Psy: Exam 3.

1. A distinctive pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions in an individual is called:
a. a trait
b. personality
c. a characteristic
d. stable individuality
personality

2. In general, people tend to chalk up motivations of others more to personality factors than to the
situation. For instance, we might think of a bad waiter as a jerk rather than thinking he might just be having a bad day. This defines the:
a. Classical personality error
b. Immediacy error
c. First person definition
d. Fundamental attribution error
Fundamental attribution error

. In which category of tests is a person presented with an ambiguous stimulus, and asked to interpret it. These assume the person will project unconscious motives and feelings onto the stimulus, and include examples such as the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach inkblot test.
e. Personality inventories
f. Attributional tests
g. Projective tests
h. Introspective tests
Projective tests

Which of the following is the most fundamental category of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy (i.e. the category of needs at the bottom, that must be met first)?
i. Physiological
j. Safety
k. Esteem
l. Self actualization
i. Physiological

What term refers to the extent to which people believe they are or are not in control of what happens to them?
m. Conscientiousness
n. Openness to experience
o. Locus of control
p. Reciprocal determinism
o. Locus of control

In Maslow’s approach, what term refers to rare moments in life that can change one’s perspective in the drive toward higher values?
q. Peak experiences
r. Self actualization
s. Aspiration to excellence
t. Moments of truth
Peak experiences

Which is the correct order for Piaget’s stages?
u. preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor
v. sensorimotor; preoperational, formal operations, concrete operations
w. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations
x. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
x. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations

Knowing that something exists even though you can’t see it right now is called
y. conservation
z. assimilation
aa. accommodation
bb. object permanence
Object permanence

Kohlberg’s studies focus on
cc. moral reasoning
dd. moral behavior
ee. cognitive reasoning
ff. cognitive behavior
moral reasoning

A person who operates at the conventional stage of morality
gg. will be an odd individual
hh. will rely on internal moral principles all the time
ii. will reason according to society’s norms and rules
jj. will reason to protect their own self-interest
ii. will reason according to society’s norms and rules

The first developmental stage in Freud’s model is
kk. latent
ll. genital
mm. oral
nn. anal
oral

The first stage in Erikson’s model is based on which crisis?
oo. integrity vs. despair
pp. industry vs. inferiority
qq. trust vs. mistrust
rr. intimacy vs. isolation
trust vs. mistrust

12. Which is considered the best parenting style?
a. Authoritarian
b. Permissive
c. Authoritative
d. Submissive
c. Authoritative

13. Which of these is the term for the tendency of preoperational children to focus only on one dimension of a problem at a time?
a. Ambiguous focus
b. Impermanence
c. Egocentrism
d. Centration
d. Centration

14. What term did I give in class to refer to harmful substances that can cause harm to a developing embryo or fetus, such as cigarette smoke, drugs, alcohol and medications?
a. Generotacts
b. Genotypal influences
c. Teratogens
d. Genotics
c. Teratogens

15. Which disorder results from a mother consuming large amounts of alcohol throughout pregnancy?
a. Fetal alcohol syndrome
b. Embryonic intoxication
c. Continual intoxication
d. Embryonic alcohol effects
a. Fetal alcohol syndrome

16. Which term refers to how old your abilities are relative to your chronological age?
a. Functional age
b. Essential age
c. Temporal age
d. None of the above
d. None of the above

17. Which of these is the correct order for prenatal development?
a. Fetus, embryo, zygote
b. Zygote, embryo, fetus
c. Embryo, zygote, fetus
d. Zygote, fetus, embryo
b. Zygote, embryo, fetus

18. At which stage of Piaget’s model do we develop the capacity for abstract thought?
a. Preoperational
b. Formal operations
c. Concrete operations
d. Sensorimotor
c. Concrete operations

19. 24 Which is a criticism of Piaget’s theory?
a. Many abilities appear earlier than Piaget said
b. Children are more egocentric than Piaget thought
c. Piaget’s tasks were not abstract enough
d. Piaget’s model is a lifespan model
a. Many abilities appear earlier than Piaget said

20. The tendency of people in a group to not offer needed help is called:
a. The conformity effect
b. Bystander apathy
c. The minimal risk effect
d. The aversion effect
b. Bystander apathy

