Psych 202 – ch 11 social psychology

question

social psychology
answer

branch of psychology that studies how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment
question

sense of self
answer

an individual’s unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people
question

evolutionary psychology
answer

social psychologists will often use insights from _______ to understand how the behavior is adaptive
question

social cognition
answer

the mental processes people use to make sense of their social environment
question

social influence
answer

the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual’s behavior
question

social influence
answer

the study of this includes such questions as why we conform to group norms, what compels us to obey an authority figure, and under what circumstances we will help a stranger
question

person perception
answer

the mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people
question

social norms
answer

the \”rules\”, or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation
question

1. the characteristics of the person you are trying to evaluate 2. your own self-perception 3. your goals in the situation 4. the specific situation in which the process occurs
answer

4 components influencing person perception
question

social categorization
answer

the mental process of categorizing people into groups on the basis of their shared characteristics
question

explicit cognition
answer

deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning
question

implicit cognition
answer

automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning
question

implicit personality theory
answer

a network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors
question

example of social categorization
answer

seeing a man walking in a suit checking his voicemail in a city setting and inferring that he is a businessman
question

ventral striatum, area that predicts rewards
answer

when we make direct eye contact with a physically attractive person, an area on each side of the brain is activated called the ______ which is the brain area that_______
question

attribution
answer

the mental process of inferring the causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior
question

fundamental attribution error
answer

the tendancy to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures
question

we simply have more information about the potential causes of our own behavior than we do about the causes of other people’s behavior
answer

There is a discrepancy in accounting for the behavior of others as compared to our own behavior because…..
question

blaming the victim
answer

the tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it
question

hindsight bias
answer

the tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event \”I could have told you that would happen\”
question

just-world hypothesis
answer

the assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
question

self-serving bias
answer

the tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one’s own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes
question

self-effacing (or modesty) bias
answer

tendency to blame ourselves for our failures, attributing them to internal, personal causes, while downplaying our successes by attributing them to external, situational causes
question

attitude
answer

a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative or ambivalent
question

1. cognitive component: thoughts and conclusions about a given topic or object 2. affective component: emotional component 3. behavioral component: attitudes are reflected in action
answer

3 potential components to attitude
question

1. you anticipate a favorable outcome or response from others for behaving that way 2. your attitudes are extreme or are frequently expressed 3. your attitudes have been formed through direct experience 4. you are very knowledgable about the subject 5. you have a vested interest in the subject and personally stand to gain or lose something on a specific issue
answer

You are most likely to behave in accordance with your attitudes when:….
question

– physical appearance (wide smile, dilated pupils, high eyebrows, full lips) – interpersonal (more attracted to people whom we perceive as being like us) – familiarity (frequent interactions lead to more feelings of mutual pleasure, understanding, and acceptance) – when happy, intoxicated, aroused by exercise – likeliness that an attractive person will like us
answer

factors in attraction
question

heavier
answer

men in societies in which food and resources are in short supply tend to prefer women who are
question

cognitive dissonance
answer

an unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when 2 thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict
question

cognitive dissonance
answer

Philip Zimbardo – Stanford prison experiment underscored the importance of _____
question

\”I ate the grasshoppers because the experimenter was such a nice guy and I wanted thelp him out\” vs. the friend with a rude experimenter who can’t use rationalization to explain the contradiction between disliking grasshoppers and volunatrily eating them (experiences cognitive dissonance). Is only left with attitude to be changed \”they weren’t that bad\”
answer

example of how \”you can change your attitude to make it consistent with your behavior\”
question

the conflict is eliminated, you may change your attitude so that it’s in harmony with your behavior
answer

when your behavior conflicts with your attitudes, an uncomfortable tension is produced. If you can rationalize or explain your behavior….if you can’t explain your behavior then…
question

people tend to be much more favorably inclined toward a given political candidate after they have voted for him or her than just before
answer

example of how cognitive dissonance can change the strength of an attitude to make it consistent with some behavior that has already been performed
question

\”sour grapes\” rationalizaton
answer

after you make a choice involving desirable and undesirable features, you emphasize the negative features of the choice you’ve rejected
question

\”sweet lemons\” rationalization
answer

after you make a choice involving desirable and undesirable features, you emphasize the positive features to which you’ve committed yourself
question

predjudice
answer

a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group
question

stereotype
answer

a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group
question

they are not always completely false. Sometimes they have a kernal of truth, making them easy to confirm, especially when you see only what you expect to see
answer

why are stereotypes hard to shake?
question

discount it in a variety of ways – can think of one as an exception or create a subcategoary while maintaining the stereotype
answer

when confronted by evidence that contradicts a stereotype, people tend to do what with that information?
question

in-group
answer

a social group to which one belongs
question

out-group
answer

a social group to which one doesn’t belong
question

out-group homogeneity effect
answer

the tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another
question

in-group bias
answer

the tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably (we succeeded because we worked hard, they succeeded because they lucked out. We failed because of circumstances beyond our control, they failed because they’re stupid)
question

heterogeneous, or varied
answer

as a member of an in-group how do you view other group members?
question

ethnocentrism
answer

the belief that one’s own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one’s own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures
question

cognitive basis for prejudicial attitudes
answer

in combination, stereotypes and in-group/out-group bias form the….
question

hatred, contempt, fear, loathing
answer

emotions associated with predjudice
question

discrimination
answer

behaviorally, predjudice can be displayed in some form of….
question

competing for scarce resources or during times of social change
answer

predjudice and in-group hostility increase when different groups are
question

implicit attitudes
answer

preferences and biases toward particular groups that are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional, and often unconscious; measured with the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)
question

