Psy 309 Final Exam – Ch. 1-13

question

The gollypod, a fictitious aquatic animal, breaks out in a cold sweat whenever exposed to the sun. This reaction is most likely ______.
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a reflex
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The evidence from biology suggests that the first “eyes” were not eyes at all, but_______
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light-sensitive cells
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Mutations provide new variations, which if _______, will be selected.
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adaptive
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A reflex is ________ .
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a relationship between an event and a simple response
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Work on selective breeding in ___________ over a period of 40 years shows that behavioral characteristics can be selectively bred so that the descendants behave more like a different species than like their own ancestors.
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foxes
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The dispute over the relative importance of genetics and learning is often called the ________ debate.
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Nature-Nurture
question

Learning is a change in behavior due to ________.
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experience
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Experience refers to ________
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changes in the environment
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A stimulus is an environmental event that is capable of affecting _______.
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Behavior
question

The author of your text evidently believes that _______.
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learning is a way of adapting to change
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The quotation, “Change is the only constant,” is attributed to ______.
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Lucretius
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Modal action patterns are induced by events called ______.
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releasers
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The chief advantage of learning over natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that learning ________ .
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is faster
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Darwin suggested that natural selection is analogous to
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breeding.
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The brown-headed cowbird puts its eggs in other birds’s nests. This is an example of a ______.
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modal action pattern/instinct
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Hart and Risley did a longitudinal study of the influence of the home verbal environment on children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. They found that _______.
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children whose parents talked to them a lot later scored higher on IQ tests
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The cowbird deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. This is most likely a ________.
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modal action pattern
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Steven says that he was very nervous when he first attended college classes, but now he feels quite relaxed. Steven’s loss of anxiety is most likely an example of _______.
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learning
question

A thumbtack stuck in a bulletin board several feet away is less likely to affect your behavior than a thumbtack placed on the chair on which you are sitting. Even though both examples involve a thumbtack, the second is more likely to qualify as a ________.
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stimulus
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Learning is evolved _________.
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modifiability
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Lee Cronk wrote an article on how evolved behavior can prove nonadaptive when the environment changes. The article was called ________.
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Old Dogs, Old Tricks
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Darwin was influenced by the book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, by
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Darwin was influenced by the book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, by
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There is debate between psychologists on the position that learning refers to durable changes. What is the problem with this position?
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The concept of duration is vague.
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Zing Yang Kuo found that 86% of kittens that saw their mothers kill rats later killed rats themselves. He found that _____ of kittens that never saw their mothers kill rats later killed rats themselves.
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45%
question

Teenagerus Americanus, a two-legged ape indigenous to North America, breaks out in a cold sweat whenever exposed to elevator music. This reaction is most likely ______.
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learned behavior
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Variation and natural selection are the foundations of _______.
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evolution
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_____ changes when learning occurs.
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Behavior
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Most mutations _______.
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are not helpful to survival
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The list of alleged human instincts ______.
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has gotten shorter over the years
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Evolution is widely accepted except in
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America.
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Natural selection is often _______.
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behind the times
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_______, like natural selection, is a biological mechanism for adapting to change.
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learning
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The chief limitation of natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that ___________.
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it is slow/takes place over generations/helps the species but not the individual
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The person who demonstrated that the marching of tropical army ants is not intelligent behavior is ______.
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Schneirla
question

The quotation, “Change is the only constant,” is attributed to ______.
answer

Lucretius
question

The cowbird deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. This is most likely a ________.
answer

modal action pattern
question

The evidence from biology suggests that the first “eyes” were not eyes at all, but_______.
answer

