PSY101 memories Argumentative Essay – Flashcards

question
George Miller found that the average person is able to keep about ____ digits in mind at a time.
answer
seven
question
When an old piece of information interferes with your
answer
proactive
question
The memory problem called retroactive interference happens when
answer
leaning new information interferes with your memory of old information.
question
Tim can remember what he had for lunch yesterday. This is an example of aan
answer
episodic memory.
question
Explicit memory, also called ____ memory, can be clearly stated or explained
answer
declarative
question
The memory of how to perform a task is
answer
implicit memory
question
Endel Tulving, the cognitive psychologist, classifies memories according to the
answer
type of information stored.
question
The two types of explicit memory described by Tulving are
answer
semantic and episodic memory.
question
The memory of things that happen to us or occur in our life are referred to as
answer
episodic memory.
question
Abe and Rose, who have been married for 13 years, are discussing the
answer
episodic
question
Your recollection of the humiliating lecture you received after you were
answer
episodic
question
Recall of what your professor said in class and recall of what you wore that day are
answer
semantic and episodic
question
General knowledge of history, algebra, and literature refers to ____ memory.
answer
semantic
question
The type of memory one would use to remember the seven wonders of the
answer
semantic memory.
question
When stating "I know...." you are referring to a(n) ____ memory
answer
semantic; episodic
question
In-line skating and tap dancing skills would be stored in ____ memory.
answer
implicit
question
The distinction between semantic and procedural memory is
answer
what it was and how one did it.
question
Which of the following is most likely to remain firmly embedded in
answer
how to swim
question
Tracy took tennis lessons when she was very young but had not
answer
implicit
question
Once we have learned the multiplication tables the recall of 6 times 6 is
answer
priming
question
The story about a woman with amnesia who was able to dial her mother's
answer
implicit
question
____ memory is recalling information that was previously learned
answer
Retrospective; prospective
question
Which of the following use prospective memory?
answer
none of the above
question
The memory that tends to fail when we are feeling stressed, distracted, and
answer
prospective memory.
question
Which of the following is not a type of prospective memory?
answer
knowledge-based tasks.
question
Which of the following causes a decline in both prospective and retrospective memory?
answer
aging
question
The process of changing information so that we can place it in memory is called
answer
encoding.
question
The stages of information processing in memory are
answer
encoding, storage, and retrieval
question
Jason, straining his eyes on the deck of a ship, is trying to memorize distant
answer
visual code.
question
Which of the following is not a psychological format that can be
answer
sensory code
question
Which of the following could be used to store "The Star Spangled Banner" song
answer
acoustic code
question
What type of code represents stimuli in terms of their meaning?
answer
semantic code
question
Ludwig, a cellist, is memorizing a musical composition by heart without reference to
answer
acoustic code.
question
Mimi is memorizing the Bill of Rights in relation to the legal cases in
answer
semantic code.
question
____ means maintaining information over time.
answer
Storage
question
Mentally repeating a list or saying it to yourself refers to
answer
maintenance rehearsal
question
By mentally repeating a telephone number after looking it up for the
answer
maintenance rehearsal
question
While doing his homework, Joe noticed that he was having difficulty with
answer
metamemory.
question
Our awareness of the functioning of our memory is defined by psychologists as
answer
metamemory.
question
Extending the semantic meaning of something you already know refers to
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
Using the phrase "Elvis' Guitar Broke Down on Friday" to remember the
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is
answer
retrieval.
question
Locating stored information and returning it to consciousness is
answer
retrieval.
question
The correct order of events in memory processing is
answer
encoding, storage, and retrieval
question
Sofia is taking a chemistry exam. She has not studied conscientiously for
answer
encoding failure
question
Roberto is taking a physics exam. Although he has studied thoroughly
answer
information retrieval
question
The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved is called
answer
memory.
question
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the three stages of memory referred to as
answer
sensory, short-term, and long-term
question
n the Atkinson and Shiffrin stages of memory, the progress of information
answer
determines whether and how long information is retained.
