PSY 451 Ch 8 Trait and Skill Aspects of Personality

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Carl Jung
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R.B. Cattell
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Gordon Allport
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Hans Eysenck
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Paul Costa Jr. and Robert McCrae
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Henry Murray
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a founder of the motive-based study of personality
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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
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A widely used instrument that attempts to measure introversion and extroversion and several other subclassifications as defined by Carl Jung
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factor analysis
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statistical technique in which correlations among a number of simple scales are reduced to a few basic dimensions
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functionally equivalent
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Gordon Allport; concept that many behaviors of individuals are similar in their meaning because the individuals tend to view many situations and stimuli in the same way; for Allport, the trait is the internal structure that causes this regularity
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common traits
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Gordon Allport; organizing structures that people in a population share
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functionally autonomous
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Gordon Allport; idea that in adulthood many motives and tendencies become independent of their origins in childhood and that finding out where such tendencies originated is therefore not important
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proprium
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Gordon Allport; the core of personality that define who one is; Allport believed that the proprium has a biological counterpart
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cardinal dispositions
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Gordon Allport; personal dispositions that exert an overwhelming influence on behavior
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personal dispositions
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Gordon Allport; traits that are peculiar to an individual
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central dispositions
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Gordon Allport; the several personal dispositions around which personality is organized
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Big Five
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The trait approach to personality that is supported by a great deal of research and suggests personality can be captured in five dimensions: Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness
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implicit personality theory
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a type of biasing tendency for people, perhaps erroneously, to see certain traits as going together and to perceive consistencies when viewing the personalities of others
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types
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theoretical approach to personality in which people are divided into discrete categories or classes as opposed to being placed along a continuum
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motives
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internal psychobiological forces that induce behavior or push for expression
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needs
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Henry Murray; readiness to respond in a certain way under given conditions
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expressive style
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personality characteristics communicated through elements such as vocal characteristics, facial expressions, and body gestures and movements
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trait approach
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Use of a limited set of adjectives or adjective dimensions to describe and scale individuals
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Sensation-Intuition Scale
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Subclassification of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that reflects whether a person is more prone to realism or imagination
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Thinking-Feeling Scale
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Subclassification of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that reflects whether a person is logical and objective or personal and subjective
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Judgment-Perception Scale
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Subclassification of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator that reflects whether a person is oriented toward evaluating or perceiving things
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T-data
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(Test data) Term used by R.B. Cattell; data gathered from placing a person in a controlled test situation and noting or rating responses
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Q-data
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(Questionnaire data) Term used by R.B. Cattell; data gathered from self-reports and questionnaires
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L-data
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(Life data) Term used by R.B. Cattell; data gathered about a person’s life from school records or similar sources
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trait
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Gordon Allport; a generalized neuropsychic structure or core tendency that underlies behavior across time and situations
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nuclear quality
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Gordon Allport; term for describing personal dispositions in terms of a person’s unique goals, motives, or styles
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Extroversion (Big Five)
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The personality dimension that includes enthusiasm, dominance, and sociability; people low on this dimension are considered introverted
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Agreeableness (Big Five)
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The personality dimension that includes friendliness, cooperation, and warmth; people low in this dimension are cold, quarrelsome, and unkind
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Conscientiousness (Big Five)
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The personality dimension that includes dependability, cautiousness, organization, and responsibility; people low in this dimension are impulsive, careless, disorderly, and undependable
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Neuroticism (Big Five)
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The personality dimension that includes nervousness, tension, and anxiety; people low in this dimension are emotionally stable, calm, and contented
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Openness (Big Five)
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The personality dimension that includes imagination, wit, originality, and creativity; people low on this dimension are shallow, plain, and simple
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facet
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within the Big Five trait approach, the component characteristics (also sometimes called subfactors) that underlie each of the Big Five factors
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extroversion (Eysenck)
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Hans Eysenck; the characteristic of being generally sociable, active, and outgoing; extroverts are thought to have a relatively lower level of brain arousal and thus tend to seek stimulation
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neuroticism (Eysenck)
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Hans Eysenck; one of Eysenck’s three biologically oriented dimensions, includes emotional instability and apprehensiveness
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psychoticism (Eysenck)
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Hans Eysenck; one of Eysenck’s three biologically oriented dimensions, tendency toward psychopathology, involving impulsivity and cruelty, tough-mindedness, and shrewdness
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zero acquaintance
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observation and judgment of someone with whom one has never interacted
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Need for Achievement (n Ach)
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Henry Murray; need to succeed on tasks that are set out by society
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Need for Affiliation (n Aff)
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Henry Murray; need to draw near to and win the affection of others
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Need for Power (n Power)
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Henry Murray; need to seek positions and offices in which one can exert control over others
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Need for Exhibition (n Exh)
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Henry Murray; need to show one’s self before others and to entertain, amuse, shock, and excite others

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