light-sensitive cells
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Natural selection is illustrated by changes in the coloration of the Peppered Moth resulting from _______.
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industrial pollution
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The rooting of pigs (for worms, larvae, and truffles) is an example of a
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MAP
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Experimental research on behavior is often said to be artificial. To compensate for this problem, researchers do ________ .
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field experiments
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In a cumulative record, learning is indicated by a change in response ________ .
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rate
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Response _______ refers to the time that passes before a response occurs.
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latency
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Your text describes four basic sources of evidence: anecdotal, case study, descriptive study, experimental study. The least reliable of these is ______.
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anecdotal
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One problem with computer simulations as a substitute for animal research is that ___________.
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no one knows what behavior to program until the research has been done
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Marjorie drives a school bus. Sometimes the kids get rather noisy. She decides to play music the kids like through speakers on the bus, but whenever the kids get too noisy she turns the music off. When they quiet down, she turns the music back on. In this way, she hopes to get the kids to make less noise. Marjorie is probably going to measure learning as a change in response _________.
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intensity
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An ________ is something an organism tries to escape or avoid.
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aversive
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In within-subject experiments, each subject’s performance is compared with his or her performance during a ______.
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baseline period
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Experiments done in natural settings are called _______.
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field experiments
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Harry teaches an advanced painting class. His goal is to teach students to paint more creatively. Harry will probably measure learning as a change in response _________.
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topography
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The person who suggested that to learn how nature works, we must “sit down before fact as a little child,” and “be prepared to give up every preconceived notion” was ______.
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T. H. Huxley
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Using an ABA reversal design is rather like using a ______.
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light switch
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A computer simulation that is useful for teaching certain principles of learning is called ________ .
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Sniffy the Virtual Rat
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The kind of study that is most likely to involve a large number of subjects is one with a ________.
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between-subjects design
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The natural science approach assumes that things are caused only by natural events.
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True
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Any variable an experimenter manipulates is a(n) ________ variable.
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independent
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A computer simulation that is useful for teaching certain principles of learning is called _________.
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Sniffy the Virtual Rat
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A teacher who looks for an increase in the number of correct performances per minute is using _______ as a measure of learning.
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fluency
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A flat cumulative record indicates that the behavior is ________.
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not occurring
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B. F. Skinner was the first person to record data cumulatively
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False
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Any variable that is allowed to vary freely is a(n) __________ variable.
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dependent
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In the cumulative record below, the rate of behavior is ________.
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decreasing
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Researchers can control _________better with animal subjects than with human subjects.
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all of the above
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A cumulative record shows the total number of responses that have occurred in a given period of time as well as the rate at which they occurred.
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True
question

In group-design experiments, researchers often use ________ to reduce differences among participants.
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matched sampling
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The kind of experiment that is most likely to require statistical analysis is a(n) _______.
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between-subjects experiment
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One highly readable little book on research methods mentioned in your text is called _________.
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Psychological Research: An Introduction
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Research results with humans usually parallel those with animals.
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True
question

An _____________ is something an organism tries to escape or avoid.
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aversive
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A flat cumulative record indicates that the behavior is ________
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not occurring
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The first person to use a single-subject reversal design was probably ____________.
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Galen
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Balster suggests that inhumane treatment of research animals is __________.
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bad science
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Speed and rate are different terms for the same measure of learning
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False
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Each pairing of a CS and US is one _______.
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trial
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A key feature of Pavlovian conditioning is that the CS and US appear together regardless of what the animal or person does.
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True
question

Pavlov became interested in psychic reflexes around ________.
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1900
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One way to test for the effects of conditioning is to use test trials
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True
question

