Psych 101 Final Exam Practice: Stanley Milgram’s Research, Kitty Genovese

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The branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behavior would be focused on
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psychopathology
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Before deciding on the particular form of treatment for an individual, a therapist needs to
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identify the problem and its causes.
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Hachi is working against a deadline. She must have a term paper written by 8 am tomorrow. The deadline is an example of a
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stressor.
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The folk saying “Out of sight, out of mind,” highlights this important predictor of attraction.
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proximity.
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The subjects who participated in the Stanford Prison Experiment were all
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male.
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A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This person is probably suffering from
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schizophrenia
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a humor studied by Hippocrates:
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yellow bite
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A score on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale represents the sum total of recent
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life-change units.
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A person who rarely works late, usually leaves their work at the office, and goes home to relax with their family in the evening is likely a Type ________ personality.
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B
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An important emphasis of humanistic therapy is on
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the whole person being involved in a process of change.
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Ted runs from the biology laboratory straight to his therapist’s office. He is sweating and fear is etched on his face. He asks the therapist to apologize to his teacher and says he hopes she will understand that his arachnophobia made it difficult for him to
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look at a spider
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cognitive dissonance
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A state of mental discomfort arising from a discrepancy between two or more of a person’s beliefs or between a person’s beliefs and overt behavior.
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We tend to believe that other people’s actions are due to
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their personal traits.
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Tad gets an A in his psychology finals. When he tells his mother, she praises him for his brilliance. Tad’s mother has committed which error?
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fundamental attribution error
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People living under stressful conditions tend to get sick more often than they would otherwise. How do researchers in psychoneuroimmunology explain this phenomenon?
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The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases.
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Upon arriving at college and meeting your roommate, you sigh mightily as you listen to his endless droning on about how wonderful his girlfriend back home is. “I miss her so much and I can’t wait to see her during Thanksgiving break,” he comments. Knowing a bit about social psychology and the rules of interpersonal attraction, what are you most likely to think to yourself?
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This relationship is doomed, because the rule of proximity says that people are most attracted to those who are nearby, not far away.
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Alice is 15 years old and afraid to speak in class. She fears that anything she says will lead to her enormous embarrassment. Alice might be classified as having
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a social phobia.
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The fact that many Americans do not approve of public nudity is most likely due to
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prevailing social norms.
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How are proximity to others and attraction correlated?
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positively correlated
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While watching Jeopardy, your roommate says, “Alex Trebek knows all the answers. He must be a genius.” You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of
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fundamental attribution errors
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Dave, a graduate student, has difficulty talking to groups. Unfortunately, he has chosen a career in which he must speak to large groups of people. The night before a presentation he tosses and turns, and the resulting lack of sleep makes the situation worse. When he makes a presentation, he often becomes confused and stumbles over his words. As a result, he feels worthless and miserable. Which two criteria of abnormal behavior are most useful in analyzing this case?
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distress and maladaptiveness
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This is the tendency to mimic other people in order to fit in. We see this happen quite often in the clothes people wear, the leisure activities they participate in, and even in their mood:
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chameleon effect
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In Solomon Asch’s study on conformity, the number of confederates was found to have a significant impact on the participants’ likelihood of giving an incorrect answer. How many confederates did Asch find maximized the likelihood of conformity occurring?
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3
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________ refers to a temporary stress-related pattern of arousal with a clear onset and endpoint.
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Acute stress
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Your aunt has a fear that makes it difficult for her to leave her home. She feels trapped and is unable to work or engage in any kind of activity that requires going outside of her home. You are not surprised when you find out your aunt is diagnosed with
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Agoraphobia
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The Kitty Genovese case depicts
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bystander intervention problem
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A person who experiences severe bouts of anxiety would be described as displaying
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distress.
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At Skinner Elementary School, teachers pass out “skinner bucks” to students who turn in papers on time, obey the teacher, and finish their homework. The paper “bucks” can be traded in at the end of the week for special treats or game-playing time on the classroom computer. This system most resembles a
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token economy
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A person with a pervasive and persistent sense of anxiety without any external cause may have
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generalized anxiety disorder
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People with a self-serving bias attribute their success to ________ factors and their failures to ________ factors.
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internal; external
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As part of a fraternity initiation ritual, Saul is instructed to interrupt a school basketball game by running on the court naked while singing the nursery rhyme “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star.” If Sam complies with this ritual, his behavior would best illustrate
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unconventionality
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tendency to stop trying to change our circumstances, or to stop “trying,” after a series of ineffective responses
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Learned helplessness