The results of Milgram’s study imply that:
a. Most people will refuse to follow orders to inflict harm on a stranger
b. Many people will obey an authority figure even if innocent people get hurt
c. Most people are willing to give obviously wrong answers when ordered to do so
d. Most people stick to their own judgment, even when group members disagree
b. Many people will obey an authority figure even if innocent people get hurt

In close-knit groups, there is often a tendency for all members to think alike and suppress disagreement for the sake of unanimity. This is called
a. Groupthink
b. Group polarization
c. Group sublimation
d. Group deferral
a. Groupthink

Which term refers to people’s tendency to believe a statement is true simply because it has been repeated many times?
a. Numerosity effect
b. Redundancy effect
c. Subliminal effect
d. Validity or validation effect
b. Redundancy effect

The ________ approach to development of gender identity presumes that children develop a gender schema to guide their knowledge and behavior about how to be a boy or a girl.
a. Behaviorist
b. Cognitive
c. Social learning
d. Biological
social learning

25. Solomon Asch presented people with a task in which they had to say which of three test lines was the same length as another line. He used this task to test what phenomenon?
a. Conformity
b. Obedience to authority
c. The power of social roles
d. The collective unconscious
Conformity

In the Stanford Prison Study, which of the following occurred:
a. Participants got so into their roles as prisoners and guards that the experiment had to end early
b. Participants assigned as guards got into their roles, but participants who were prisoners did not
c. Participants who were assigned to be prisoners took on the passive roles, but those assigned to be
d. Roles were not found to be a factor in the prison study
a. Participants got so into their roles as prisoners and guards that the experiment had to end early

27. The rules that govern our behavior in a social context are called
a. Roles
b. Dynamics
c. Conformations
d. Norms
Norms

A loss of awareness of one’s own identity when acting in a group is known as:
a. Deindividuation
b. Group sublimation
c. Acquiescent deferral
d. None of the above
a. Deindividuation

In groups, people tend to avoid taking responsibility for actions or decisions, under the assumption that someone else will. This is called:
a. Acquiescent deferral
b. Diffusion of responsibility
c. Groupthink
d. Group polarization
b. Diffusion of responsibility

__________ are considered to be universal and biologically based.
e. Primary emotions
f. Secondary emotions
g. Tertiary emotions
h. Linguistic emotions
Primary emotions

31. __________ develop with cognitive maturity and social learning.
a. Primary emotions
b. Secondary emotions
c. Tertiary emotions
d. Linguistic emotions
Secondary Emotions

32. Which approach to persuasion involves an effort to persuade based primarily on the merits of an argument?
a. Peripheral
b. Indirect
c. Direct
d. Circuitous
Direct

. Which of these motivational conflicts involves a choice between two outcomes, neither of which you like (a less of two evils situation)?
a. Extrinsic-extrinsic
b. Approach-avoidance
c. Negative-negative
d. Avoidance-avoidance
d. Avoidance-avoidance

Which personality theorist believed in the idea of a ‘collective unconscious’?
e. Sigmund Freud
f. Erik Erikson
g. Rollo May
h. Carl Jung
h. Carl Jung

The __________ is the notion many people hold that the world is fair and that justice is served; it presumes that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded.
i. Fundamental attribution error
j. Just-world hypothesis
k. Milgram principle
l. Zimbardo principle
j. Just-world hypothesis

Which of the five senses is least developed at birth?
a. Sight
b. Hearing
c. Taste
d. Smell
Sight

Which theory of emotion said that the body responds first, followed by the mind?
a. Lazarus-Schacter Theory
b. Two-Factor Theory
c. James-Lange Theory
d. Cannon-Bard Theory
c. James-Lange Theory

Often, a group of people will make a more extreme decision as a group than any of them would have made as individuals. This is called

a. Groupthink
b. Group polarization
c. Group sublimation
d. Group deferral

b. Group polarization

Which of these is NOT one of Paul Baltes’ principles for the study of developmental
psychology?
a. Development is fixed
b. Development is plastic
c. Development depends on history and context
d. Development is lifelong
a. Development is fixed

40. 1. In order to best enhance motivation, your goals should be: (Book, Notes)
A. Specific and achievable
B. Nonspecific, but still achievable
C. Specific, but impossible to achieve
D. Framed in terms of avoidance of bad consequences
Specific and achievable

41. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which needs are the most basic, the ones that must be met first? (Book, otes)