In Pavlovian conditioning, contiguity usually refers to the ________.
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time between CS and US
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In ____________ conditioning, the CS and US occur at the same time.
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simultaneous
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The procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus with a well-established CS is called higher-order Conditioning
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True
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The term ___________ response refers to an innate reflex response to a stimulus.
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unconditional
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One way to determine if conditioning has occurred is to present the CS alone. Each such presentation is called a(n) ______ trial.
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Test
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If, following conditioning, a CS is repeatedly presented without the US, the procedure is called ________.
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extinction
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Pavlov was a ________.
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Russian
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In Pavlovian conditioning, ISI refers to ______.
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interstimulus interval
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Many people think of scientists as dull people without feelings, but Pavlov said that science requires ______________.
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supreme passion
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Higher-order conditioning is probably most important to ___________.
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humans
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In so far as the rate of learning is concerned, the most important pairings of the CS and US are those that come _________.
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at the beginning of training
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The notation that best describes the Pavlovian procedure is _______
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CS–>US
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The time between conditioning trials is called the _______.
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intertrial interval
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Pavlov’s work paved the way for Darwin’s theory of evolution.
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False
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Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for his research on conditioning.
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False
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Pavlov is best described as ________.
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an experimenter from head to foot
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________ said that Pavlov was one of the greatest geniuses of all time.
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H. G. Wells
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A CS that consists of two or more stimuli is called a _________ stimulus
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compound
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When exposure to a stimulus prior to pairing with a US interferes with conditioning, the phenomenon is called ________.
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latent inhibition
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Spontaneous recovery is associated with _______.
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extinction
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In _______ conditioning the CS and US overlap
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delayed
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Conditional reflexes are so named because they ____________.
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were considered rude
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The experiments of Staats and Staats with nonsense syllables are examples of ____________ conditioning.
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higher-order
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J. M. Graham and Claude Desjardins established a(n) ______ as a CS for sexual arousal in rats.
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odor
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In studying “psychic secretions,” Pavlov focused his attention on the ________.
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events in the dog’s environment
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An experimenter presents a flash of light and a bell simultaneously followed by food. Conditioning proceeds satisfactorily, but when the experimenter presents the light and bell separately, he finds that the bell is an effective CS, but the light is not. The experimenter has demonstrated _______
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overshadowing
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Each time a buzzer sounds, a puff of air makes a rabbit blink. Soon the rabbit blinks when it hears the buzzer. George believes that this meANS the buzzer takes the place of the air puff. George is an advocate of ________.
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Rescorla-Wagner model b. preparatory response theory c. stimulus substitution theory d. valence theory
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Pavlovian conditioning is also called ________ conditioning.
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classical
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George Bernard Shaw said that Pavlov was __________.
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the biggest fool he knew
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Two students, Edward and Edwina, serve as subjects in a conditioning experiment. The CS is a buzzer; the US is a mild electric shock; the UR is a change in the electrical conductivity of their skin called the Galvanic Skin Response. Both subjects undergo 50 trials, but the experimenter feels sorry for Edwina so periodically he lets her off without a shock. The results will indicate that _______
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the CR is stronger in Edward
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In general, the more intense a US, the __________.
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faster conditioning proceeds
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If two stimuli are paired and then one becomes a CS, the other will become a CS more rapidly than it otherwise would have, a phenomenon called sensory ________.
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preconditioning
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Generally, the _____ (more/less) intense a stimulus, the faster conditioning occurs.
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more
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Of the following, the one that does not belong with the others is ________.
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higher-order conditioning
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The first conditioning trials are typically _____ (more/less) effective than later trials
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more
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__________ stimuli are typically events that are important to survival.
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Unconditional
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Braun and Geiselhart found that eyelid conditioning generally proceeded slowly with _______.
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older adults
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Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research on the ________.
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psychic reflex
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The experiment in which a dog learned to salivate at the sight of a black square after it had been paired with a CS for salivating is an example of _________ conditioning.
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higher-order
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The Rescorla-Wagner model has been very influential, but it does not explain inhibition.
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False
question

The author of your text uses the terms unconditional reflex and conditional reflex, but he notes that most authors use the terms _______ and _______ reflexes.
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conditioned and unconditioned
question

Oafish Bill (John’s twin brother; see items above) has heard nothing of John’s unfortunate encounter with Carole, and he decides to ask her out. Just as he approaches her she bursts into laughter, apparently in response to a joke someone just told. Bill immediately pops the question and she politely declines, having decided to join a convent at the end of the semester. A week later Bill bumps into Carole on campus but feels no particular embarrassment. The pairing of Bill’s request for a date and Carole’s laughter is most likely an example of ________.
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backward conditioning
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According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, blocking occurs because when the second (blocked) CS is presented, most of the learning that can occur has already been “used up” by the first CS.
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True
question

John, “Mr. Anxiety,” finally musters up the courage to ask the beautiful and popular Carole to go to the movies. She finds the idea so ridiculous that she laughs out loud the instant he has gotten the question out. John’s face turns the color of a steamed lobster. In classical conditioning terms, John’s experience is an example of ________.
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trace conditioning
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In the study by Thompson and Russell, there was a toy on a mat, but it was out of reach. Children learned to retrieve the toy by observing a model who pulled the mat closer.
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False
question

