psych 101 exam 2 wvu

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
what is cortical blindness
brain damage in primary visual cortex
what is high awareness
mindfulness
what is the cost of low awareness
influenced by subtle factors
what is the benefit of high awareness
can overcome some biases
(t/f) during sleep your brain rests
false
(t/f) snoring isn’t harmful as long as it doesn’t disturb others or wake you up
false
(t/f) everyone dreams every night
false
(t/f) opening a car window or turning the radio up will keep a drowsy driver awake
false
(t/f) the body has a natural ability to adjust to different sleep schedules such as working different sleeps or traveling through multiple time zones quicky
false
(t/f) sleeping longer on weekends is recommended as regular practice to makeup for loss of sleep during the work week
false
(t/f) the older you get (as in old age) the fewer hours of sleep you need
false
(t/f) drinking alcohol affects the amount of dream sleep you get that night
true
(t/f) episodes of sleepwalking tend to occur in the first third of the night during slow wave sleep
true
(t/f) dream sleep (REM) occurs more in the second half of the night
true
what type of wave is associated with stage 3?
delta wave
how many stages of REM sleep do we have throughout the night?
4-5
how many hours of sleep should we (adults) get each night?
8 hours
mary has difficulty getting restful sleep, what diagnosis might she have?
insomnia
what is true about depressants
-increase GABA
-reduce symptoms of anxiety
-decreases the activity of glutamate
what is an opiate
oxycontin
what can adderall be used to treat
narcolepsy
_______ is a condition in which a person has difficulty breathing while sleeping.
sleep apnea
Your psychology professor calls on you during class. The first thought that goes through your mind is, “Why me?” This thought could be characterized as:
consciousness
Although you may think that if you pay close attention to a bright spot, you must be aware of it. But that is not always correct. In the phenomenon, ___________ , a bright disc completely vanish from your awareness in full attention.
motion induced blindness
In this stage of sleep, the individual is just entering sleep and the EEG closely resembles that of a person who is awake.
stage 1 nrem
research suggest that sleep functions include
Physical and brain development, improved performance, strengthening memories
The “Information Integration Theory of Consciousness” is different from the Global Neuronal Workspace Theory of Consciousness” in what way?
They do NOT differ; they are two names for the same theory
Drinking alcohol before going to sleep at night can lead to:
Falling asleep earlier than usual, and then waking up more frequently later in the night
Sleepers are least responsive to outside stimulation during stage _______ sleep.
stage 4
The outer ear helps humans primarily to detect:
source of sound
The difference between the image of a scene received by the right eye and that received by the left eye can serve as a depth cue termed binocular ____________.
disparity
the receptor cells for hearing are located in the
cochela
The Muller-Lyer illusion describes a case where a:
Line with arrow tips pointed inward appears to be longer than one with arrow tips pointed outward
Perceptual constancy refers to:
Our perception of object remain the same despite the fact that sensory information changes.
When you are at a coffee shop and hear the clink of dishes, the pattern of conversation, and the rush of traffic outside, this is an example of
Auditory scene analysis
About 1 in 200 people experiences a blending of senses such as perceiving a number or letter as a color. This is called:
synesthesia
If two sounds vary in frequency they are perceived as differing in:
pitch
When you move your head in one direction, your eyes reflexively move in the opposite direction to compensate, allowing you to maintain your gaze on the object that you are looking at. This reflex is called the:
Vestibule-ocular reflex
The ________ is important in that it functions to collect and amplify sound.
outer ear
The structure of the ear that traduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the:
Cochlea
After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots before your eyes. This phenomenon is best explained by:
Opponent-process theory
Being able to detect the difference between two brands of Riesling wine is an example of ____________.
difference threshold
rods are related to vision in _____ situations
dimly lit
the smallest intensity at which you are able to detect a stimulus refers to the ____ threshold
absolute
__________ is the activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy.
sensation
morphine and heroin are examples of…
narcotics
Stimulants are drugs that:
Have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension
___________ drugs are drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior.
psychoactive
Agonists generally _______ activity at the synapse, while antagonists generally ________ activity at the synapse.
