Psych 200 final exam ch 13 #221-312

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221. Most developmental theorists today believe that: A) stages of adult development are not entirely orderly and predictable. B) adulthood is divided into a specific sequence of stages. C) intimacy always precedes generativity. D) generativity cannot appear before the age of 40.
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A) stages of adult development are not entirely orderly and predictable.
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222. The theorist who forwarded the notion that individuals continue to develop well into adulthood was: A) Freud. B) Erikson. C) Skinner. D) Vygotsky.
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B) Erikson.
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223. According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in: A) intermittent feelings of loneliness. B) stagnation and personal impoverishment. C) childlessness and a career orientation. D) difficulties in mate selection or friendship.
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B) stagnation and personal impoverishment.
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224. Identify the stage of adulthood from Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. A) trust versus mistrust B) initiative versus guilt C) generativity versus stagnation D) industry versus inferiority
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C) generativity versus stagnation
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225. Mel is a retired stockbroker who enjoys mentoring children at the local YMCA in the use of computers. He is demonstrating the psychosocial stage of: A) identity versus role confusion. B) industry versus inferiority. C) generativity versus stagnation. D) integrity versus despair.
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C) generativity versus stagnation.
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226. Susan’s grandmother, at age 80, is in the final stage of adulthood, namely: A) identity versus role confusion. B) industry versus inferiority. C) generativity versus stagnation. D) integrity versus despair.
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D) integrity versus despair.
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227. Abraham Maslow described how many stages of development? A) 7 B) 3 C) 10 D) 5
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D) 5
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228. Which of the following is the third developmental level in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? A) love and belonging B) self-actualization C) safety D) success and esteem
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A) love and belonging
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229. Which of the following is the first developmental level in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? A) safety B) success and esteem C) physiology D) self-actualization
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C) physiology
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230. The \”social clock\” tells us the: A) age at which marriages become biologically feasible. B) average age for first marriages. C) appropriate or \”best\” age for a first marriage in our society. D) marriage age that correlates with mental health in later adulthood.
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C) appropriate or \”best\” age for a first marriage in our society.
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231. Greta is 48 years old and pregnant with her first child. She was determined to have a baby before her biological clock rendered it impossible. She is facing criticism from family and friends who think she is too old to give birth. Their standards are based upon: A) the upper limits of the biological clock. B) the social clock. C) the prenatal demarcation. D) the obstetric scale.
answer

B)
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232. In the United States today, the social clock: A) affects only people of low socioeconomic status. B) is fairly specific about the best times for marriage and parenthood. C) no longer operates. D) allows for greater diversity than in the past.
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D) allows for greater diversity than in the past.
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233. Cross-culturally, social clock norms: A) vary in scope and rigidity. B) are much stronger for children than for adults. C) generally apply only to legal ages. D) are consistent across cohort and gender.
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A) vary in scope and rigidity.
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234. Researchers have found that the social clock is: A) the same for all cultures and subcultures. B) particularly important in determining retirement age worldwide. C) greatly influenced by socioeconomic status. D) biologically determined.
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C) greatly influenced by socioeconomic status.
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235. The midlife crisis might accurately be described as a crisis of: A) menopause. B) andropause. C) developmental history. D) neuroticism.
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C) developmental history.
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236. Our society recognizes a point called midlife which occurs at about age: A) 30. B) 40. C) 50. D) 60.
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B) 40.
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237. Some people refer to a period of unusual anxiety, reexamination, and transformation during middle adulthood as a(n): A) cohort bridge. B) ecological niche. C) gender trajectory. D) midlife crisis.
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D) midlife crisis.
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238. Which most accurately depicts middle age? A) It is a time of severe emotional crisis. B) There are very few changes at midlife. C) Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40. D) It always begins at age 40.
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C) Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40.
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239. Throughout adulthood, the major source of an individual’s developmental continuity is his or her: A) career. B) personality. C) marriage. D) family relationship.
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B) personality.
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240. According to recent research, personality throughout adulthood is a product of four major sources. Of the four sources, that which exerts the most influence is: A) genes. B) parental practices. C) culture. D) adult experiences.
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A) genes.
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241. Which of the following is one of the Big Five? A) openness B) generativity C) intraversion D) selflessness
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A) openness
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242. Sam is moody, anxious, and self-punishing. Sam is high in: A) openness. B) extroversion. C) conscientiousness. D) neuroticism.
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D) neuroticism.
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243. A person who has many of the personality traits associated with extroversion would most likely be described as: A) depressed and anxious. B) active and outgoing. C) open and receptive. D) creative and intelligent.
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B) active and outgoing.
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244. A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension called: A) extroversion. B) openness. C) neuroticism. D) sociability.
answer