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Which parts of the nervous system are associated with the general adaptation syndrome?
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sympathetic and parasympathetic
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After a group of gang members learned that their friend had died in a seemingly random accident, several of the friends started blaming a rival gang for the death. Even though there was no evidence whatsoever that the death had been intentional, the more the friends talked the more passionate they became in their belief that an act of revenge was necessary. What concept from social psychology may contribute to an act of violent revenge in this case?
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groupthink
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Which axis of the DSM-IV contains an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100?
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Axis V
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Axis IV
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The major psychosocial stressors the individual has faced recently (a recent divorce, death of spouse, job loss, etc) are this axis
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Axis V
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This axis contains the Global Assessment of Functioning, an overall judgement made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment on a rating scale of 0-100, the lower the score, the greater the impairment in functioning.
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The response of your body to stress includes all BUT
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a decrease in sweating.
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The cause of anxiety, according to Carl Rogers, lies in
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a conflict between a naturally positive self-image and negative external criticisms.
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A goal of family therapy is to
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Improve family communication and interaction
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Saleem has been seeing a therapist because she cannot adjust to her new husband’s children from a previous marriage. Although she dearly loves her husband, she feels awkward and embarrassed in front of the children. The therapist suggests that she bring her husband and his children with her to the next session so she can see them interact. Saleem is probably seeing a
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family therapist
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While sitting in class, Sherman suddenly experiences a racing heart, clammy hands, dizziness, and shaking. Sherman has many of the symptoms typical of
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panic attack
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Linda is afraid of cats because when she was a little girl a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda’s fear?
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behavioral
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involves the provision of task-oriented help, such as housecleaning, cooking meals, or rides to a hospital
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tangible assistance
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A new era of treating mental disorder began in ________ with the introduction of medication for ________.
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1953; psychosis
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Shyness
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is not defined as a disorder by the DSM-IV.
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Attributions are
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the beliefs of why people behave the way they do, the end process of a result where people use available information to make inferences as to why people behave in particular situations.
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If Calvin is average in terms of his looks, he may not ask the gorgeous Giselle to go on a date with him, because he believes that he will be rejected or that eventually the relationship would not work out. Thus, the ________ affected Calvin’s decision to not ask Giselle to go out with him.
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expectancy-value theory
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fact about schizophrenia
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One out of every 100 Americans will become afflicted.
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A person who paints a foul-tasting polish on their fingernails is using ________ therapy to quit nail-biting.
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aversion
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The process of cognitive dissonance motivates people to make unpleasant experiences seem
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more rational
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a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness that is often related to work
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burnout
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Major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder are all examples of ________ disorders.
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mood
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________ therapy focuses on helping people with their existential crises.
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Humanistic
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Axis II of the DSM-IV consists of
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personality disorders and mental retardation
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The focus of cognitive therapy is on
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rational thinking
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The two best-known mood disorders are
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major depression and bipolar disorder
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Naïve subjects in the Stanley Milgram experiment were given the opportunity to administer shocks to helpless victims. What was the maximum voltage that could be administered in one shock?
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450 volts
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The three components of hardiness identified in your textbook are
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challenge, commitment, and control.
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hardiness
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set of attitudes marked by a sense of control over events, commitment to life and work, and courage and motivation to confront stressful events
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Steve’s psychiatrist notes that Steve is experiencing a disruption of the usually integrated functions of Steve’s personality. Therefore, Steve most likely has a(n)________ disorder.
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dissociative
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Drew is Jewish, but today he will attend a Lutheran church with his friend, Cheryl. If Drew were to ________, it would be an example of the Asch effect.
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do what the other churchgoers are doing
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Asch effect
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A form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgements.
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Delusions are
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false or irrational beliefs
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Sally labels the driver who cuts her off in rush hour traffic an “idiot.” This is an example of
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the fundamental attribution error
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There are nearly _____ times as many males diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder as females.
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4
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A person who is overly concerned with physical health issues best fits into which DSM-IV category of disorders?
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Somatoform
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Haldol is to “major tranquilizers” as ________ is to “minor tranquilizers.”
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benzodiazepines
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The “straw that broke the camel’s back” is most likely to occur during the
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stage of resistance.
