PSY101: Chapter 10: Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
answer
The branch of psychology that studies how we think and behave in social situations
question
Social Cognition
answer
The area of social psychology that deals with the ways in which we think about other people and ourselves
question
Attitude
answer
An evaluative belief that we hold about something
question
Cognitive Consistency
answer
The idea that we strive to have attitudes and behaviors that do not contradict on another
question
Dissonance Theory
answer
A theory that predicts that we will be motivated to change our attitudes and/or our behaviors to the extent that they cause us to feel dissonance, an uncomfortable physical state
question
Persuasion
answer
A type of social influence in which someone tries to change our attitudes
question
Central Route to Pesuasion
answer
A style of thinking in which the person carefully and critically evaluates persuasive arguments and generates counterarguments; the central route requires motivation and available cognitive resources
question
Peripheral Route to Pesuasion
answer
A style of thinking in which the person does not carefully and critically evaluate persuasive arguments or generate counterarguments; the peripheral route ensues when one lacks motivation and/or available cognitive resources
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Impression Formation
answer
The way that we understand and make judgements about others
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Attribution
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The act of assigning cause to behavior
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Trait Attribution
answer
An attribution that assigns the cause of behavior to the traits and characteristics of the person being judged
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Situational Attribution
answer
An attribution that assigns the cause of behavior to some characteristic of the situation or environment in which the behavior occurs
question
Fundamental Attribution Error
answer
Our tendency to overuse trait information when making attributions about others
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Individualistic Culture
answer
A culture in which individual accomplishments are valued over group accomplishments (i.e. western cultures)
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Collectivistic Culture
answer
A culture in which group accomplishments are valued over individual accomplishments (i.e. Asian cultures)
question
Actor/ Observer Bias
answer
Our tendency to make the fundamental attribution error when judging others, while being less likely to do so when making attributions about ourselves
question
Self-Serving Bias
answer
Our tendency to make attributions that preserve our own self-esteem (i.e. trait attribution- success/ situational attributions- failures)
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Stereotype
answer
A schema for a particular group of people
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Prejudice
answer
A largely negative stereotype that is unfairly applied to all members of a group regardless of their individual characteristics
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Discrimination
answer
The behavioral expression of a preudice
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Aversive Racism
answer
A proposed form of subtle racism in which European Americans feel aversive emotions around African Americans, which may lead them to discriminate against African Americans
question
Stereotype Threat
answer
A phenomenon in which fears of being discriminated against elicit stereotype-confirming behaviors(similar to, but NOT the same as, self-fulfilling prophecy)
question
In-Group Bias
answer
Our tendency to favor people who belong to the same groups that we do
question
Out-Group
answer
A group that is distinct from one's own and so usually an object of more hostility or dislike than one's in-group
question
Out-Group Homogeneity
answer
Our tendency to see out-group members as being pretty much all alike
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Realistic-Conflict Theory
answer
The theory that prejudice stems from competition for scarce resources
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Scapegoat
answer
An out-group that is blamed for many of society's problems
question
Contact Hypothesis
answer
The theory that contact between groups is an effective means of reducing prejudice between them
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Superordinate Goal
answer
A goal that is shared by different groups
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Proximity
answer
Physical closeness
question
Matching Hypothesis
answer
The theory that we are attracted to people whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own
question
Norm
answer
Unwritten rule or expectation for how group members should behave
question
Cohesiveness
answer
The degree to which members of a group value their group membership; cohesive groups are tight-knit groups
question
Conformity
answer
Behaving in accordance with group norms
question
Normative Conformity
answer
Conformity that occurs when group members change their behavior to meet group norms but are not persudaded to change their beliefs and attitudes