question
The eyes fixate from point to point several times each second. This is called
answer
saccadic eye movements.
question
While Tanya is visiting the pet store she looks down an aisle and catches
answer
both a and b
question
Humans experience a "stream of consciousness" rather than discrete
answer
sensory memory briefly holds perceptions, making them seem connected.
question
The stage of memory that first encounters stimuli is called
answer
sensory.
question
If an image of Abraham Lincoln's face was flashed on
answer
memory trace.
question
The turn of the century psychologist McDougall found
answer
four or five letters in a single fixation
question
In 1960, George Sperling modified McDougall's method of ____
answer
whole-report procedure; partial-report procedure
question
George Sperling's experiment determined that
answer
both a and b.
question
The significance of Sperling's partial-report procedure study is
answer
sensory
question
Psychologist believe that we possess a sensory register for
answer
each of our sensory systems.
question
Mental representations of visual stimuli are referred to as ____
answer
icons; iconic
question
Another term for "photographic memory" is
answer
eidetic imagery.
question
Photographic memory involves
answer
iconic memory and eidetic imagery.
question
What causes the flow of visual information to
answer
iconic memory
question
Visual experience appears as a smooth and continuous
answer
iconic memory; saccadic eye movements
question
You are taking notes, while listening to a lecture
answer
echoes; echoic
question
Visual images are to ____ memory as auditory images are to
answer
iconic; echoic
question
The sensory register that holds the mental representations
answer
echoic memory.
question
Memory traces of sounds
answer
decay more slowly than those of visual stimuli.
question
The memory that enables one to hold information for
answer
both a and b.
question
One will generally encode visual stimuli into auditory
answer
both a and b
question
Visual stimuli are most commonly retained in short-term memory by
answer
encoding visual stimuli as sounds that can be rehearsed
question
Aaron has just been given a telephone number of a
answer
around 10 seconds
question
Dana can only remember a few of the first and last items on her
answer
serial-position effect.
question
Information at the beginning and end of a list tends to be more easily recalled than
answer
serial-position effect.
question
Jim had received driving directions to his destination from
answer
the middle of the sequence.
question
Paul can only remember the conclusions of his speech. This is an example of the
answer
serial-position effect.
question
Amy is trying to remember her social security number, while
answer
Rehearse the set of numbers keeping them in the 3 chunks format.
question
According to George Miller
answer
the number of pieces of information the average person can easily recall after a single exposure.
question
After a single presentation, Megan can recall her friend's
answer
chunking
question
The typical maximum number of chunks of information that can be held is
answer
seven.
question
The telephone number of Brad's financial services firm is
answer
it consists of only two chunks of information that are meaningfully related to his business.
question
The ability to remember the letters of the alphabet or the words in the
answer
rote memory.
question
Mechanical association learning used by an actor to memorize his lines
answer
rote memory.
question
Preventing rehearsal can ____ information contained in short-term memory.
answer
reduce
question
The appearance of new information in short-term memory
answer
limited.
question
The process by which new information displaces older information in
answer
the capacity of short-term memory is variable
question
According to Atkinson and Shiffren, the third stage of information processing is
answer
long-term memory.
question
Which of the following statements would Freud disagree with
answer
Our ideas and perceptions may appear lost because they were never properly encoded.
question
The evidence for the popular idea that all of our experiences are
answer
arguable.
question
The way in which we conceptualize our worlds, our beliefs, and o
answer
schemas.
question
Rosalind, a forward on the women's basketball team, has invited Bryce
answer
She does not fit his schema of her dresses.
question
A person that reconstructs their experience according to their prejudices is
answer
allowing a schema to influence their recall.
question
Loftus and Palmer showed people a film of a car crash and then asked them to
answer
"smashed into"
question
The idea that long-term memories are
answer
recollections of a car crash can be influenced by the way in which it is labeled.