IAT
answer

computer-based test that measures the degree to which you associate particular groups of people with specific characteristics or attributes (age IAT – people at different ages and \”good\” or \”bad\” words, Race-Weapons IAT – black or white face with weapons oor harmless objects)
question

having the boys go to the movies together or eat in the same dining hall did not mitigate hostility. They had to cooperate to achieve a common goal
answer

what Muzafer Sherif found in the Robbers cave experiment
question

jigsaw classroom technique
answer

at a newly integrated elementary school – have children in small, ethnically diverse groups to work on a mutual project. Each student has a unique contribution to make toward the success of the group
question

conformity
answer

when you adjust your opinions, judgment, or behavior so that it matches other people, or the norms of a social group or situation
question

line judgment task – conformity studies
answer

Solomon Asch used this study to find out \”would people still conform to the group if the group opinion was clearly wrong?\”
question

76%
answer

percentage of Asch’s subjects who conformed with the group judgment on at least one of the critical trials
question

37%
answer

the subjects in Asch’s experiments followed the majority and gave the wrong answer in_____% of the trials
question

2/3
answer

in what fraction of the trials did the subjects stick to their guns and give the correct answer, despite being the minority in Asch’s experiments?
question

– our desire to be liked and accepted by the group (normative social influence) – our desire to be right (informational social influence)
answer

Why do we sometimes find ourselves conforming to the larger group?
question

normative social influence
answer

behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
question

informational social influence
answer

behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
question

factors that promote conformity
answer

– you’re facing a unanimous group of at least 4-5 ppl – you must give your response in front of a group – you haven’t already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion – you find the task to be ambiguous or difficult – you doubt your abilities or knowledge of a situation – you are strongly attracted to a group and want to be a member of it
question

having an ally (any dissent increases resistance, even if the other person’s dissenting opinion is wrong)
answer

some factors that decreased conformity
question

obedience
answer

the performance of a behavior in response to a direct command
question

Objective question of Stanley Milgram experiments
answer

Could a person be pressured by others into committing an immoral act, some action that violated his or her own conscience, such as hurting a stranger?
question

\”the experiment requires that you continue\” \”You have no choice, you must continue\”
answer

If the teacher in the Milgram experiments protested that he wished to stop or that he was worried about the learner’s safety, how would the experimenter respond?
question

when the teacher refused to obey the experimenter’s orders to continue OR once the teacher had progressed all the way to the maximum shock level of 450 volts
answer

in the Milgram experiments, when woud it stop?
question

all of the subjects would refuse to obey at some point, most at 150 volts, a few rare individuals would go to 300 volts, none would go to 450 volts
answer

prediction of Milgram experiment results
question

2/3 were fully compliant and went to 450 volts none stopped before 300 volts
answer

results of Milgram shock experiments
question

identical results
answer

results of Milgram studies with just women
question

– previously well-established mental framework to obey (arrived with expectation to follow directions, got paid) – situation or context in which obedience occurred (believed the research was worthwhile, didn’t want to be rude) – gradual, repetitive escalation of the task (could justify using such low levels of shock for science) – experimenter’s behavior and reassurances (experimenter claimed responsibility, must be appropriate if he approved of it) – physical and psychological seperation from the learner (learner was in a seperate room and not visible, punishment was depersonalized: learner’s pleas were directed at experimenter)
answer

some of the forces that influenced subjects to continue obeying the experimenter’s orders
question

when the buffers that seperated the teacher from the learner were lessened or removed (same room)
answer

what decreased the willingness to obey in Milgram experiments?
question

95% did not venture beyond 150 volts
answer

results of Milgram experiment when teachers were allowed to act as their own authority and freely choose shock level
question

despite the fact that he made it easier for participants to leave the experiment, the level of obedience was only slightly lower than that found in the original research
answer

results of Burger partial replication of Milgram experiment
question

the alienation and depersonalization of life in a big city (according to the vitnesses)
answer

the occurrence of the Kitty Genovese murder was representative of…
question

altruism
answer

helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit
question

prosocial behavior
answer

any behavior that helps another whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless
question

– the \”feel good, do good effect\” – feeling guilty – seeing others who are willing to help – perceiving the other person as deserving help – knowing how to help – a personalized relationship – presence of other people (more likely to help when alone)
answer

factors that can increase the likelihood of helping behavior:
question

bystander effect
answer

a phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress
question

diffusion of responsibility
answer

a phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers
question

– diffusion of responsibility – each of us is motivated to some extent by the desire to behave in a socially acceptable way (lack of intervention signaled that interventioin was not needed) – being in a big city – vague or ambiguous situations – when the personal costs for helping outweigh the benefits
answer

reasons for the bystander effect:

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member