Psychologists define learning as the process of
acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
In classical conditioning a stimulus is any event or situation that
evokes a response.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
sweating in hot weather
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of
an unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A Skinner box is a(n)
chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)
The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
specified number of responses have been made.
An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n)
A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.
Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
In Pavlov’s experiments, the sound of the tone triggered the dog’s salivation. Salivation to the sound of a tone was a(n)
In Pavlov’s experiments, the taste of food triggered the dog’s salivation. Salivation to the taste of food was a(n)
In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the
A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
specified time period has elapsed.
In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?
After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:
Conditioning is the process of
After a fear-provoking biking accident, Alex extinguished his conditioned fear of bikes by bycicling on a safe biking trail every day for a week. The reappearance of his proviosly extinguished fear when Alex rode a bike on the same trail two week later best illustrates
Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of:
Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a _______ schedule.