question
All of the following are problems with eyewitness testimony EXCEPT
answer
Children make better witnesses because they are less suggestible than adults.
question
Elizabeth Loftus research on eyewitness memory suggests that memory
answer
All of the above
question
According to Elizabeth Loftus, the most significant cause of memory is
answer
misleading information
question
Experts suggest that witnesses to a crime
answer
contaminate their own memory of the event.
question
The Lost in the Mall study illustrated that
answer
both a and b
question
Which of the following is NOT true regarding long-term memory?
answer
There is a tendency to replace new information with old information.
question
Danielle, a college senior, is trying to remember the names
answer
she has not yet found the cues that will help her retrieve the information from long-term memory
question
A psychology student wants to know how to remember the
answer
elaborative
question
The difference between rote learning and meaningful learning is
answer
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal.
question
Some language arts teachers like to say, "Another language, another soul." The
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
While studying for an astronomy exam, Haley realizes that the swirling motion of
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
Craik and Lockhart argue that memory storage and recall depends upon the ____
answer
depth
question
The ____ model of memory proposes that memory consists of
answer
levels-of-processing
question
Henry learned that the word diplomat originates from two Greek stems
answer
elaborative rehearsal
question
What is meant by the word "deeply" in the statement
answer
All of the above
question
Which of the following is an example of processing new information "deeply."
answer
both a and b
question
Susan, Judd, and Melanie work at a music store in the mall
answer
Judd
question
The mnemonic device "i before e except after c" is based upon a(n)
answer
semantic code
question
Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing
answer
flashbulb memory.
question
Emotionally charged events that arrest public interest, like the attacks of
answer
flashbulb memories.
question
The vivid, detailed recollection of what you were doing when you learned about
answer
flashbulb memory.
question
Flashbulb memories seem vivid for
answer
Dramatic events stimulate the brain to produce exact or photographic memories.
question
Which of the following is true regarding long-term memory organization?
answer
All of the above
question
____ is formed in long-term memory by organizing information into groups
answer
Hierarchical structure
question
Using the hierarchical structure of your long-term memory of
answer
All of the above
question
Evan met Lesley at a party last week. He sees her again a few weeks after
answer
tip of the tongue phenomenon.
question
Zelda is trying to remember the name of the actor who played the lead in the
answer
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon.
question
One conclusion of Brown and McNeil's classic study of the
answer
acoustic and semantic codes.
question
Some of the participants in the Brown and McNeil TOT experiments proved to
answer
incomplete or imperfect learning.
question
Research suggests that our memories of the past are
answer
people tend to seek out positive events and avoid negative ones
question
Evidence from a number of studies demonstrates that recall is ____
answer
worse; context-dependent
question
Jill prefers to study for tests in the classroom where the tests are
answer
context-dependant
question
Jennie returned to her elementary school when she was visiting her
answer
context-dependent memory
question
Detective Rawlings asked Harry, a witness to a mugging, to mentally reconstruct the
answer
context-dependent memory
question
Déjà vu is an example of ____ memory.
answer
context-dependant
question
One afternoon Amanda could not remember where she left her purse. In the
answer
state-dependent memory
question
In the effects of mood on memory, a happy mood may evoke
answer
state-dependent memory.
question
Brooke drinks so much coffee that she
answer
Drink enough coffee to give herself the jitters again
question
The classic studies that first made use of nonsense syllables in the study of
answer
Hermann Ebbinghaus.
question
Remembering nonsense syllables is difficult because they are
answer
acoustic coding and maintenance rehearsal.
question
A student taking a multiple-choice exam generally relies on the ____
answer
recognition
question
n preparing for the 40th high school reunion, Jill and Ed correctly identified
answer
recognition.
question
In taking the position that only fill-in-the-blank tests are suitable for
answer
recall
question
The memory task for most of the items in a multiple-choice test, such as
answer
recognition.
question
Nonsense syllables are sometimes arranged as paired associates,
answer
recall.