The Herbert and Harsh study found that cats that had observed a model perform 30 times did no better than those that had observed a model perform 15 times.
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False
question

A panel of experts reviewed studies on the influence of violence depicted on television and in films on the aggressive behavior of children. They found that the evidence for a causal connection between viewing such violence and aggressive behavior was _______.
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overwhelming
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The book, The Last Gentleman Adventurer, includes an anecdote that illustrates cross-species observational learning.
answer

True
question

Videotapes of flossing monkeys suggest that mother monkeys attempt to teach their infants how to floss through modeling.
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True
question

In a study by Hopper and colleagues, some observers watched a model slide a door and retrieve a desired item. Other observers saw the door slide in the absence of a model, revealing the desired item. The latter procedure is called the __________ condition.
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ghost
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In Bandura’s theory of observational learning, steps taken during observation to improve later recall of a model’s behavior are called ________.
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retentional processes
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When researchers arrange for an event to occur in the absence of a model, this is called the _______ condition.
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ghost
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Research suggests that some students who do not naturally learn from a model can be taught the skills necessary to do so.
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True
question

The author of your text identifies two kinds of observational learning: _______ and _______.
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social and asocial
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Jill is an impressionable 17-year-old college freshman with average academic skills. She lives in the college dorms with two roommates. One of them, Martha, is bright, attractive, popular, rich, and a local celebrity because of her singing; she seldom studies. Jill’s other roommate, Ann, is also bright, but has only a few friends, wears inexpensive clothes, and plays the tuba poorly; she studies all the time. On the basis of what you know about observational learning, you predict that Jill will ______.
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flunk out
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The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced is called _______.
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generalized imitation
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The first studies of observational learning ______.
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failed to find evidence of observational learning in animals
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Experiments on asocial observational learning raise the question of the extent to which the social variety is truly social.
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True
question

Research suggests that humans tend to imitate behavior that is irrelevant to obtaining reinforcers.
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True
question

Judith Fisher and Mary Harris found that if a model wore an eye patch, observers learned _______.
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more from the model’s behavior
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If an observer watches a well-trained model perform a response, the procedure is not really observational learning.
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False
question

The traditional view of observational learning is what the author of your text calls _______ observational learning.
answer

social
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Those who are most likely to learn from observing a model are probably _______.
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adults
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Social observational learning may be defined as _________.
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a change in behavior due to observing a model
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Ellen Levy and her colleagues found that children would imitate a model’s reinforced preferences for _______.
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pictures
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Whether children imitate an aggressive model depends largely on ________.
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whether the model’s behavior is reinforced or punished
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Of the following terms, the one most associated with Bandura’s theory is ________.
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retentional processes
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The earliest experiments on observational learning were performed by ______.
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E. L. Thorndike
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Berger found that one important variable affecting observational learning in humans is the _______ of the model.
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status
question

Alan Kazdin found that praising attentiveness in one child actually reduced the attentiveness in another child.
answer

False
question

Efforts to influence people through modeling via mass media are called _______.
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edutainment
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Keith and Catherine Hayes found that their adoptee, Viki, learned more from observing models than some children of about the same age. This was surprising because Viki was a _________.
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chimpanzee
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Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models. In their study, the observers _______.
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listened to models on a tape
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In _______, an observer looks on as a model’s behavior is punished.
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vicarious punishment
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There are two kinds of social observational learning experiences, vicarious _______ and vicarious _______.
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reinforcement; punishment
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Some researchers believe that the tendency of humans to imitate irrelevant modeled acts is beneficial.
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True
question

The research of Rosekrans and Hartup on aggression suggests that if a model’s behavior is sometimes reinforced and sometimes punished, it is more likely to be imitated than if it is consistently reinforced.
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False
question

Little of classroom learning is observational.
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False
question