B) openness.
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245. Matilda is usually a kind, helpful, and easygoing person. She is high on which of the Big Five traits? A) agreeableness B) neuroticism C) openness D) conscientiousness
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A) agreeableness
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246. Davetta is very organized and tends to conform easily. She is high on which of the Big Five traits? A) agreeableness B) openness C) conscientiousness D) extroversion
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C) conscientiousness
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247. A particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an: A) ecological niche. B) environmental fit. C) adult community. D) adaptable environment.
answer

A) ecological niche.
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248. The Big Five personality traits: A) are unstable throughout much of adulthood. B) apply only to people living in North America. C) include five unhealthy ways of functioning in midlife. D) become quite stable by age 30.
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D) become quite stable by age 30.
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249. Who is likely to have the most stable personality? A) a 5-year-old boy B) a 14-year-old girl C) a 23-year-old man D) a 35-year-old woman
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D) a 35-year-old woman
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250. Given that genes exert a major influence on personality: A) it tends not to change over the course of the lifespan. B) they determine how people will respond to their life experiences. C) it is still possible for adult personality to shift if the context shifts. D) other contributing factors such as parental practices, culture and adult experiences add little or nothing to the personality in adulthood.
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C) it is still possible for adult personality to shift if the context shifts.
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251. Which of the following personality traits tends to increase with age? A) extroversion B) openness C) agreeableness D) neuroticism
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C) agreeableness
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252. With age, extroversion tends to: A) increase slightly. B) increase sharply. C) decrease. D) remain stable.
answer

C) decrease.
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253. In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend to: A) remain traditional. B) assert themselves. C) become more sociable. D) become less family-oriented.
answer

A) (I think)
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254. The loosening of gender restrictions during middle age is most likely to lead to a gender: A) convergence. B) gap. C) crossover. D) disorder.
answer

A) convergence.
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255. The group of people who move through life with an individual, providing protection and encouragement is the individual’s: A) familial collection. B) social convoy. C) safety net. D) support network.
answer

B) social convoy.
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256. Randy moved across the country to advance his career. Though he moved alone, he soon developed a group of co-workers and friends who became like a family to him. They served as his: A) kindred cluster. B) safety net. C) social convoy. D) clique.
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C) social convoy.
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257. Maria can reasonably predict that the most supportive members of her social convoy will be her: A) siblings. B) family. C) friends. D) co-workers.
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C) friends.
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258. As adults age, their friendships tend to: A) dissipate. B) fade. C) stagnate. D) improve.
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D) improve.
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259. Family members living in separate households in the United States: A) probably will not continue. B) has affected only minority families. C) has not eliminated family closeness, contact, and cooperation. D) is the cause of the rising divorce rate.
answer

A)
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260. Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents: A) stays about the same. B) improves for men but not for women. C) worsens with age. D) improves with age.
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D) improves with age.
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261. When Rob graduated from college, he found a good job, a nice apartment, and made new friends. Now three years later, his company went bankrupt and he moved back into his parents’ home. We can expect their relationship to: A) remain as it always has. B) worsen. C) strengthen. D) proceed on equal grounds.
answer

b) worsen
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262. Familism may be defined as the: A) belief that family members take care of each other. B) notion that families must encourage independence. C) belief that familiarity precedes family bond. D) notion that families should all live together for economic reasons.
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A) belief that family members take care of each other.
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263. Celina and Jorge have recently moved Celina’s elderly parents into their home. Even though they face sacrifices for doing so, they believe they did the right thing because of: A) familial bonding. B) progeny loyalty. C) generational responsibility. D) familism.
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D) familism.
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264. A factor that contributes to good relationships between today’s middle-aged adults and their parents is: A) the tendency of older people to live with their middle-aged children. B) the health and economic freedom that allow older adults to be independent. C) that the older generation is giving up the old traditions. D) that the elderly fear they may be abandoned by their children.
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B) the health and economic freedom that allow older adults to be independent.
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265. The belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as: A) an extended family. B) familism. C) a closely knit family. D) kinship.
answer

B)
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266. The percentage of adolescents who are close to their siblings is approximately: A) 13 percent. B) 23 percent. C) 33 percent. D) 43 percent.
answer

C) 33 percent.
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267. The percentage of adults who report they are close to their siblings is: A) 33 percent. B) 66 percent. C) 50 percent. D) 75 percent.
answer