question
The paired associates task is used to measure the ____ memory task.
answer
recall
question
Peter, a participant in a paired associate learning experiment, noted that
answer
both semantic and acoustic encoding
question
The difference between the number of times required to learn
answer
savings.
question
The concept of method of savings was developed by Ebbinghaus to study
answer
relearning
question
In Ebbinghaus's classic curve of forgetting, the greatest memory loss occurs
answer
most rapidly just after the material is initially learned
question
Forgetting that occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of
answer
interference theory.
question
According to interference theory we forget material because
answer
a and b only
question
Joy just learned to speak French, but she notices
answer
retroactive interference.
question
Beatrice took four years of Spanish in high school. In college she studied
answer
retroactive interference
question
At college Jim is learning to speak French, but he keeps using
answer
proactive interference.
question
George just bought a new laptop computer after years of using a
answer
proactive interference.
question
Which of the following statements is true regarding Freud's concept of repression?
answer
All of the above
question
Psychoanalysts believe that dissociative amnesia involves
answer
repression.
question
Fred's history professor exhibits traits similar to those of
answer
repression.
question
Bill recently found out that when he was a child his dog, which he thought was
answer
repression.
question
The lack of support for the existence of recovered memories is based on
answer
Both a and b
question
Freud discovered that many patients could not recall episodes that
answer
infantile
question
The text presents several methods to improve memory skills. Which
answer
Avoid using familiar associations.
question
In the Method of Loci, the material to be learned is associated with
answer
familiar images.
question
The memory strategy called ____ relies on forming associations by linking two items
answer
mediation
question
Mnemonic devices can incorporate chunks of information into a format such as
answer
all of the above
question
A psychoanalytical explanation of infantile amnesia would include
answer
a and b only
question
Which of the following is a physiological factor contributing to infantile amnesia?
answer
both b and c
question
Jessica was upset because she was unable to remember her 4th birthday party
answer
a or b
question
In ____ amnesia, there are memory lapses for the period following a trauma
answer
anterograde
question
Anterograde amnesia interferes with many memory processes such as
answer
all of the above
question
One of the symptoms of anterograde amnesia is
answer
a failure to establish memories after the injury, but a preservation of memories prior to the injury.
question
Bill was in an automobile accident. The events just prior to the accident are still a
answer
retrograde
question
Which of the following is a cognitive factor associated with infantile amnesia?
answer
Infants do not reliably use language to symbolize or classify events.
question
In ____ amnesia, the trauma prevents patients from remembering events that
answer
retrograde
question
The surviving bodyguard in Princess Diana's car was unable to recall
answer
retrograde amnesia.
question
The clinical effects of head trauma suggest
answer
a period of consolidation
question
____ are viewed as electrical circuits in the brain that correspond to memory traces.
answer
Engrams
question
In searching for the engram, Karl Lashley was in reality looking for the biological
answer
memory.
question
Which of the following are thought to be involved in the biochemical process of
answer
both a and b
question
Research on the biology of memory involving the visual cortex of
answer
memories may have neural correlates at specific sites
question
When sea snails, such as Aplysia and Hermissenda, are conditioned,
answer
serotonin
question
The enhanced efficiency in a synapse after brief rapid stimulation that makes
answer
long-term potentiation.
question
Low levels of ____ are correlated with memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.
answer
acetylcholine
question
All of the following naturally occurring chemical substances have been
answer
adrenaline and noradrenaline.
question
The structural changes in the brain that take place with the formation of
answer
hippocampus.
question
Joe is a long-term alcoholic who has great difficulty storing new information in
answer
hippocampus
question
After a stroke destroyed a large area of his frontal lobe, Dwight was less able to integrate
answer
place and time.
question
It appears that storage bins for long-term memories are located in
answer
different brain areas.
question
What part of the memory system is the prefrontal cortex thought to play?