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Edward starts to worry about telling his therapist about his drinking. He is afraid that the therapist will get mad at him like his mother used to. Edward has started relating to his therapist as he related to his mother. Edward is experiencing
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transference
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The process of learning through the observation and imitation of others is called
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modeling.
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The group that is least likely to have access to adequate mental care is
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The poor
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The view that mental problems have physical causes is known as the
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medical model of mental disorder
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The ________ measures the amount of stress in a college student’s life over a one-year period resulting from major life changes.
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Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire
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Hans Eysenck believed that the odds of a person being helped by psychotherapy was
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introverts have inherited a higher than average level of physical arousal
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Axis I
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mental disorders (except personality d/o and mental retardation)
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Axis VI
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(DSM-IV) psychosocial and environmental problems
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Axis III
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General medical condition
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Rational-emotive behavior therapy
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Confrontational cognitive therapy developed by Ellis that challenges people’s irrational thinking.
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The term affective disorder is used by psychologists to refer to disturbance in
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emotion
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example of cognitive dissonance:
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Continuing to smoking but you know it’s bad for your health.
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Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ______ personality disorder.
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borderline
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compulsion
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uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
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A person who bathes at least 15 times per day is displaying
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unconventionality.
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The kind of therapy that uses biological treatments such as medication and electrical shock treatments to bring about changes in the person’s disordered behavior is called
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biomedical therapy
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An important lesson learned from the Stanford Prison Experiment and highlighted in the Schlesinger Report was
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how stressful situations can rapidly affect personality.
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researched the attitudes of conservative students enrolled at a liberal women’s college in the 1930s
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Theodore Newcomb
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Phoebe locks herself in her bedroom and refuses to see her family or go to work. Phoebe is displaying the ________ indicator of abnormality.
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Maladaptiveness
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Bipolar disorder used to be known as
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manic-depressive disorder
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The kind of therapy that involves talking things out with a professional is called
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psychotherapy.
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Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure change due to
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major life events.
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The television talks to Heidi. It tells her the police are out to get her. Because Heidi has schizophrenia, she is mostly experiencing a(n)
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hallucination
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Researchers have found that paraprofessionals
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are about as effective as professionals.
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This disorder affects about one out of five children and is characterized by reading difficulties:
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dyslexia
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Asch’s initial studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about ______ of the time.
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one-third
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The field(s) of ________ is devoted to understanding health maintenance and the prevention of illness.
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health psychology and behavioral medicine
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Originally developed to treat epilepsy, this drug seems to be more effective than lithium for most patients with bipolar disorder but with fewer side effects.
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Depakote
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The focus of cognitive therapies is on
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what we think and how we think.
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According to Selye, some people may develop illnesses such as coronary heart disease or stroke during the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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exhaustion
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Which statement is more likely to be true concerning attributions made by Americans versus Chinese people?
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Americans are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are Chinese people.
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A person who has been battling cancer and is now in the stage of resistance should be aware that
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they may have great trouble handling new stressors.
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resistance stage
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the body becomes more resistant to disease and injury than normal
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The ________ may be the brain region responsible for panic attacks.
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amygdala
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A patient suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may improve when treated with
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stimulants.
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A twenty-year follow-up on the Bennington College study found that
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the attitudes adopted in college lasted for decades.
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Walter Cannon
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fight or flight, emotion theory
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social distance
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refers to the amount of space that operates between individuals or groups as a result of differences in race, age, culture, ethnicity, etc.
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William is interested in helping his client change his disordered behavior and is less focused on understanding the problem itself. He is most likely to be a/an
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action therapist.
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According to Hans Selye, resistance to stress is lowest at the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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exhaustion
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exaggerated concern about physical health that leads the person to bounce from doctor to doctor