B) 66 percent.
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268. Individuals who are accepted in a family that is not their legal or biological family are: A) fictive kin. B) kissing cousins. C) social convoys. D) generative allies.
answer

A) fictive kin.
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269. Jeremy was reared in several foster homes and never knew his parents. When he started working with Kent, he became close to Kent’s family to the point when they fondly referred to him as \”our new-found son.\” Jeremy is the family’s: A) surrogate sibling. B) foster son. C) kindred brother. D) fictive kin.
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D) fictive kin.
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270. Currently, what percentage of U.S. residents marry before the age of 25? A) 85 percent B) 50 percent C) 25 percent D) 15 percent
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D) 15 percent
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271. By the age of 40, what percentage of U.S. residents have married? A) 15 percent B) 25 percent C) 85 percent D) 100 percent
answer

C) 85 percent
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272. After the first ten years most married couples find: A) financial problems are overwhelming. B) tension decreases as children become more independent. C) there are more fights over equity in domestic work. D) job demands increase so less time is spent in shared activities.
answer

B) tension decreases as children become more independent.
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273. After the children are grown, most married couples: A) spend longer hours at work. B) devote themselves to the marital relationship. C) have adequate time for their relationship. D) see little of each other.
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C) have adequate time for their relationship.
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274. Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should: A) remain constant, no different than earlier years. B) worsen since there are no children to act as buffers. C) improve since they have more time to spend together D) be tumultuous since they had grown apart over the years.
answer

C) improve since they have more time to spend together
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275. All of Paulo and Geneva’s children have moved away, started families and begun working on their careers. According to the text, Paulo and Geneva’s home is now a(n): A) haven of quiet. B) empty nest. C) lonely cavern. D) house of mirrors.
answer

B) empty nest.
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276. Relationship challenges of marriage are quite the same for: A) men as for women. B) younger as for older couples. C) same-sex partners. D) those still in the child-rearing years.
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C)
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277. Current objective research data on coupling experiences of same-sex partners is: A) not available. B) available for specific areas in the United States. C) available for certain homosexual cohorts. D) available for indicators dealing with income and career status only.
answer

D)
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278. According to the most current U.S. Census, about how many households in the United States are headed by a homosexual couple: A) 1 in 100. B) 1 in 150. C) 1 in 200. D) 1 in 250.
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B) 1 in 150.
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279. Statistics maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau on the number of homosexual couples is likely a(n): A) overcount. B) undercount. C) accurate data base. D) number skewed to the left.
answer

B) undercount.
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280. Marriage is influenced by many factors including: A) the time of year. B) home ownership. C) the social and political context. D) health insurance issues.
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C)
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281. A break-up would be most stressful for which of the following individuals? A) Abby, who has just been married B) Brenda, who has been married for five years C) Carlene, who is in a long-term marriage D) Dorothy, who is in a cohabiting relationship
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C) Carlene, who is in a long-term marriage
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282. In the past two decades, every nation has seen ______ marriages and ______ divorces. A) fewer; more B) more; fewer C) fewer; fewer D) more; more
answer

A)
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283. Married teenagers are likely to become ______ and ______. A) happier; wealthier B) depressed; poorer C) aggressive; happier D) depressed; aggressive
answer

D)
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284. Divorce is most likely to occur within the first ______ years of a wedding. A) 10 B) 5 C) 2 D) 1
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B) 5
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285. Regarding remarriage in the United States: A) most people remarry within two years of a divorce. B) remarriage is more likely after 40. C) about 25 percent of marriages are remarriages for one or both of the spouses. D) men are more likely to remarry than are women.
answer

D)
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286. Evelyn, a mother of two, has been divorced for six years and would like to remarry. Most likely, she will marry a man who: A) has children from a previous marriage. B) has no children. C) will want to have more children with her. D) will expect her to take full-charge care of his children.
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A) has children from a previous marriage.
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287. The percentage of marriages that are remarriages for at least one partner is: A) 20 percent. B) 30 percent. C) 40 percent. D) 50 percent.
answer

D) 50 percent.
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288. Research indicates that remarried people: A) are unlikely to get divorced. B) report higher average happiness than those in first marriages. C) have a higher chance of divorce than do people in first marriages. D) are worse off financially than when they lived alone.
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C) have a higher chance of divorce than do people in first marriages.
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289. According to Erikson, after the stage of intimacy versus isolation comes: A) initiative versus guilt. B) identity versus role confusion. C) generativity versus stagnation. D) integrity versus despair.
answer

