Psych 2010

psychological science
The study, through research, of mind, brain, and behavior.

critical thinking
Systematically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidence.

nature/nurture debate
The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture.

mind/body problem
A fundamental psychological issue: Are mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the physical brain’s subjective experience?

introspection
A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.

structuralism
An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components.

behaviorism

functionalism

Gestalt theory
means “unified whole”. It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied.

confirmation bias
the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one’s existing beliefs or theories.

amiable skepticism
wariness of new scientific findings–carefully weighing the evidence in deciding what to believe

self-serving bias
any cognitive or perceptual process that is distorted by the need to maintain and enhance self-esteem, or the tendency to perceive oneself in an overly favorable manner.

Charles Darwin and William James both understood the importance of
the adaptive purpose of specific traits and characteristics.

Chris believes that although the mind and body are linked, they have separate, distinct functions. Her view reflects
dualism

dualism
the division of something conceptually into two opposed or contrasted aspects, or the state of being so divided.

Doug believes that the “mind” is really just a result of the workings of our brain. Renee believes that each person has a mind that is separate from the body. Their different opinions reflect
the mind/body problem.

Dr. Tucker incorporates principles from behaviorism into her therapy practice when she thinks it may be effective in helping her patients. Which of the following is an example of how Dr. Tucker might use her knowledge of behaviorism to help people with psychological problems?
She helps teach behavior modification techniques to patients with anxiety so they can practice avoiding faulty ways of thinking

How does Gestalt theory differ from functionalism?
Gestalt theorists believe that human cognition and experiences are more than a collection of individual thoughts and experiences but still recognize individual thoughts and experiences as analyzable units.

John strongly opposes vaccinating children because he believes that it increases the risk of autism. John has read the published apology written by the scientist who falsified the data that originally showed a link but dismisses it. Instead, he focuses on the fact that during the same period vaccinations increased, autism diagnoses increased. Which of the following is guiding John’s decision making?
confirmation bias

Jordan studies consciousness by training himself to objectively report on his own sensations, which is similar to how the __________ school investigated psychology.
structuralist

Marwan has been shy his whole life, and he is not sure what underlies this trait. Which subfield of psychology might hold some answers for Marwan?
personality psychology

Psychological science is based on critical thinking. This means that psychological scientists
evaluate information before they accept it.

Psychologists such as William James believed that the mind is too complex to be broken down into smaller parts, largely because it is changing constantly. William James’s beliefs became known as which school of psychology?
functionalist

Raj is interested in how religious beliefs influence political engagement. Which level of analysis best fits Raj’s research questions?
cultural

The systematic, objective study of our mental activity and behavior is called
psychology.

When attempting to understand the connection between psychological and physical problems, Freud concluded that
to a large extent, behavior is directed by mental processes that operate at a subconscious level.

Your family recently adopted a dog from an animal shelter. Initially, the dog seemed nervous and territorial, but after a few weeks she became affectionate and calm. Which of the following must play some role in the dog’s behavior? Nature or Nurture
nurture

According to this school of thought, the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of its parts.
Gestalt theory

At a certain prestigious college, the policy is to grade on a curve, meaning that about 10 percent will receive As, 15 percent Bs, 50 percent Cs, 15 percent Ds, and 10 percent will fail. Despite knowing this policy, most students expect to earn straight As because they did so in high school. This belief reflects which of the following?
self-serving bias

psychoanalytic theory
the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development

Which psychological school of thought arose from Freud’s attempts to understand connections between psychology and physical problems?
psychoanalytic theory

The fMRI has enabled neuropsychological researchers to conclude which of the following?
While many tasks require multiple parts of the brain, some tasks and thought processes use only specific areas of the brain.

Psychologists from which school of thought are concerned with functions that behaviorism cannot explain, such as intelligence and problem solving?
cognitive psychology

Human Connectome Project of 2010
It began mapping out how different regions in the brain work together.

What is evolutionary theory’s primary contribution to psychology?
the idea that the brain’s functions (e.g., memory, attention, and language) result from adaptation

What does it mean to say, “Culture provides adaptive solutions”?
Behaviors considered “normal” in a culture today became “norms” because they solved problems in the past.

Social psychologists focus their studies on
how social structures, such as organizational structure, presence or absence of authority, and group dynamics influence behavior.

Which psychological school of thought sought to understand how the operations of the mind help people adapt to environmental demands?
functionalism

Acetylcholine
Motor Control

Epinephrine
energy/Adrenaline

Norepinephrine
Arousal/ vigilance

Serotonin
Emotional States (ex happy

Dopamine
Reward and motivation and It motivates and rewards action

GABA
Inhibition of action potential and Reduces the likelihood of the next neuron to fire

Endorphins
Pain reduction/ reward
and Reward: leads to increasing that behavior in the future

Reuptake
Reabsorbtion of excess neurotransmitters

Autoreceptors
detect, and regulate, levels of neurotransmitters in the synapse

Enzymes
destroys excess neurotransmitters in the synapse

Agonist
A drug that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter blocks its reuptake
-Ex: morphine agonist for endorphins (pain regulation)

Antagonist
Prevents a neurotransmitters action in the brain
-Ex: Beta blockers antagonists for (nor)epinephrine andUsed to treat anxiety disorders

Sematic Peripheral Nervous System
controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscle

Autonomic Peripheral Nervous System
controls self-regulated action and internal organs and glands

Sympathetic Nervous system
arousal

parasympathetic nervous system
relax

Sensory neurons are also known as what? and they go……. the brain.
Afferent neurons and to the brain

Motor Neurons are also know as what? and they go….. the brain.
efferent neurons and away from the brain

Interneurons control….
Reflexes

Function of the brain stem…
manages basic functions

Medulla
Heart rate and breathing

Reticular formation
arousal and sleep

Thalamus
responsible for routing information to the part of the brain that processes the information

Cerebellum
coordination of voluntary movement (walking, typing, rhythm)

Proprioception
our brains unconscious awareness of the relative position of out bodies

Limbic system includes
hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus

Hippocampus
formation of new memories

Amygdala
basic emotions like fear and aggression

Hypothalamus
motivational giant, responsible for initialization of basic emotions such as sex, hunger, thirst, and body temperature

Cerebral cortex
thin wrinkled layer that is divided into 4 lobes and 2 hemispheres

Frontal lobe
higher order cognitive processes

Prefrontal cortex
-directs and maintains attention
-rational activity (social perception and interaction, our sense of self, meditates social emotion)
-language production (brocas area)
-Primary motor cortex (initiating coordinated movement)

Parietal lobe
-Spacial relationships (angular gyrus)
-touch
-Upside down and distorted homunculus

central sulcus
separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

Somatosensory cortex (parietal lobe)
sensation of touch

Motor cortex (frontal lobe)
control of motor movement

Temporal lobe
auditory function

Wernickies area
in the temporal lobe and is responsible for aphasia

Fusiform face
responsible for recognizing peoples faces

occipital lobe
vison; primary visual cortex

PET
shows where radiated glucose is being used

MRI
shows structure (tissue)

fMRI
shows funtion (activity)

Left hemisphere
language and speech

Right hemisphere
patterns and spatial relationships and faces