-3: Delta waves

Selective attention is best illustrated by
the cocktail party effect

When allowed to sleep 9 hours a night on a regular basis, college students are most likely to
study more effectively

Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal, drugs prescribed to reduce insomnia, are
reduce insomnia: barbiturates

Methamphetamine enhances energy and mood by triggering the release of the neurotransmitte
dopamine

Sleep deprivation increases levels of the stress hormone
Cortisol

About one-third of a second before participants in one study decided to move their wrists, their ________ indicated a readiness potential to move.
Brain wave activity

Hypnotized people are no more likely to perform dangerous acts than those who are asked to simulate hypnosis. This fact is most consistent with

Evidence that dreams reflect the brain maturation and style of thinking associated with a dreamer’s age and life experience would best support the ________ theory of dream content.
cognitive development

When subjected to a painful medical procedure without the benefit of an anesthetic, a hypnotized person is most likely to
show physiological activation of the sensory cortex

Damage to the brain’s visual perception track without any damage to the brain’s visual action track is associated with a condition known as
Blindsight

The three main categories of psychoactive drugs are depressants, stimulants, and
depressants, stimulants, and, hallucinogens

Production of the human growth hormone necessary for muscle development is ________ by slow-wave sleep, which occurs mostly in the ________ half of a long night’s sleep.
facilitated; first

The biological clock
Light striking the retina signals the supercharasmatic nucleus (SCN) to suppress the pineals gland’s production of the sleep hormone melatonin
At night: the SCN quiets down, allowing the pineal gland to release melatonin into the bloodstream

Sleep Theories
1. Sleep protects – cave man
2. Sleep helps us recuperate
3. Sleep helps us restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day
4. Sleep feeds creative thinking
5. Sleep supports growth

Sleep Deprivation effects:
attention focus, increased inflamation in joints, reduced strength, and slower reaction time and motor learning, increased hunger-arousing ghrelin and decreased hunger suppressing leptin, suppression of immune cell production

Sleep Apnea
Stop breathing during sleep. A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

Manifest Content
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

Latent Content
According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content

Why we dream
-To satisfy our wishes
-To file away memories
-To develop and preserve neural pathways
-To make sense of neural static
-To reflect cognitive development

Information Processing
Dreams help us sort out the days events and consolidate our memories

Physiological function
Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways

Freuds wish fulfillment
Dreams provide a “psychic safety value” – expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered content) and a deeper layer of latent content – a hidden meaning

REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)

psychoactive drugs
psychoactive drugs are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens
Examples: Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine

Hilgard believed that hypnosis involves a state of divided consciousness called —- His beliefs have been challenged by researchers who suggest —- influence is involved
Hilgard believed that hypnosis involves a state of divided consciousness called DISSOCIATION His beliefs have been challenged by researchers who suggest SOCIAL influence is involved

Meth
stimulant
Effects: Euphoria, alertness, energy

Alcohol
Depressant
Effects: Initial hight, followed by relaxation and disinhibition

Heroin Depressant
Rush of euphoria, relief from pain

Cocaine
Stimulant
Effects: rush of euphoria, confidence, energy

Low doses of alcohol enliven a drinker by acting as a
disninhibior

Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis are likely to argue that
hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of “good hypnotic subjects.”

Compared with nonsmokers, smokers experience
higher rates of depression and higher rates of divorce.

Which of the following drugs is most likely to produce a euphoric high and feelings of social intimacy?
Ecstacy

Seconal
Treats insomnia and also makes you feel sleepy before a surgery or a procedure. This medicine is a barbiturate.

Opiates- Opium and its derivatives: morphine and heroin
Depress neural functioning
Pupils constrict, breathing slows, and lethargy sets in as a blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety
-Short term pleasure

Stimulants
excites neural activity, and speeds up body functions
Ex. Caffeine, nicotine, and the amphetamines
Cocaine, meth, ecstacy

Coke
In enters the bloodstream quickly, and and depletes the brains supply of the neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norephrine
-Within the hour, a crash of agitated depression follows as the drug’s affects wear off

One version of neural activation theory best helps to explain why
people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.

To cure his insomnia, Mr. Ming takes a sleeping pill just before bedtime. Research suggests that this practice
a. may actually make Mr. Ming’s insomnia worse when it is discontinued

Kevin needs to remember what he learned in today’s classes. His memory of the material is most likely to be facilitated by
slow-wave sleep

The occurrence of REM rebound supports the notion tha
humans, like most other mammals, need REM sleep

Regular users of ________ may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than occasional users.
weed

In contrast to alcohol, marijuana
amplifies sensitivity to sound

Research indicates that alcohol
disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memories

Sequences of images notable for their hallucinatory quality are most likely to be associated with
REM dreams

Which of the following is most likely to be associated with slow-wave sleep?
bed wetting

Mice with ________ levels of ________ are especially likely to be attracted to alcohol.
Low, NPY

Compared with ordinary cocaine, crack produces a ________ intense high followed by a ________ intense crash.
more, more

People become unresponsive to hypnosis if told that those who are highly gullible are easily hypnotized. This fact is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves
conscious role playing

NREM-1 sleep is likely to be associated with
hypnagogic sensations.

The altered state of consciousness that is most similar to a drug-induced hallucination is
the near death experience

During NREM-1 sleep, people may experience fantastic images that resemble
Hallucinations

People who carry out a suggestion not to smell or react to a bottle of ammonia held under their noses are likely to be highly responsive to
hypnotic induction

Sleepwalking typically occurs during
NREM-3

As a participant in a sleep-research study for the past three nights, Tim has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Tim will likely experience
an increase in REM sleep

One version of neural activation theory best helps to explain why
people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep

A sense of relaxation is most likely to be associated with
hypnotic indiction

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