C)
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290. According to Erikson, when individuals are productive in an unselfish and caring way, they are demonstrating: A) autonomy. B) generativity. C) diffusion. D) altruism.
answer

B)
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291. The most common ways to satisfy generativity are through work with children and employment that allows personal growth. Another way in which it may be satisfied is through: A) solid life planning. B) financial security. C) creativity. D) travel.
answer

C)
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292. Aunt Emily is the family’s kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for: A) the financial stability of the family. B) caring for her grandchildren while their parents work. C) gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications. D) regularly visiting family members who live in care homes.
answer

C)
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293. In a typical family, the \”kinkeeper\” is most likely to be: A) a middle-aged mother. B) a young adult son. C) a middle-aged father. D) the first grandchild.
answer

A)
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294. The person who is most likely to become a kinkeeper is a: A) daughter. B) son. C) daughter-in-law. D) granddaughter.
answer

A) daughter.
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295. Approximately how many adults in North America become stepparents, foster parents, or adoptive parents? A) one-eighth B) one-fourth C) one-third D) one-half
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C) one-third
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296. Families with stepchildren, foster children, or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments. This is because: A) the children frequently run away from such arrangements. B) some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents. C) the parents tend not to accept the children fully into their families. D) the parents’ biological children in the family are threatened by \”outsiders.\”
answer

B)
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297. The average age of new stepchildren is ______ years. A) 9 B) 12 C) 5 D) 16
answer

A) 9
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298. The notion of the sandwich generation: A) is not very accurate. B) correctly describes the reality of many adult lives. C) accurately conveys the financial strain adults often experience by caring for elderly parents. D) clearly communicates the degree in which adults care for their elderly relatives.
answer

A)
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299. Because they are called on to help both older and younger generations of the family, middle-aged adults have been called the: A) midlife generation. B) family caregivers. C) divided group. D) sandwich generation.
answer

D)
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300. Which of the following is a true statement regarding the middle generation as the sandwich generation? A) Providing assistance to older and younger generations may be more a function of personality than of necessity. B) Most middle-aged adults feel tremendous pressure because of their role as kinkeeper. C) In the United States, middle-aged couples tend to have more contact with the husband’s parents than with the wife’s parents. D) All of the answers are true statements.
answer

A)
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301. Who is most likely to feel burdened with elder care? A) a daughter-in-law B) a daughter C) a son D) a son-in-law
answer

A) a daughter-in-law
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302. Research has suggested that those adults who provide support to their adult children and to their elderly parents tend to do this because of: A) a need to be needed. B) a sense of generativity. C) their personality. D) guilt.
answer

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303. Because much is changing in the employment landscape, how work affects adult development is: A) very positive. B) quite negative. C) stagnant. D) unclear.
answer

D)
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304. The average income has _____ in the United States in the past 50 years. A) stayed the same B) tripled C) quadrupled D) doubled
answer

D) doubled
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305. The idea that people compare themselves to others in their group and are satisfied if they are no worse off than the group norm is: A) relative deprivation. B) relative comparison. C) relative norm. D) relative wealth.
answer

A)
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306. After nearly 20 years with his company, Mike’s job was outsourced. He wants his new job to offer not only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. He is focused on the: A) intrinsic rewards of work. B) self-fulfilling prophecy. C) extrinsic rewards of work. D) secondary gains of work.
answer

A)
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307. Cheryl is entering the workforce due to a recent divorce. As a single parent with three children, she needs at least a livable wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the: A) intrinsic rewards of work. B) self-fulfilling prophecy. C) extrinsic rewards of work. D) secondary gains of work.
answer

C)
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308. Between the ages of 25 and 42 the average worker in the United States has ______ separate employers. A) 10 B) 2 C) 5 D) 7
answer

C) 5
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309. In the United States, approximately what percentage of workers work a traditional schedule? A) 100 percent B) 50 percent C) 25 percent D) 75 percent
answer

B) 50 percent
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310. Working at home while keeping in touch with the office via computer, phone or fax is: A) mentoring. B) commuting. C) flex time. D) telecommuting.
answer

D)
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311. The combined total amount of stress and disease with which an individual must cope is known as: A) maturational pressure. B) allostatic load. C) cortisol cargo. D) tension burden.
answer

B)
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312. Jerry has recently lost his job and his health insurance benefits, he was diagnosed with diabetes, and he and his wife of seventeen years are divorcing. He is at risk for major disease or even premature death due to: A) hypertension. B) a fight-or-flight stress response. C) a large allostatic load. D) severe depression.
answer

C)

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