Psych 251 Social Psychology Essay

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A basic type of info people use about others to form impressions and understand them
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Nonverbal Behavior
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Nonverbal behavior is used for all except
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Writing letters
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____is defined as how we form impressions and make inferences about other people
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Social Perception
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When people communicate using nonverbal behavior, they typically use
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Multiple Channels
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Express is to____as interpret it to _____
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Encode, Decode
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Based on evidence presented by the authors of your text, the facial expression for disgust is adaptive because it
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actually decreases the likelihood someone will become ill from eating spoiled food.
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Galina is described to you as a “computer nerd.” Based on this, you assume she is a nerd and socially awkward. This is an example of your ___
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Schema
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The primacy effect involves using the traits we perceive in others to understand additional information we learn about them
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first
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When Marnie met Phillip, he was drunk and loud. Now she still doesn’t like him even though she recently found out the reason he was so drunk was because his cold medicine interacted with the alcohol. This happens because ____.
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Belief Perserverance
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___theory provides a description of how people explain the causes of their own and other’s behaviors
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Attribution
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All of the following are the six recognized facial expressions except:
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Sadness, Angry, Happiness, Disgust, Surprise, Fear, Contempt
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Ed and Violet just saw their professor slip and fall. Ed thinks “what a klutz” but Violet things, “I bet there was water on the floor. Ed made an ____ attribution and Violet made an ____ attribution
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Internal, external
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What are the types included in the co-variation model:
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Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness
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Anna usually doesn’t like movies with violent scenes. Still, she saw Sin City five times and loved it. Movie critics loved it too. Distinctiveness is ____ and consensus is ___
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high, high
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When distinctiveness is _____, consensus is ____ and consistency is high, people are likely to make an external attribution
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high, high
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Fundamental attribution error is also known as ____
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Correspondence bias
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The text suggests that the fundamental attribution error occurs because information about the situation is ____
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Often unavailable and difficult to interpret
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When people are distracted, they are more likely to fall prey to the fundamental attribution error. This occurs because internal attributions arise from ____Whereas external attribution are from ____
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automatic processes; controlled processes
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“Blaming the victim” of rape, abuse, or other misfortunes is most closely related to
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Belief in a just world
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Self-serving bias is likely to be the strongest in
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Australia
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Western (US) is to ____ as Eastern is to ___. Which does NOT complete this analogy accurately
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Conformity, independence
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According to the textbook, “red dye” test indicates that self-concept in human infants develops at, on average
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18-24 months
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Development of our sense of self is partly influenced by the culture in which we grow up. Western cultures= ___ and non-western people have ____
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independent, interdependent
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___refers to the process of looking inward and examining our thoughts, feelings, and motives
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Introspection
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___theory posits that when our attitudes or feelings are ambiguous, we infer our internal states by observing our own behaviors and the situation in which they occur
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Self-Perception
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Lisa is most likely to conclude that she likes classical music when
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she has the preset her car radio to a classical music station
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___refers to the desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it, not because we expect external rewards
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Intrinsic motivation
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Principal of elementary school plans to implement a “reading to cash” program. You say it’s bad. Because ___ tend to ___
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External rewards; reduce any inherent intrinsic interest (over-justification effect)
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Schachter’s (1964) two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we first experience ___ and then subsequently seek to____
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physiological arousal; label the emotion appropriately
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Using the misattribution of arousal principle to plan a first date and really want your partner to be attracted to you, which of the following activities would you choose?
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ride the rollercoasters at an amusement park
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When there are no objective criteria to measure achievement, people often rely on ___to evaluate how well the performed
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Social Comparison
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Which is engaging in upward social comparison?
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Toni, who reads William Faulkner to assess her own writing skills
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Social tuning is the process by which people
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adopt another person’s attitudes
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When people act contrary to their self-perceptions as reasonable and sensible people, they experience a feeling known as
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Cognitive Dissonance
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“Live fast and die young, that’s what I always say,” Rosie pronounces and eats more foods. Rosie knows that her diet is unhealthy and harmful, of course. To reduce her dissonance, Rosie is
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adding a cognition that is consonant with her problem behavior
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When people try to maintain their self-esteem and reduce cognitive dissonance, they may resort to maladaptive thinking known as. (Drinking is bad but I make more friends while drunk)
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rationalizing
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The authors of the text explain that people tend to overestimate how bad they will feel if a negative event were to happen to them. This tendency is called
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The impact bias
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All of the following except ___are motivated by the need to preserve or maintain self-esteem
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making upward social comparisons
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After reducing postdecision dissonance, people are more likely to rate the chosen and unchosen alternatives as
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Being more dissimilar, such that the chosen alternative is much more desirable that the unchosen one. (Spreading the alternatives
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Carla has just written a check for $18,999 to pay for her new care. Although initially accepted, salesman said she owes $19,250. She pays it to drive it out. This is
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Lowballing
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___Refers to the tendency of people to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain.
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Justification of effort
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You’ve worked extremely hard to attain a goal, but soon realize that the goal is not as exciting as you expected …you will probably
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exaggerate the positive qualities of the goal
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When behaviors are inconsistent with our values or beliefs, we are not likely to experience cognitive dissonance if
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we can point to external justifications for our behavior

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