answer
executive center
question
After an industrial accident in which he experienced a penetrating
answer
hippocampus.
question
Damage to the ____ disrupts the formation of ____ memories
answer
thalamus; verbal
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question
George Miller found that the average person is able to keep about ____ digits in mind at a time.
answer
seven
question
When an old piece of information interferes with your
answer
proactive
question
The memory problem called retroactive interference happens when
answer
leaning new information interferes with your memory of old information.
question
Tim can remember what he had for lunch yesterday. This is an example of aan
answer
episodic memory.
question
Explicit memory, also called ____ memory, can be clearly stated or explained
answer
declarative
question
The memory of how to perform a task is
answer
implicit memory
question
Endel Tulving, the cognitive psychologist, classifies memories according to the
answer
type of information stored.
question
The two types of explicit memory described by Tulving are
answer
semantic and episodic memory.
question
The memory of things that happen to us or occur in our life are referred to as
answer
episodic memory.
question
Abe and Rose, who have been married for 13 years, are discussing the
answer
episodic
question
Your recollection of the humiliating lecture you received after you were
answer
episodic
question
Recall of what your professor said in class and recall of what you wore that day are
answer
semantic and episodic
question
General knowledge of history, algebra, and literature refers to ____ memory.
answer
semantic
question
The type of memory one would use to remember the seven wonders of the
answer
semantic memory.
question
When stating "I know...." you are referring to a(n) ____ memory
answer
semantic; episodic
question
In-line skating and tap dancing skills would be stored in ____ memory.
answer
implicit
question
The distinction between semantic and procedural memory is
answer
what it was and how one did it.
question
Which of the following is most likely to remain firmly embedded in
answer
how to swim
question
Tracy took tennis lessons when she was very young but had not
answer
implicit
question
Once we have learned the multiplication tables the recall of 6 times 6 is
answer
priming
question
The story about a woman with amnesia who was able to dial her mother's
answer
implicit
question
____ memory is recalling information that was previously learned
answer
Retrospective; prospective
question
Which of the following use prospective memory?
answer
none of the above
question
The memory that tends to fail when we are feeling stressed, distracted, and
answer
prospective memory.
question
Which of the following is not a type of prospective memory?
answer
knowledge-based tasks.
question
Which of the following causes a decline in both prospective and retrospective memory?
answer
aging
question
The process of changing information so that we can place it in memory is called
answer
encoding.
question
The stages of information processing in memory are
answer
encoding, storage, and retrieval
question
Jason, straining his eyes on the deck of a ship, is trying to memorize distant
answer
visual code.
question
Which of the following is not a psychological format that can be
answer
sensory code
question
Which of the following could be used to store "The Star Spangled Banner" song
answer
acoustic code
question
What type of code represents stimuli in terms of their meaning?
answer
semantic code
question
Ludwig, a cellist, is memorizing a musical composition by heart without reference to
answer
acoustic code.
question
Mimi is memorizing the Bill of Rights in relation to the legal cases in
answer
semantic code.
question
____ means maintaining information over time.
answer
Storage
question
Mentally repeating a list or saying it to yourself refers to
answer
maintenance rehearsal
question
By mentally repeating a telephone number after looking it up for the
answer
maintenance rehearsal
question
While doing his homework, Joe noticed that he was having difficulty with
answer
metamemory.
question
Our awareness of the functioning of our memory is defined by psychologists as
answer
metamemory.
question
Extending the semantic meaning of something you already know refers to
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
Using the phrase "Elvis' Guitar Broke Down on Friday" to remember the
answer
elaborative rehearsal.
question
The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is
answer
retrieval.
question
Locating stored information and returning it to consciousness is
answer
retrieval.
question
The correct order of events in memory processing is
answer
encoding, storage, and retrieval
question
Sofia is taking a chemistry exam. She has not studied conscientiously for
answer
encoding failure
question
Roberto is taking a physics exam. Although he has studied thoroughly
answer
information retrieval
question
The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved is called
answer
memory.