question
Informal Confomity
answer
Conformity that occurs when conformity pressures actually persuade group members to adopt new beliefs and/or attitudes
question
Deindividuation
answer
A state in which a person's behavior becomes controlled more by external norms than by the person's own internal values and morals
question
Social Facilitation
answer
Performing better on a task in the presence of others than you would if you were alone
question
Social Loafing
answer
When group members exert less effort on a group task than they would if they were performing the task alone
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Obedience
answer
Yielding to a demand
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Compliance
answer
Yielding to a simple request
question
Foot-in-the-door compliance
answer
Increasing compliance by first asking people to give into a small request, which then paves the way for compliance with a second larger request
question
Door-in-the-face
answer
Increasing compliance by first asking people to give in to a very large request and then, after they refuse, asking them to give in to a smaller request
question
Reciprocity
answer
A strong norm that states that we should treat others the way they treat us
question
Low-Balling
answer
Increasing compliance by first getting the person to agree to a deal and then changing the terms of the deal to be more favorable to yourself
question
That's-not-all
answer
Increasing compliance by first getting the person to agree to a deal and then changing the terms of the deal to be more favorable to yourself
question
Destructive Obedience
answer
Obedience to immoral, unethical demands that cause harm to others
question
Slippery Slope
answer
The use of foot-in-the-door compliance in an obedience situation to get people to obey increasing demands
question
Psychological Distance
answer
The degree to which one can disassociate oneself from the consequences of his/her actions
question
Instrumental Aggression
answer
Aggression that is used to facilitate the attainment of a goal
question
Hostile Aggression
answer
Aggression that is meant to cause harm to others
question
Frustration-agression Hypothesis
answer
The idea that frustration causes aggressive behavior
question
Prosocial Behavior
answer
Behavior that helps others
question
Altruism
answer
Helping another without being motivated by self-gain
question
Helping Behavior
answer
Another term for altruism
question
Bystander Effect
answer
The idea that the more witnesses there are to an emergency, the less likely anyone of them is to offer help
question
Diffusion of Responsiblity
answer
The idea that responsibility for taking action is diffused across all the people witnessing an event
question
Pluralistic Ignorance
answer
The idea that we use the behavior of others to help us determine whether a situation is an emergency requiring our help; if no one else is helping we may conclude that help isn't needed
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question
Social Psychology
answer
The branch of psychology that studies how we think and behave in social situations
question
Social Cognition
answer
The area of social psychology that deals with the ways in which we think about other people and ourselves
question
Attitude
answer
An evaluative belief that we hold about something
question
Cognitive Consistency
answer
The idea that we strive to have attitudes and behaviors that do not contradict on another
question
Dissonance Theory
answer
A theory that predicts that we will be motivated to change our attitudes and/or our behaviors to the extent that they cause us to feel dissonance, an uncomfortable physical state
question
Persuasion
answer
A type of social influence in which someone tries to change our attitudes
question
Central Route to Pesuasion
answer
A style of thinking in which the person carefully and critically evaluates persuasive arguments and generates counterarguments; the central route requires motivation and available cognitive resources
question
Peripheral Route to Pesuasion
answer
A style of thinking in which the person does not carefully and critically evaluate persuasive arguments or generate counterarguments; the peripheral route ensues when one lacks motivation and/or available cognitive resources
question
Impression Formation
answer
The way that we understand and make judgements about others
question
Attribution
answer
The act of assigning cause to behavior
question
Trait Attribution
answer
An attribution that assigns the cause of behavior to the traits and characteristics of the person being judged
question
Situational Attribution
answer
An attribution that assigns the cause of behavior to some characteristic of the situation or environment in which the behavior occurs
question
Fundamental Attribution Error
answer
Our tendency to overuse trait information when making attributions about others
question
Individualistic Culture
answer
A culture in which individual accomplishments are valued over group accomplishments (i.e. western cultures)
question
Collectivistic Culture
answer
A culture in which group accomplishments are valued over individual accomplishments (i.e. Asian cultures)
question
Actor/ Observer Bias
