Psy Q7 – Flashcard

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Psychologists define learning as the process of
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acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
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In classical conditioning a stimulus is any event or situation that
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evokes a response.
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Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
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sweating in hot weather
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In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
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the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.
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In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of
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an unconditioned stimulus.
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Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
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CS; US
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A Skinner box is a(n)
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chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
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Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
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operant conditioning
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The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
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partial reinforcement.
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The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of
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latent learning.
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The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
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Ivan Pavlov.
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In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)
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neutral stimulus.
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The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
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spontaneous recovery.
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Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
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positive reinforcer.
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A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
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specified number of responses have been made.
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An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n)
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reinforcement
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A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.
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variable-ratio
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Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
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observational learning.
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In Pavlov’s experiments, the sound of the tone triggered the dog’s salivation. Salivation to the sound of a tone was a(n)
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conditioned response.
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In Pavlov’s experiments, the taste of food triggered the dog’s salivation. Salivation to the taste of food was a(n)
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unconditioned response.
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In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the
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conditioned stimulus.
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.
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.
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A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
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specified time period has elapsed.
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In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?
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Operant conditioning
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After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
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Cognitive map.
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After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:
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generalization
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Conditioning is the process of
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Learning associations
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After a fear-provoking biking accident, Alex extinguished his conditioned fear of bikes by bycicling on a safe biking trail every day for a week. The reappearance of his proviosly extinguished fear when Alex rode a bike on the same trail two week later best illustrates
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Spontaneous recovery
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Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
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Negative reinforcer
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A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of:
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Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
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Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a _______ schedule.
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Variable-ratio

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