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Hypochondriasis
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The DSM has five ________ that are types of information that should be considered in the assessment of a patient.
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axes
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fact about psychopathology:
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Psychological disorders often involve exaggerations of normal functions.
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The high school football team viewed the opposing team as not only competitors but as the
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outgroup
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client-centered therapy
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A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.
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A support group would be most unlikely to deal with
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job-related work-place conflicts.
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The behavioral technique of ________, when used at its extreme, resembles torture.
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aversion therapy
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A woman who has been repeatedly abused by her husband may develop ________ and stop trying to defend herself.
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learned helplessness
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learned helplessness
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A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
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abnormal behavior
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behavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time
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The “tend-and-befriend” model was proposed by ________ to account for ________.
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Shelly Taylor; female behavior
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Free association is a technique used in ________ therapy.
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psychoanalytic
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This report highlighted the social psychological factors that contributed to creating an abusive environment at Abu Ghraib Prison:
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The Schlesinger Report
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The technique of free association was intended to
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allow the therapist to listen to the client in order to gather clues about their unconscious impulses.
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Two internet buddies decide to marry after years of corresponding through the mail, but they have never met one another. This situation reflects the attraction exerted by
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self-disclosure.
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When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five
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axes
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The ________ model claims that cultural and social factors influence the prevalence of mental disorders.
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ecological
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By allowing a new Teacher to first observe someone else administering the final shock level, Milgram could get compliance rates as high as
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90%
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Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express very negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince’s behavior is an example of
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conformity
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A person who is ________ is likely to be perceived as being cold and indifferent.
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shy and physically attractive
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The psychological view sees mental disorders as an interaction of biological, behavioral, cognitive, __________, and __________ factors.
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developmental; social-cultural
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loss of contact with reality
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psychosis
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fundamental attribution error
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The general bias toward making dispositional attributions rather than situational attributions when analyzing another person’s behavior.
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Edgar is learning deep-breathing techniques to reduce anxiety about having been robbed at knifepoint. This is an example of
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emotion-focused coping
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What type of drugs are the traditional antianxiety drugs, or minor tranquilizers, such as Valium?
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benzodiazepines
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Which model of abnormality explains abnormal behavior as the result of a set of learned responses?
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behavioral
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rational-emotive behavioral therapy
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albert ellis
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People are more likely to conform when
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a judgment task is ambiguous.
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A serious side-effect of antipsychotic drugs is related to
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disturbance of muscle control.
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When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation, they are engaging in what social psychologists call
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groupthink
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According to Holmes and Rahe, a person with a higher score on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is more likely than are people with lower scores to have what kind of experience in the near future?
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a stress reaction to life events
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People are most likely to help out soon in an emergency situation if
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there are few others who can help.
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If Tess has lost her contact lens, she is most likely to get help from others if she
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specifically asks one person for help.
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False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness are known as
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delusions
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learned negative attitude toward a person based on that person’s membership in a particular group
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prejudice
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Your friend took a security guard position to help defray the costs of tuition. When you stopped by to visit him on the job you found he was acting differently. He was more serious and professional. Your friend was using ________ to guide his actions as a guard, which were likely learned from film or literature depictions of security guards.
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scripts
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A dissociative disorder that involves sudden travel from home, the taking on of a new identity, and amnesia regarding the trip and one’s actual personal information is called
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dissociative fugue.
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According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of
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our irrational beliefs
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On your way to the airport for a 6 a.m. flight, you have a flat tire (but no spare), receive a speeding ticket, and then are asked to undergo a lengthy search at the security checkpoint. You are most likely experiencing
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hassles.
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Leo worries all of the time. He worries about his money, his children, and his dog. His muscles are always tense and sore, he has trouble sleeping, is often irritable, and has difficulty concentrating. Leo’s symptoms sound most like