Herbert and Harsh compared the behavior of cats that had observed a model perform an act 30 times with cats that had observed only 15 performances. They found that _________.
answer

cats that observed 30 performances did substantially better than those that observed 15
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Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. In observational learning, the experience consists of _______.
answer

observing events and their consequences
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You hear on the radio that Smash, the most popular rock music performer in Germany, has killed himself. He left a note (“Goodbye, cruel world”). You predict that _______.
answer

there will be a rash of suicides or suicidal gestures among German rock music fans
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Bandura says that observational learning involves four processes. One of these is _______
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all of the above
question

Models who are not proficient at the skill they demonstrate are called unskilled or _______ models.
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learning
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Herbert and Harsh demonstrated observational learning in cats.
answer

True
question

Ellen Levy and her colleagues found that children’s liking for pictures was influenced by the consequences of the model’s preferences.
answer

True
question

Observing a model is particularly helpful if the task involved is easy.
answer

False
question

Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models, even though the observers did not see the models.
answer

True
question

According to the author of your text, observational learning involves observing
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events and their consequences.
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Fisher and Harris found that observers learned more when a model _______.
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frowned and shook her head
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All studies of observational learning involve learning to solve a problem or perform a skill.
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False
question

Research suggests that the tendency to imitate the irrelevant acts of a model increases with age.
answer

True
question

If an observer looks on as a model’s behavior is reinforced, we speak of _______.
answer

vicarious reinforcement
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The operant learning model of observational learning takes the _________.
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natural science approach
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The learning history of observers has a powerful influence on what they learn from models. This is illustrated by the fact that chimpanzees that have had __________ training get more from observing a model than those that have not.
answer

language
question

A panel of experts reviewed studies on the influence of violence depicted on television and in films on the aggressive behavior of children. They found that the evidence for a causal connection between viewing such violence and aggressive behavior was _______.
answer

overwhelming
question

Primatologist Elizabeth Lornsdorf found that wild young female chimps are more likely than males to learn about __________ .
answer

termite fishing
question

Lyons, Young, and Keil actively encouraged children not to imitate the acts of a model that were irrelevant to solving a problem. The result was that the children _________.
answer

imitated the irrelevant acts
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If the consequences of a model’s behavior strengthen the observer’s tendency to behave in a similar manner, we say that the behavior has been _______ .
answer

vicariously reinforced
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In the Thompson and Russell two-mat study, children who observed a model __________.
answer

did better than those who did not observe a model
question

The influence of literary models on behavior was seen in the 18th century with the publication of _________.
answer

The Sorrows of Young Werther
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Carl Warden was one of the first researchers to demonstrate observational learning in animals.
answer

True
question

Time out is a form of punishment.
answer

True
question

Skinner devised a mechanical teaching machine that divided the material to be learned into short segments called ________.
answer

Frames
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The Lamere study found that performance-based bonuses improved productivity, but there was no difference between the effects of a 9% bonus and a 3% bonus.
answer

True
question

John gets into fights on a regular basis, always with formidable opponents. He has often been injured in these fights and knows that he runs the risk of sustaining serious brain damage or other permanent injuries, yet he continues to fight. John is a very successful professional boxer. This example illustrates that bizarre behavior _________.
answer

is less puzzling when the reinforcers maintaining it are known
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Taub’s research suggests that one reason people do not recover following a stroke or injury that causes paralysis is because they do not use the damaged limb.
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True
question

Wesley Becker suggests that parents should think of themselves as _________.
answer

Teachers
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A study by John Austin and colleagues increased safe practices in roofers by providing those who followed safe practices at least 80% of the time with ________.
answer

Time Off
question

To restore function in a limb damaged by a stroke, therapists use
answer

constraint-induced movement therapy
question

Edward Taub’s treatment of people with paralyzed limbs emerged from research with ___________.
answer

Monkeys
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Hal __________ pioneered the use of operant procedures to improve the quality of life of captive wild animals.
answer

Markowitz
question

Research demonstrates that when teachers provide positive consequences for good behavior and ignore minor misbehavior, the usual result is an increase in both good and bad behavior.
answer

False
question

Most teachers reprimand students more often than they praise them.
answer

True
question

In animal training, secondary reinforcement may be provided with a toy called a ______
answer

cricket
question

Problem behavior in children can usually be dealt with effectively through ________ reinforcement.
answer

differential
question

Brad Alford’s study of the man who thought he was followed by a witch is an example of ________.
answer

an ABA design experiment
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Wesley Becker argues that parents are _______.
answer