A. Safety needs
B. Self actualization
C. Physiological needs
D. Psychological needs

. Physiological needs

Children who were given a “good player” ribbon as a reward for reading subsequently were less likely to read when a reward was not offered. What is the term for this effect, when extrinsic motivation replaces intrinsic motivation? (Notes)
A. Overjustification effect
B. Supplantation effect
C.. Externalization effect
D. Replacement effect
Overjustification effect

43. 4. Which of these motivational conflicts involves a choice where the outcome has both positive and negative elements? (Book, Notes)
A. Extrinsic-extrinsic
B. Approach-avoidance
C. Negative-negative
D. Avoidance-avoidance
Approach-avoidance

What is the term given in your book for the genetically influenced weight range for an individual, maintained by various biological mechanisms? (Book)
A. Set point
B. Individual median weight
C. Metabolic standard
D. Weight constant
Set point

A distinctive pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions in an individual is called: (Book, Notes)
A. a trait
B. personality
C. a characteristic
D. stable individuality
Personality

In general, people tend to attribute their failures more to situational factors, and their successes more to internal factors. This defines the: (Book, Notes)
A. Fundamental attribution error
B. Immediacy error
C. First person definition error
D. Self-serving bias error
Self-serving bias error

Which method is used to study how traits cluster together across the population? (Book, Notes)

A. Co-occurrence analysis
B. Analysis of Variance
C. Chi-Squared Test
D. Factor Analysis

Factor Analysis

In Freud’s model, which part of personality is always pushing the person to pursue pleasure and do what feels good, regardless of the rules? (Book, Notes)
A. Id
B. Ego
C. Superego
D. Ultraego
Id

In which stage of Freud’s model of personality does the superego develop, as a consequence of dealing with the Oedipus Complex? (Book, Notes)
A. Oral
B. Anal
C. Phallic
D. Genital
Phallic

Which personality theorist also drew ideas from the existential philosophy tradition? (Book, Notes)
A. Rollo May
B. Erik Erikson
C. Carl Rogers
D. Abraham Maslow
Rollo May

. In which type of culture is altruism more common? (Book, Notes)
A. Individualist
B. Egoist
C. Collectivist
D. Humanist
Collectivist

Piaget’s model looks at which type of development? (Book, Notes)
A. Moral development
B. Social development
C. Cognitive development
D. Gender development
Cognitive development

Kohlberg’s studies focus on: (Book, Notes)

A. Moral reasoning
B. Moral behavior
C. Cognitive reasoning
D. Cognitive behavior

Moral reasoning

The Eriksonian stage we must face in adolescence is: (Book, Notes)

A. Intimacy vs. isolation
B. Ego integrity vs. self-doubt
C. Identity vs. role confusion
D. Competence vs. inferiority

Identity vs. role confusion

Knowing that something exists even though you can’t see it right now is called: (Book, Notes)

A. conservation
B. assimilation
C. accommodation
D. object permanence

. object permanence

.. In late adulthood, _________ intelligence tends to decline, while ________ intelligence remains stable. (Book)
Fluid; crystallized

Which parenting style is based on obedience to parental authority without question? It usually features strict punishment for violations of rules. (Notes)
A. Authoritarian
B. Permissive
C. Authoritative
D. Submissive
. Authoritarian

What term did I give in class to refer to external/environmental contaminants that can penetrate the maternal protections of pregnancy and cause harm to the fetus? (Notes)

A. Generotacts
B. Genotypal influences
C. Teratogens
D. Genotics

Teratogens

Which theory of gender development looks at how children develop gender schemas? (Book, Notes)

A. Cognitive
B. Behaviorist
C. Social Learning
D. Psychodynamic

. Social Learning

Which of these is the correct order for prenatal development? (Book, Notes)

A. Fetus, embryo, zygote
B. Zygote, embryo, fetus
C. Embryo, zygote, fetus
D. Zygote, fetus, embryo

Zygote, embryo, fetus

At which Piagetian stage do we develop ability to reason in multiple dimensions (e.g. via use of maps)? (Book, Notes)

A. Preoperational
B. Formal operations
C. Concrete operations
D. Sensorimotor

Concrete operations

Which is a criticism of Piaget’s theory? (Book, Notes)

A. Piaget tended to underestimate the abilities of younger children
B. Piaget underestimates how many people operate based on postconventional morality
C. Piaget overestimated the abilities of preoperational children
D. Piaget’s model is a lifespan model

Piaget tended to underestimate the abilities of younger children

Which of the five senses is least developed at birth? (Book, Notes)

A. Sight
B. Hearing
C. Taste
D. Smell

Sight

63. . Mothers who consume a lot of alcohol during pregnancy put their children at risk of which disorder?