question
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the three stages of memory referred to as
answer
sensory, short-term, and long-term
question
n the Atkinson and Shiffrin stages of memory, the progress of information
answer
determines whether and how long information is retained.
question
The eyes fixate from point to point several times each second. This is called
answer
saccadic eye movements.
question
While Tanya is visiting the pet store she looks down an aisle and catches
answer
both a and b
question
Humans experience a "stream of consciousness" rather than discrete
answer
sensory memory briefly holds perceptions, making them seem connected.
question
The stage of memory that first encounters stimuli is called
answer
sensory.
question
If an image of Abraham Lincoln's face was flashed on
answer
memory trace.
question
The turn of the century psychologist McDougall found
answer
four or five letters in a single fixation
question
In 1960, George Sperling modified McDougall's method of ____
answer
whole-report procedure; partial-report procedure
question
George Sperling's experiment determined that
answer
both a and b.
question
The significance of Sperling's partial-report procedure study is
answer
sensory
question
Psychologist believe that we possess a sensory register for
answer
each of our sensory systems.
question
Mental representations of visual stimuli are referred to as ____
answer
icons; iconic
question
Another term for "photographic memory" is
answer
eidetic imagery.
question
Photographic memory involves
answer
iconic memory and eidetic imagery.
question
What causes the flow of visual information to
answer
iconic memory
question
Visual experience appears as a smooth and continuous
answer
iconic memory; saccadic eye movements
question
You are taking notes, while listening to a lecture
answer
echoes; echoic
question
Visual images are to ____ memory as auditory images are to
answer
iconic; echoic
question
The sensory register that holds the mental representations
answer
echoic memory.
question
Memory traces of sounds
answer
decay more slowly than those of visual stimuli.
question
The memory that enables one to hold information for
answer
both a and b.
question
One will generally encode visual stimuli into auditory
answer
both a and b
question
Visual stimuli are most commonly retained in short-term memory by
answer
encoding visual stimuli as sounds that can be rehearsed
question
Aaron has just been given a telephone number of a
answer
around 10 seconds
question
Dana can only remember a few of the first and last items on her
answer
serial-position effect.
question
Information at the beginning and end of a list tends to be more easily recalled than
answer
serial-position effect.
question
Jim had received driving directions to his destination from
answer
the middle of the sequence.
question
Paul can only remember the conclusions of his speech. This is an example of the
answer
serial-position effect.
question
Amy is trying to remember her social security number, while
answer
Rehearse the set of numbers keeping them in the 3 chunks format.
question
According to George Miller
answer
the number of pieces of information the average person can easily recall after a single exposure.
question
After a single presentation, Megan can recall her friend's
answer
chunking
question
The typical maximum number of chunks of information that can be held is
answer
seven.
question
The telephone number of Brad's financial services firm is
answer
it consists of only two chunks of information that are meaningfully related to his business.
question
The ability to remember the letters of the alphabet or the words in the
answer
rote memory.
question
Mechanical association learning used by an actor to memorize his lines
answer
rote memory.
question
Preventing rehearsal can ____ information contained in short-term memory.
answer
reduce
question
The appearance of new information in short-term memory
answer
limited.
question
The process by which new information displaces older information in
answer
the capacity of short-term memory is variable
question
According to Atkinson and Shiffren, the third stage of information processing is
answer
long-term memory.
question
Which of the following statements would Freud disagree with
answer
Our ideas and perceptions may appear lost because they were never properly encoded.
question
The evidence for the popular idea that all of our experiences are
answer
arguable.
question
The way in which we conceptualize our worlds, our beliefs, and o
answer
schemas.
question
Rosalind, a forward on the women's basketball team, has invited Bryce
answer
She does not fit his schema of her dresses.
question
A person that reconstructs their experience according to their prejudices is
answer
allowing a schema to influence their recall.