Teachers
question

Ivar Lovaas first noticed that aversives could reduce self-injurious behavior when he absentmindedly slapped a child who was banging his head against a wall.
answer

True
question

The idea that for bizarre behavior to result in reinforcement it must sometimes occur when reinforcement is unavailable has been called __________.
answer

Goldiamond’s Paradox
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Layng and Andronis reported the case of a psychiatric patient who feared that her head was falling off. This delusion appeared to be due to the fact that it got her social contact from the staff.
answer

True
question

Problem behavior in children can usually be dealt with effectively through ___________.
answer

differential reinforcement
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The first true teaching machines were built by B. F. Skinner.
answer

True
question

Lovaas and Simmons used punishment to reduce self-injurious behavior in a boy. Before treatment, this boy would hit himself at a rate of up to _______.
answer

30 times a minute
question

At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two grade levels in one school year.
answer

True
question

Betty Hart and Todd Risley found that the parents who provided the most instruction and practice in language later had the children with the best-developed verbal skills.
answer

True
question

Using extinction alone to eliminate tantrums is problematic. A better approach is to use extinction in conjunction with a form of ___________ reinforcement.
answer

differential
question

Your text describes the use of _______ to get a bull elephant to cooperate with having his toenails trimmed.
answer

Shaping
question

Delusions are often thought of as the products of a disordered “inner world,” but operant learning research suggests that they are the products of a disordered _________.
answer

Environment
question

Jack is a homeless man who lives on the streets of New York City. One cold January night he takes up a position outside a fancy restaurant and starts shouting, “God has ordered an equestrian invasion of Long Island.” The restaurant owner calls the police and they take Jack to a hospital, where he spends a quiet night. You look into Jack’s medical history and find that he _____________.
answer

has been hospitalized for bizarre behavior in the winter more than in other seasons
question

When teachers focus on reinforcing appropriate behavior rather than on punishing inappropriate behavior, disruptive behavior _________ and the rate of academic learning _________.
answer

decreases; increases
question

Self-injurious behavior sometimes occurs in healthy people, including college students.
answer

True
question

In the treatment of long-standing self-injurious behavior, punishment is often ________.
answer

effective
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___________ is the idea that any problem behavior that is eliminated through learning-based treatment will be replaced by a new problem behavior.
answer

Symptom substitution
question

Carr and McDowell found that Jim’s scratching was reinforced mainly by _______.
answer

parental attention
question

Charles Madsen and his colleagues asked a teacher to _______ . This change in teacher behavior produced a marked reduction in misconduct .
answer

constraint-induced movement therapy
question

A highly effective web-based instructional program designed to teach reading that makes use of reinforcement and shaping is called _______.
answer

Headsprout
question

Ivar Lovaas was perhaps the first person to use punishment to suppress _____________
answer

self injurious behavior
question

Hopkins and Conard found that when teachers made a few simple changes in how they taught, changes that included a shift from reprimands and threats to praise and positive feedback, students advanced at ______ the normal rate in reading.
answer

More than twice
question

Skinner’s teaching machines presented the student with some information, then asked a question. The reinforcer for answering correctly was _________.
answer

the opportunity to move on to the next frame
question

Tarpley and Schroeder attempted to reduce face-slapping in an 8-year-old boy by providing food when the boy played with a ball. The result was that face-slapping __________.
answer

decreased by 90% in 40 minutes
question

Eddie McNamara’s study showed that praising students when they are “on task” does not increase the frequency of on-task behavior in adolescents.
answer

False
question

In Skinner’s teaching machines, the only reinforcer was the opportunity to move on to the next item.
answer

True
question

At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two grade levels in one school year.
answer

True
question

Efforts to treat stroke victims with paralyzed limbs have proved unsuccessful.
answer

False
question

There is substantial scientific support for symptom substitution.
answer

False
question

The first teaching machines were designed by ___________.
answer

B. F. Skinner
question

The author of your text suggests that the worst orphanages illustrate the importance of operant learning to normal child development.
answer