A. Newborn Alcohol Syndrome
B. Neonatal Addiction Syndrome
C. Embryonic Addiction Syndrome
D. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

The onset of menarche in females, spermarche in males, and the development of secondary sex characteristics are all signs of what developmental process?

A. Puberty
B. The adolescent growth spurt
C. Menopause
D. Synaptic pruning

. Puberty

The tendency of people in a group not to offer needed help is called: (Book, Notes)

A. The conformity effect
B. Bystander apathy
C. The minimal risk effect
D. The aversion effect

Bystander apathy

. The results of Milgram’s study imply that: (Book, Notes)

A. Many people will obey an authority figure even if innocent people get hurt
B. Most people will refuse to follow orders to inflict harm on a stranger
C. Electric shocks enhance memory performance
D. Most people stick to their own judgment, even when group members disagree

Many people will obey an authority figure even if innocent people get hurt

. In close-knit groups, there is often a tendency for all members to think alike and suppress disagreement for the sake of unanimity. This is called: (Book, Notes)

A. Groupthink
B. Group polarization
C. Group sublimation
D. Group deferral

Groupthink

Which term refers to people’s tendency to believe a statement is true simply because it has been repeated many times? (Book, Notes)

A. Repetition effect
B. Redundancy effect
C. Subliminal effect
D. Validity effect

Repetition effect

Solomon Asch presented people with a task in which they had to say which of three test lines was the same length as another line. He used this task to test what phenomenon? (Book, Notes)

A. Conformity
B. Obedience to authority
C. The power of social roles
D. The collective unconscious

Conformity

In the Stanford Prison Study, which of the following occurred? (Book, Notes)

A. Participants assigned to be guards got into their roles, but participants assigned to be prisoners did not
B. Participants who were assigned to be prisoners took on the passive roles, but those assigned to be guards were not able to become authoritative over them
C. Participants got so caught up in their roles that the experiment had to end early
D. Roles were not found to influence people in this artificial situation

. Participants got so caught up in their roles that the experiment had to end early

. Which of these is a social position for which there is norms to guide behavior? (Book, Notes)

A. Role
B. Normative position
C. Conformed standard
D. Community standard

Role

A loss of awareness of one’s own identity when acting in a group is known as: (Book, Notes)

A. Deindividuation
B. Group sublimation
C. Acquiescent deferral
D. None of the above

. Deindividuation

In groups, people tend to avoid taking responsibility for actions or decisions, under the assumption that someone else will. This is called: (Book, Notes)

A. Acquiescent deferral
B. Diffusion of responsibility
C. Delegation of responsibility
D. Responsibility polarization

Diffusion of responsibility

Within Milgram’s studies, which of the following weakened obedience? (Book, Notes)

A. Having the experimenter issue conflicting demands
B. Having a peer who agreed to continue
C. Having the learner in the same room
D. Having an experimenter who was a professor, rather than just an ordinary man

Having the learner in the same room

Research shows that if you try to use a direct attempt to change the core beliefs of someone who holds a strong opinion, which of the following is likely to happen? (Notes)

A. The logic will weaken the belief, though the person will not admit it
B. The logic will weaken the belief, and the person will be willing to admit it
C. The person’s belief in his own opinion will become stronger
D. The belief is likely to change to the position you are advocating

The person’s belief in his own opinion will become stronger

The __________ is the notion many people hold that the world is fair and that justice is served; it presumes that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded. (Book)

A. Fundamental attribution error
B. Just-world hypothesis
C. Milgram principle
D. Zimbardo principle

Just-world hypothesis

Often, a group of people will make a more extreme decision as a group than any of them would have made as individuals. This is called: (Notes)

A. Groupthink
B. Group polarization
C. Group sublimation
D. Group deferral

Group polarization

. Milgram increased the power of the authority figure in part by having the teacher commit first to less dangerous steps, and then building up to the more serious shocks. This process, also found in the TV game show “Deal or No Deal”, is called: (Book, Notes)

A. Progressive involvement
B. Incremental commitment
C. Brainwashing
D. Entrapment

Entrapment