question
Loftus and Palmer showed people a film of a car crash and then asked them to
answer
"smashed into"
question
The idea that long-term memories are
answer
recollections of a car crash can be influenced by the way in which it is labeled.
question
All of the following are problems with eyewitness testimony EXCEPT
answer
Children make better witnesses because they are less suggestible than adults.
question
Elizabeth Loftus research on eyewitness memory suggests that memory
answer
All of the above
question
According to Elizabeth Loftus, the most significant cause of memory is
answer
misleading information
question
Experts suggest that witnesses to a crime
answer
contaminate their own memory of the event.
question
The Lost in the Mall study illustrated that
answer
both a and b
question
Which of the following is NOT true regarding long-term memory?
answer
There is a tendency to replace new information with old information.
question
Danielle, a college senior, is trying to remember the names
answer
she has not yet found the cues that will help her retrieve the information from long-term memory
question
A psychology student wants to know how to remember the
answer
elaborative
question
The difference between rote learning and meaningful learning is
answer
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal.
question
Some language arts teachers like to say, "Another language, another soul." The
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elaborative rehearsal.
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While studying for an astronomy exam, Haley realizes that the swirling motion of
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elaborative rehearsal.
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Craik and Lockhart argue that memory storage and recall depends upon the ____
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depth
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The ____ model of memory proposes that memory consists of
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levels-of-processing
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Henry learned that the word diplomat originates from two Greek stems
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elaborative rehearsal
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What is meant by the word "deeply" in the statement
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All of the above
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Which of the following is an example of processing new information "deeply."
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both a and b
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Susan, Judd, and Melanie work at a music store in the mall
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Judd
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The mnemonic device "i before e except after c" is based upon a(n)
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semantic code
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Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing
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flashbulb memory.
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Emotionally charged events that arrest public interest, like the attacks of
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flashbulb memories.
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The vivid, detailed recollection of what you were doing when you learned about
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flashbulb memory.
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Flashbulb memories seem vivid for
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Dramatic events stimulate the brain to produce exact or photographic memories.
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Which of the following is true regarding long-term memory organization?
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All of the above
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____ is formed in long-term memory by organizing information into groups
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Hierarchical structure
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Using the hierarchical structure of your long-term memory of
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All of the above
question
Evan met Lesley at a party last week. He sees her again a few weeks after
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tip of the tongue phenomenon.
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Zelda is trying to remember the name of the actor who played the lead in the
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tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon.
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One conclusion of Brown and McNeil's classic study of the
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acoustic and semantic codes.
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Some of the participants in the Brown and McNeil TOT experiments proved to
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incomplete or imperfect learning.
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Research suggests that our memories of the past are
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people tend to seek out positive events and avoid negative ones
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Evidence from a number of studies demonstrates that recall is ____
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worse; context-dependent
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Jill prefers to study for tests in the classroom where the tests are
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context-dependant
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Jennie returned to her elementary school when she was visiting her
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context-dependent memory
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Detective Rawlings asked Harry, a witness to a mugging, to mentally reconstruct the
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context-dependent memory
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Déjà vu is an example of ____ memory.
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context-dependant
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One afternoon Amanda could not remember where she left her purse. In the
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state-dependent memory
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In the effects of mood on memory, a happy mood may evoke
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state-dependent memory.
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Brooke drinks so much coffee that she
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Drink enough coffee to give herself the jitters again
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The classic studies that first made use of nonsense syllables in the study of
answer
Hermann Ebbinghaus.
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Remembering nonsense syllables is difficult because they are
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acoustic coding and maintenance rehearsal.
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A student taking a multiple-choice exam generally relies on the ____
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recognition
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n preparing for the 40th high school reunion, Jill and Ed correctly identified
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recognition.
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In taking the position that only fill-in-the-blank tests are suitable for
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recall
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The memory task for most of the items in a multiple-choice test, such as
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recognition.
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Nonsense syllables are sometimes arranged as paired associates,
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recall.