answer
Our tendency to make the fundamental attribution error when judging others, while being less likely to do so when making attributions about ourselves
question
Self-Serving Bias
answer
Our tendency to make attributions that preserve our own self-esteem (i.e. trait attribution- success/ situational attributions- failures)
question
Stereotype
answer
A schema for a particular group of people
question
Prejudice
answer
A largely negative stereotype that is unfairly applied to all members of a group regardless of their individual characteristics
question
Discrimination
answer
The behavioral expression of a preudice
question
Aversive Racism
answer
A proposed form of subtle racism in which European Americans feel aversive emotions around African Americans, which may lead them to discriminate against African Americans
question
Stereotype Threat
answer
A phenomenon in which fears of being discriminated against elicit stereotype-confirming behaviors(similar to, but NOT the same as, self-fulfilling prophecy)
question
In-Group Bias
answer
Our tendency to favor people who belong to the same groups that we do
question
Out-Group
answer
A group that is distinct from one's own and so usually an object of more hostility or dislike than one's in-group
question
Out-Group Homogeneity
answer
Our tendency to see out-group members as being pretty much all alike
question
Realistic-Conflict Theory
answer
The theory that prejudice stems from competition for scarce resources
question
Scapegoat
answer
An out-group that is blamed for many of society's problems
question
Contact Hypothesis
answer
The theory that contact between groups is an effective means of reducing prejudice between them
question
Superordinate Goal
answer
A goal that is shared by different groups
question
Proximity
answer
Physical closeness
question
Matching Hypothesis
answer
The theory that we are attracted to people whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own
question
Norm
answer
Unwritten rule or expectation for how group members should behave
question
Cohesiveness
answer
The degree to which members of a group value their group membership; cohesive groups are tight-knit groups
question
Conformity
answer
Behaving in accordance with group norms
question
Normative Conformity
answer
Conformity that occurs when group members change their behavior to meet group norms but are not persudaded to change their beliefs and attitudes
question
Informal Confomity
answer
Conformity that occurs when conformity pressures actually persuade group members to adopt new beliefs and/or attitudes
question
Deindividuation
answer
A state in which a person's behavior becomes controlled more by external norms than by the person's own internal values and morals
question
Social Facilitation
answer
Performing better on a task in the presence of others than you would if you were alone
question
Social Loafing
answer
When group members exert less effort on a group task than they would if they were performing the task alone
question
Obedience
answer
Yielding to a demand
question
Compliance
answer
Yielding to a simple request
question
Foot-in-the-door compliance
answer
Increasing compliance by first asking people to give into a small request, which then paves the way for compliance with a second larger request
question
Door-in-the-face
answer
Increasing compliance by first asking people to give in to a very large request and then, after they refuse, asking them to give in to a smaller request
question
Reciprocity
answer
A strong norm that states that we should treat others the way they treat us
question
Low-Balling
answer
Increasing compliance by first getting the person to agree to a deal and then changing the terms of the deal to be more favorable to yourself
question
That's-not-all
answer
Increasing compliance by first getting the person to agree to a deal and then changing the terms of the deal to be more favorable to yourself
question
Destructive Obedience
answer
Obedience to immoral, unethical demands that cause harm to others
question
Slippery Slope
answer
The use of foot-in-the-door compliance in an obedience situation to get people to obey increasing demands
question
Psychological Distance
answer
The degree to which one can disassociate oneself from the consequences of his/her actions
question
Instrumental Aggression
answer
Aggression that is used to facilitate the attainment of a goal
question
Hostile Aggression
answer
Aggression that is meant to cause harm to others
question
Frustration-agression Hypothesis
answer
The idea that frustration causes aggressive behavior
question
Prosocial Behavior
answer
Behavior that helps others
question
Altruism
answer
Helping another without being motivated by self-gain
question
Helping Behavior
answer
Another term for altruism
question
Bystander Effect
answer
The idea that the more witnesses there are to an emergency, the less likely anyone of them is to offer help
question
Diffusion of Responsiblity
answer
The idea that responsibility for taking action is diffused across all the people witnessing an event
question
Pluralistic Ignorance
answer
The idea that we use the behavior of others to help us determine whether a situation is an emergency requiring our help; if no one else is helping we may conclude that help isn't needed