Increase; decrease
which drug is correctly matched with its classification?
caffeine – stimulant
most common hallucinogen:
marijuana
A friend recently began taking a new medication and has since become extremely agitated, while at the same time having little appetite or interest in sex. You might suspect that the medication contains:
amphetamines
Cocaine appears to produce its pleasurable effects by acting on the brain’s level of:
dopamine
LSD, PCP, and marijuana are considered to be what form of psychoactive substance?
hallucinogen
Tonya has taken medication the her doctor prescribed. This medication blocks neurotransmitters form binding to a postsynaptic receptor, leaving an abundance of neurotransmitters in the tiny space between the two neurons, also called the ________.
synapse
The action of which neurotransmitter is thought to be addicted by Ecstasy use?
serotonin
common depressant is
alc
Refers to the stimulation of sense organs; systems extract information from the environment that we need to function and survive; detect stimuli through specializes sense receptors =
sensation
Refers to the selection, organization and interpretation of sensory information; includes the location and nature of a stimulus; knowing what you saw =
Perception:
outside source that triggers sense organs
stimulus
Curved transparent, protective layer of the eye where light enter; protects and reflects
Cornea:
Opening in the middle of the iris; black part varies in size depending on light available; range of distance object can be in focus
Pupil:
Helps pupil dilate and contract; colored ring of muscle
Iris:
Bends the light rays to focus on retina; things out the light rays; flat = distant objects, rounder = closer objects
Lens:
Converted to electrical impulses to send to the brain, called photo activation, contains photoreceptors
Retina:
Rods, Cones, Fovea, and Blindspot
Photoreceptors:
Sensitive to light NOT color; periphery, functions well in low illumination
Rods:
Color and a little light sensitive; focus (helps with details); distinguish between different colors; work well under high illumination
Cones:
Area of retina filled with cones; no rods; where the optic nerve leaves the retina
Fovea:
No receptors in blind spot; light images that fall in this part of the eye cannot be seen
Blind Spot:
Produce lateral inhibition signals; responsible for receiving contrast; depth perception
Bipolar cells:
Ventral pathway:
“what” pathway; recognition
Dorsal pathway:
“where and how” pathway; self and object motion
Two pairs of basic colors work in opposite to each other; blue and yellow; red and green; and black and white which codes light contrast (color blindness)
Opponent-process theory of color vision:
the ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance; largely due to having two eyes (although some cues use only one eye)
Depth perception:
Detects direction of a sounds; includes: pima and ear canal
Outer Ear:
tympanic membrane, vibrates in response to a sound
Eardrum:
Amplifies sounds; includes: hammer, anvil, and stirrup
Middle Ear:
Location of receptor cells; includes the cochlea and basilar membrane (covered with hair cells)
Inner Ear:
What causes the sound waves to be converted into neural activity?
The movement of the fluid within the cochlea deforms the hair cells of the basilar membrane
Process through multiple stages of analysis before reaching the auditory cortex
Frequency analysis:
Range of sound intensity: 20hz – 20Hz
Audibility:
Orienting to sound sources; inter aural difference
Spatial hearing:
___ theory = Awareness requires the sharing of information among the prefrontal, inferior parietal, and occipital regions of the cerebral cortex
Global neuronal workspace theory:
___ memory = Free recall or episodic recollection; requires neural connections between cortical regions and hippocampus (memory center); is affected in amnesia
Conscious memory:
___ memory = Not affected in amnesia patients
Non-conscious memory:
Stage ___ = Brief transitional stage of light sleep; theta EEG waves are prominent; rapid, low amplitude brain waves
Stage 1 (NREM):
stage ____ = Sleep spindles with mixed EEG activity; breathing, respiration, muscle tones, body temperature, and heart rate decline; slower, more regular wave pattern
Stage 2 (NREM):
stage ___ = Low frequency delta waves are prominent; reach slow-wave sleep in an hour and after 30 minutes begin to move back up through the stages of sleep; very difficult to wake someone in slow-wave sleep; higher peaks and lower valleys of waves
Stage 3 (NREM):
stage ____ = When you reach what should be stage 1 you go into REM (dreaming); activity in the brain is highest during REM
REM:

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