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The paired associates task is used to measure the ____ memory task.
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recall
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Peter, a participant in a paired associate learning experiment, noted that
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both semantic and acoustic encoding
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The difference between the number of times required to learn
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savings.
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The concept of method of savings was developed by Ebbinghaus to study
answer
relearning
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In Ebbinghaus's classic curve of forgetting, the greatest memory loss occurs
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most rapidly just after the material is initially learned
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Forgetting that occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of
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interference theory.
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According to interference theory we forget material because
answer
a and b only
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Joy just learned to speak French, but she notices
answer
retroactive interference.
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Beatrice took four years of Spanish in high school. In college she studied
answer
retroactive interference
question
At college Jim is learning to speak French, but he keeps using
answer
proactive interference.
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George just bought a new laptop computer after years of using a
answer
proactive interference.
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Which of the following statements is true regarding Freud's concept of repression?
answer
All of the above
question
Psychoanalysts believe that dissociative amnesia involves
answer
repression.
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Fred's history professor exhibits traits similar to those of
answer
repression.
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Bill recently found out that when he was a child his dog, which he thought was
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repression.
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The lack of support for the existence of recovered memories is based on
answer
Both a and b
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Freud discovered that many patients could not recall episodes that
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infantile
question
The text presents several methods to improve memory skills. Which
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Avoid using familiar associations.
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In the Method of Loci, the material to be learned is associated with
answer
familiar images.
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The memory strategy called ____ relies on forming associations by linking two items
answer
mediation
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Mnemonic devices can incorporate chunks of information into a format such as
answer
all of the above
question
A psychoanalytical explanation of infantile amnesia would include
answer
a and b only
question
Which of the following is a physiological factor contributing to infantile amnesia?
answer
both b and c
question
Jessica was upset because she was unable to remember her 4th birthday party
answer
a or b
question
In ____ amnesia, there are memory lapses for the period following a trauma
answer
anterograde
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Anterograde amnesia interferes with many memory processes such as
answer
all of the above
question
One of the symptoms of anterograde amnesia is
answer
a failure to establish memories after the injury, but a preservation of memories prior to the injury.
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Bill was in an automobile accident. The events just prior to the accident are still a
answer
retrograde
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Which of the following is a cognitive factor associated with infantile amnesia?
answer
Infants do not reliably use language to symbolize or classify events.
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In ____ amnesia, the trauma prevents patients from remembering events that
answer
retrograde
question
The surviving bodyguard in Princess Diana's car was unable to recall
answer
retrograde amnesia.
question
The clinical effects of head trauma suggest
answer
a period of consolidation
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____ are viewed as electrical circuits in the brain that correspond to memory traces.
answer
Engrams
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In searching for the engram, Karl Lashley was in reality looking for the biological
answer
memory.
question
Which of the following are thought to be involved in the biochemical process of
answer
both a and b
question
Research on the biology of memory involving the visual cortex of
answer
memories may have neural correlates at specific sites
question
When sea snails, such as Aplysia and Hermissenda, are conditioned,
answer
serotonin
question
The enhanced efficiency in a synapse after brief rapid stimulation that makes
answer
long-term potentiation.
question
Low levels of ____ are correlated with memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.
answer
acetylcholine
question
All of the following naturally occurring chemical substances have been
answer
adrenaline and noradrenaline.
question
The structural changes in the brain that take place with the formation of
answer
hippocampus.
question
Joe is a long-term alcoholic who has great difficulty storing new information in
answer
hippocampus
question
After a stroke destroyed a large area of his frontal lobe, Dwight was less able to integrate
answer
place and time.
question
It appears that storage bins for long-term memories are located in
answer
different brain areas.
question
What part of the memory system is the prefrontal cortex thought to play?
answer
executive center
question
After an industrial accident in which he experienced a penetrating
answer
hippocampus.
question
Damage to the ____ disrupts the formation of ____ memories
answer
thalamus; verbal
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