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generalized anxiety disorder
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Roberto knew he had not tried hard enough on the final exam and deserved the lower grade. He told himself that he would definitely study harder next time. This is an example of
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internal locus of control.
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fact about self-help groups:
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are free
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By providing social models of peers who rebel against the experimenter, Milgram could get compliance rates as to drop to
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10%.
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What term do psychologists use to describe our liking of other people?
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interpersonal attraction
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Critical incident program sessions occur within 72 hours and are ________ hours long.
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2-3
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A key implication of Stanley Milgram’s research is that
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the power of the situation can induce an ordinary person to harm another.
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An antismoking ad that shows the “Marlboro Man” as sickly, coughing, and needing a respirator would make use of
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the poison parasite argument
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________ treats psychotic symptoms by blocking ________ receptors.
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Haloperidol; dopamine
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After being abused throughout her childhood, Helen has three distinct personalities. One is aggressive, one is sexually promiscuous, and one is very timid. Helen most likely suffers from
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dissociative identity disorder
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Survivors of the recent tsunami who are unable to fully comprehend what has happened would be said to have experienced
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psychic numbness
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We tend to _________ attractive people more than we do less attractive people.
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like
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Lithium carbonate is effective in treating
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bipolar disorder
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Imagine if Sigmund Freud were to go to Carl Rogers for therapy. Freud’s major complaint is depression due to distress over the lack of positive response to his theories. What is Rogers most likely to say during their session?
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“You seem troubled by the reaction to your work.”
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a therapist who believed that unhappy patients need to rid themselves of ineffective, self-defeating ways of thinking.
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Ellis
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In general, antipsychotic drugs work by
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reducing dopamine activity in the brain.
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A(n) ________ therapist focuses on problem behaviors rather than probing the mind of the client.
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behavior
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During the alarm reaction to a stressor, the hypothalamus triggers an emergency response in the
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adrenal glands.
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Couples that have been in lasting relationships tend to
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have five times more positive interactions than negative ones.
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Sal has decreased levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in his frontal lobe areas. Which disorder might he be at risk of experiencing?
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schizophrenia
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Tad seems to thrive when faced with difficult challenges and usually feels in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a ________ personality.
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hardy
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Which type of therapy is based on various learning principles?
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behavior
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The cognitive perspective views ________ as key factors in mental disorder.
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how we perceive, feel, think, and remember
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Lulu sees a therapist once a week. During her therapy sessions, she discusses issues and events that have impacted her life. Her therapist helps her to understand how these events and issues have affected her. The type of therapy Lulu is seeking is called
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psychotherapy.
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The ________ is characterized by a pattern of intense, angry, competitive, or hostile behavior.
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Type A pattern
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Pyrophobia involves a fear of ________, whereas arachnophobia involves a fear of ________.
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fire; spiders
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A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from
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schizophrenia
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an example of distress:
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worrying about everything most of the time
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It is has been estimated that there are ________ varieties of psychopathology.
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around 300
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A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. The loan officer’s belief is an example of _________. His refusal to grant them loans is an example of _________.
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prejudice; discrimination
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Iram made a New Year’s resolution to promote wellness in his life. Which of the following are ways in which he can begin to incorporate wellness into his life?
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exercise regularly
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A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between periods of
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depression and manic episodes.
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A key common element among different forms of therapy such as psychoanalysis, behavioral therapy, and drug therapy is a relationship that focuses on
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improving mental, behavioral, or social functioning
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The Type A behavior pattern is a significant predictor of
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coronary heart disease
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Steve is 21 years old and has never gone on a date. His parents are concerned and take him to see a therapist. The therapist tells Steve to lie down on the couch and relax. The therapist sits behind Steve and asks him to say whatever comes into his head. Steve eventually talks about his fear of women, which leads him to think about his early experiences with women: his mother, her friends, his teachers, and so on. Steve is using
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free association.
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A disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by repetitive, ritualistic behavior meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thoughts is called____________ disorder.
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obsessive-compulsive
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________ drugs work by increasing the activity of one or both of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin.
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Antidepressant