True
question

Research suggests that bonuses based on employee performance can improve productivity ________.
answer

and reduce company costs
question

Murray Sidman’s book on aversive control, including punishment, is called ______.
answer

Coercion and Its Fallout
question

________ punishment is often confused with ________ reinforcement.
answer

positive; negative
question

David Camp and colleagues found that even a delay of only _____ reduced the effectiveness of a punisher.
answer

2 seconds
question

Positive and negative punishment have in common that they both ________ the frequency of behavior.
answer

reduce
question

Although punishment can have negative side effects, there is evidence that it can also have positive side effects.
answer

True
question

The one process in the one-process theory of punishment is ________.
answer

operant learning
question

Generally speaking, the more intense a punisher, the _______.
answer

more it suppresses behavior
question

The two-process theory of punishment assumes that punishment involves ___________.
answer

Pavlovian and operant learning
question

When a student repeatedly behaves in an inappropriate way, probably the teacher’s first step should be to ______.
answer

try to discover what is reinforcing the behavior
question

When aversive events occur independently of behavior they are called _______
answer

non-contingent
question

When disciplining their son, Jacob, Mr. and Ms Grinch begin with an extremely mild form of punishment and gradually increase its strength if the offenses continue. This procedure is likely to result in _______.
answer

the use of excessively strong aversives
question

Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says “Mithithippi” or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells, “Idiot!” However, there is no evidence that Evelyn’s efforts to reduce the frequency of such mispronunciations have been effective. We can therefore conclude that ______.
answer

Charles’s behavior has not been punished
question

Harriet hears a noise in the kitchen and investigates. She finds the cookie jar in pieces on the floor and 5-year-old Willy standing nearby. Harriet knows what happened, but asks Willy anyway. Willy admits that he broke the jar while trying to get cookies. Harriet gives Willy a spanking. Willy is most likely to learn from this experience that _______.
answer

it doesn’t pay to tell the truth
question

In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as needed.
answer

False
question

Negative punishment is also sometimes called ______ training.
answer

penalty
question

Research has shown that abnormal behavior is often _______ .
answer

an inappropriate way of obtaining appropriate reinforcers
question

One problem with punishment is the tendency to imitate the use of punishment. Two other problems are________.
answer

all of the above
question

The term punishment, as used by behavior scientists, has nothing to do with retribution
answer

true
question

The use of punishers is so common that _______ concluded that “The world runs on fear.”
answer

Jack Michaels
question

When using punishment to suppress an undesirable behavior, it is important to provide alternative means of obtaining the reinforcers that have maintained that behavior.
answer

true
question

If a rat receives a shock each time it presses a lever, but not otherwise, we can say that _______.
answer

shock is contingent on lever pressing
question

David Camp and colleagues found that, compared to a two-second delay in punishment, a 30-second delay resulted in _______.
answer

about half as much response suppression
question

One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining reinforcement.
answer

true
question

Differential reinforcement is best used in combination with ______.
answer

extinction
question

The one-process theory of punishment goes back to ________.
answer

Thorndike
question

Frequent use of weak punishers is more effective than occasional use of intense punishers.
answer

false
question

An early theory of punishment proposed that response suppression occurred because aversives disrupt ongoing behavior.
answer

true
question

Positive punishment necessarily involves aversives.
answer

true
question

Farmer Gable had a problem with motorcyclists riding across his meadow land, tearing up sod and frightening his cattle. He installed barbed wire fencing in the area and no longer had a problem. Gable’s approach is best described as an example of _______.
answer

response prevention
question

In positive punishment, a stimulus that serves as a punisher is called a(n) _________.
answer

aversive
question

Abnormal behavior may persist despite aversive consequences because it also produces reinforcing consequences.
answer

true
question

The word positive in positive punishment refers to the fact that _______.
answer

something is added
question

Of the following procedures, the one that reinforces behavior that cannot be performed at the same time as the unwanted behavior is ______.
answer

DRI
question

One problem with extinction as a way of reducing the frequency of potentially harmful behavior is that _________.
answer

the behavior on extinction sometimes increases at first
question

Of the following procedures, the one that focuses on reducing the rate at which a behavior occurs is ________.
answer