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In Rosenhan’s study, some of the individuals who went into hospitals
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found that at least one “real patient” viewed them as a fake.
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The Asch effect would be expected to operate in cases where
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jurors discuss whether someone is guilty in a jury trial.
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Cross-cultural studies of depression indicate that
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the level of depression varies greatly from country to country.
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The field of ________ would be interested in the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system.
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psycho-neuroimmunology
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Sigmund Freud arrives for a therapy session with Albert Ellis. Freud’s main complaint is depression; it seems that Freud’s writings have not received the kind of response he had hoped for and expected. What is Ellis most likely to say during the therapy session?
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“Why do you expect all your work to be well received, and what difference does it make if some people don’t like your ideas?”
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Prefrontal lobotomy is one form of
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psychosurgery
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You decided to visit your new college a week earlier to meet with a couple of the professors and your advisor in order to reduce your stress about being a freshman and doing well. This is known as
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problem-focused-coping.
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problem-focused coping
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coping strategy by which we problem-solve and tackle life’s challenges head-on
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After being passed up for a promotion and then getting into a heated argument with his son, a man disappears. He shows up two weeks later in another town with no memory of who he is or how he got there. He appears to be suffering from
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a dissociative disorder
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According to Sternberg, the category of love known as ________ has much passion and intimacy, but little commitment.
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romantic love
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In which stage of the general adaptation syndrome has the body reached the limits of its ability to adapt to stress, which may result in the development of stress-related diseases?
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exhaustion
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Cassie is diagnosed with severe depression. Her psychiatrist has prescribed many medications and psychotherapy, none of which have helped to alleviate her depression. Her psychiatrist is now likely to recommend
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electroconvulsive therapy.
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cognitive therapy
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therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
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As Carol and Ken are leaving for a trip, Carol repeatedly asks Ken, “Did we turn off the coffee pot?” For their entire trip, Carol worries about the coffee pot. Carol’s doubt about turning off the coffee pot is a(n)
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Obsession
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As a result of diffusion of responsibility, people in a bystander situation tend to
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be less likely to help others.
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Client-centered therapy is a type of ________ therapy.
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insight
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When visiting your Aunt Jane in California last year, an earthquake struck the area. The earthquake would qualify as a
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traumatic stressor.
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compulsion
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uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
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the study of how mental processes influence the immune system
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Psycho-neuroimmunology
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cognitive dissonance
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An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
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the physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation
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stress
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An irrational, persistent fear of something is called a
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phobia
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Which neurotransmitter is not implicated in the development of mood disorders?
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endorphins
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ghrelin
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hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to the brain
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How are newer antipsychotics different from traditional antipsychotic medications?
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Newerantipsychotics are less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia.
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Each day, while Sid is sitting at his desk at work, he continually thinks about germs. Each time this occurs, he washes his hands. Sid probably suffers from
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obsessive-compulsive disorder.
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Researchers found that the ________ of daily hassles was a better predictor of health problems than were scores on a life-events scale.
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perceived severity
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Gary takes antipsychotic drugs to control the symptoms of schizophrenia. After taking the drug for some time, he begins exhibiting repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements of his face, lips, and legs. Gary is showing signs of
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tardive dyskinesia.
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Seetra is seeing a therapist for the first time. Her psychologist notes that her severe facial acne may contribute significantly to her depressive symptoms, since her high school classmates tend to be mean about her pimples. On which axis of a DSM diagnosis would Seetra’s difficulties with her classmates be noted?
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Axis IV
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Long-term treatment with antipsychotic drugs can create a disturbance of motor control, especially facial muscles, that is termed
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tardive dyskinesia.
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Estella is afraid of cats. To help her overcome her fear, her mother calmly pets and strokes a cat while Estella is watching. Her mother encourages her to imitate her behavior. Estella’s mother is using
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participant modeling.
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Eileen goes to a therapist for help in losing weight. She and her therapist develop a written agreement spelling out weekly step-by-step methods for Eileen to use in order to reach her weight goal. The plan specifies rewards for reaching weekly goals and penalties for not achieving them. Eileen’s therapist is using which of the following methods?
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a contingency contract
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Young laboratory monkeys who saw their parents express fear to a live snake later showed fear themselves while viewing a live snake for the first time. This new fear would be the result of
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observational learning.
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All but ________ are a necessary part of the therapeutic process.
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uncovering unconscious memories
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During cognitive restructuring, a person reduces stress by dealing with the issues of
answer

question

Vanna’s mother is ill and Vanna is feeling overwhelmed and sad. To cope with this stress of her mother’s illness, Vanna has been writing her feelings down in a journal. Vanna is using
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emotion-focused coping.
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According to the research of Latané and Darley, which of the following situations would be the most likely in which someone would offer to help?
answer

question

The ________ hypothesis argues that we are likely to end up with friends and mates that are at our level of attractiveness.
answer

matching
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The life event with the most associated stress is
answer

question

therapeutic process
answer

question

For the past six months, Dahlia’s job has been extremely stressful, but she doesn’t feel that she can quit because she needs the money for tuition. Dahlia has been having chronic headaches and is behind in all of her classes. According to Hans Selye, Dahlia is in the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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exhaustion
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Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as
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hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
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most likely to result in severe depression:
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Having your partner reject you by leaving.
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Psychologists now use the term ________ when referring to what was formerly called neurosis.
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Oxytocin
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neurosis
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a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
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The major goal of insight therapies is to give people
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clearer understanding of their feelings, motivations, and actions
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Kevin shows a pattern of instability in his relationships, self-image, and feelings. As such, he most likely has ________ personality disorder.
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borderline
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typical practitioners of Freudian therapy:
answer

question

cortisol
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stress hormone released by adrenal cortex
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Laurie, a 30-year-old homemaker, has delusions and hallucinations, often acts silly, giggles loudly and inappropriately, makes odd gestures, and does not bathe or change her clothes regularly. Her symptoms indicate she is suffering from ______ schizophrenia.
answer

disorganized
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Obedience to an authority figure in a Milgram study was most likely when
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the authority figure is nearby to the Teacher.
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one of the bodily fluids that ancient Greeks linked to abnormal behaviors:
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black bile
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most commonly prescribed antianxiety medications:
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Barbiturates and benzodiazepines
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Moriarity’s research involved
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situational power.
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The cause of depression according to Aaron Beck is that depressed patients
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use negative thoughts they repeat about themselves.
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When Ramon uses a self-serving bias, he is likely to believe that
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it is his teacher’s fault that he failed his chemistry test.
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During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome,
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the sympathetic nervous system is activated and adrenal glands release hormones
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Situationism assumes that ________ influences people’s behavior, feelings, and thoughts to a greater degree than innate personality.
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the environment
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Situation is to behavioral context as disposition is to
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inner characteristics.
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These types of programs typically offer group sessions to trauma survivors with 72 hours of the traumatic event:
answer

CISD
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CISD
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brings people together promptly after the trauma for a 3-4 hour session, in which participants describe experiences and discuss emotional reactions
question

What is the primary difficulty with applying the criterion of “unconventionality” to define abnormal behavior?
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Behavior that is considered disordered in one context may be acceptable in another.
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__________ psychology is the field of study devoted to understanding the relationship between physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships and overall health and rates of illness.
answer

Health
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After Cecilia’s husband died, she has been feeling very depressed. Her depression is likely caused by
answer

immunosuppression
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a temporary stress-related pattern of arousal with a clear onset and endpoint
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Acute stress
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When those who underwent a severe ordeal are now recalling and reliving the event and having associated physical symptoms, they are experiencing
answer

posttraumatic stress disorder.
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A person with low self-esteem would tend to gravitate toward
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people who see them as they see themself
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People are least likely to conform when
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a judgment task is unambiguous.
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Research suggests that ________ increase(s) understanding and can diminish prejudice in a person who does not wish to hear another point of view.
answer

equal status contact
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This area of research uses methodologies from the brain sciences to investigate various types of social behavior such as stereotyping in prejudice, attitudes, self-control, and emotional regulation:
answer

social neuroscience
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The Bennington College study involved students from conservative homes who attended a college with liberal faculty members. The students tended to
answer

become more liberal over time.
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The mass deaths that occurred in Jonestown, Heaven’s Gate, and at the Branch Davidian Compound are examples of the power of
answer

obedience
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A car crash woke John from his afternoon nap. When he looked out his apartment window, he saw several people milling around two smashed cars. He decided not to dial 911 because he assumed someone had already called. John’s reaction is an example of
answer

the bystander effect
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Albert Ellis
answer

Developed “rational emotive behavior therapy” (REBT)
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The problem with a ________ therapist who encourages a patient to express his or her anger is that this may actually increase the patient’s rage in a harmful way.
answer

Freudian
question

A person who is in the communal effort phase after a disaster
answer

may feel weary.
question

general adaptation syndrome
answer

Hans Selye
question

Steven doesn’t think that his actions will help change his stressful job. Instead, he adopts the “smile – the world looks brighter when you do” coping style to deal with his stress. He uses what type of coping style?
answer

emotion-focused coping
question

The strongest predictor of how much we will like a person on meeting them for the first time is
answer

level of physical attractiveness
question

Dr. Nwoambi is a psychologist who is currently evaluating a new client. Dr. Nwoambi would most likely refer to the _________ to assist her in diagnosing her client’s psychological disorder.
answer

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
question

As a child psychologist, you are seeing Martin for the first time today. He presents with irritability, has a difficult time sitting still, interrupts both his parents and you during conversation, and cannot focus. It is most likely that Martin suffers from
answer

ADHD
question

The _______ claims that we like those best who give us maximum rewards at minimum cost.
answer

reward theory of attraction
question

________ refers to the capacity to adapt and achieve well-being in spite of serious threats to development.
answer

question

Subjects in Moriarity’s theft studies were more likely to intervene if
answer

they had been asked to hold the victim’s property
question

Marisol blamed her professor for failing her midterm. She failed to realize that her two hours of studying, her lack of sleep, and late partying all week would better explain her results. This is an example of
answer

external locus of control
question

A serious side effect of lithium treatment is related to
answer

toxicity from high blood levels of lithium.
question

first stage by which the body attempts to cope with a stressor
answer

alarm phase
question

Autism is first suspected at about ________ of age, when the child fails to develop language.
answer

1-1/2 to 2 years
question

Padma is extremely confident and feels that lately she needs very little sleep. In addition, she reports that her thoughts seem to be going fast-similar to watching three television shows at once. Padma most likely is experiencing
answer

a manic episode
question

Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram’s famous study on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond?
answer

The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed.
question

Dave believes all college professors are irritable, impatient, and uninterested in whether students learn. His belief is an example of
answer

a prejudice.
question

Manny has such an intense fear of flying insects that he hardly ever goes outside his house during the summer months. He is probably suffering from a
answer

phobic disorder
question

The ________ approach to psychological disorders focuses on abnormalities in the brain and nervous system
answer

biopsychology
question

Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ________ disorders.
answer

mood
question

According to psychoanalysis, the process of ________ blocks problems from reaching consciousness.
answer

repression
question

Working a second job to pay off credit cards is an example of
answer

problem-focused coping
question

A serious side-effect of antipsychotic drugs is related to
answer

disturbances in muscle control
question

A person who feels euphoric and hyperactive may be experiencing
answer

manic episode
question

A company that awards points to its salespeople for making a sale and then allows those points to be exchanged for vacation packages is using ________ to modify sales behavior.
answer

a token economy
question

Steve’s psychiatrist notes that Steve is experiencing a disruption of the usually integrated functions of Steve’s personality. Therefore, Steve most likely has a(n)________ disorder.
answer

dissociative
question

Jaci has just become blind. The fact that there is no physical reason for this suggests that Jaci may be suffering from
answer

conversion disorder
question

Electroconvulsive therapy has been used successfully to treat ________that has not responded to other treatments.
answer

question

Studies have shown that when medication is properly administered and used in conjunction with behavioral therapy, about ______ of individuals with ADHD may have improvements in attention and show diminished hyperactivity.
answer

70%
question

During the Middle Ages, authorities involved in the Inquisition viewed mental illness as due to
answer

the Devil.
question

The cliché “absence makes the heart grow fonder” contradicts which of the rules of interpersonal attraction?
answer

proximity
question

According to the Consumer Reports survey, which of the following is accurate?
answer

The longer a person stays in therapy, the greater the improvement.
question

Every time Jarrad opens his cigarette case or uses his lighter, he gets a painful electric shock. Jarrad’s friends and family have been asked not to give him any cigarettes or light any cigarettes for him, so he must use his own lighter if he wants to smoke. Eventually, Jarrad loses his desire to smoke, thanks to
answer

aversion conditioning.

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