DRL
question

Delaying delivery of a punisher is most likely to ______.
answer

reduce its effectiveness
question

The first formal studies of punishment were probably done by _________ .
answer

Thorndike
question

If Charles Catania’s thinking about reinforcement is applied to punishment, we can say that all of the following are true of punishment except _______.
answer

the consequence of the behavior must be negative
question

All of the following enhance the effectiveness of punishment except _______.
answer

increasing the reinforcer deprivation level
question

Positive punishment is most often confused with _______.
answer

negative reinforcement
question

Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says “Mithithippi” or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells, “Idiot!” However, there is no evidence that Evelyn’s efforts to reduce the frequency of such mispronunciations have been effective. We can therefore conclude that ______.
answer

Charles’s behavior has not been punished
question

One problem with punishment is the tendency to imitate the use of punishment. Two other problems are________.
answer

all of the above
question

One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining reinforcement.
answer

true
question

Of the following procedures, the one that reinforces behavior that cannot be performed at the same time as the unwanted behavior is ______.
answer

DRI
question

Although punishment can have negative side effects, there is evidence that it can also have positive side effects.
answer

true
question

Abnormal behavior may persist despite aversive consequences because it also produces reinforcing consequences.
answer

true
question

The main difference between positive and negative punishment is that in negative punishment a stimulus is_________.
answer

removed
question

In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as needed.
answer

false
question

One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining reinforcement.
answer

true
question

Positive and negative punishment have in common that they both ________ the frequency of behavior.
answer

reduce
question

Post-reinforcement pauses are now often referred to as _________.
answer

pre-ratio pauses
question

The study of reinforcement schedules suggests that the behavior we call stick-to-itiveness is largely the product of _________.
answer

reinforcement history
question

The rule describing the delivery of reinforcement is called a ________of reinforcement.
answer

Schedule
question

CRF is synonymous with _________.
answer

FR 1
question

The term ________ refers to the pattern and rate of performance produced by a particular reinforcement schedule.
answer

schedule effects
question

The schedule to use if you want to produce the most rapid learning of new behavior is _______.
answer

CRF
question

A reduction in response rate following reinforcement is called a _________.
answer

post-reinforcement pause
question

The schedule that is not an intermittent schedule is _________.
answer

FR 1
question

When food is the reinforcer, it is possible to stretch the ratio to the point at which an animal expends more energy than it receives.
answer

True
question

In a multiple schedule, the organism is forced to choose between two or more reinforcement schedules.
answer

False
question

Stanley wants to determine which of two reinforcement schedules is more attractive to rats. He trains a rat to press a lever for food, and then puts the rat into an experimental chamber containing two levers. Pressing one lever produces reinforcement on an FR 10 schedule; pressing the other lever produces reinforcement on an FI 10″ schedule. Lever pressing is on a _________.
answer

concurrent schedule
question

When a response is placed on extinction, there is often an increase in emotional behavior.
answer

True
question

A schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of more than one subject is a _________.
answer

cooperative schedule
question

Bill spends his summer in the city panhandling. Every day he takes a position on a busy corner and accosts passersby saying, “Can you spare some change?” Most people ignore him, but every now and then someone gives him money. Bill’s reinforcement schedule is best described as a _________.
answer

variable ratio schedule
question

If you increase the requirements for reinforcement too quickly you are likely to see evidence of ratio _______.
answer

strain
question

Things are going pretty well for George (see item 26) until he jumps from reinforcing every tenth response to reinforcing every 50th response. At this point, the pigeon responds erratically and nearly stops responding entirely. George’s pigeon is suffering from _________.
answer

ratio strain
question

__________ refers to the point at which a behavior stops or its rate falls off sharply.
answer

Break point
question

The more effort a behavior requires, the more times the behavior will be performed during extinction.
answer

Flase
question

George trains a pigeon to peck a disk by reinforcing each disk peck. Once the response is learned, George begins to cut back on the reinforcers. At first he reinforces every other response, then every third response, every fifth response, every tenth response, and so on. George is using a procedure called _________.
answer

stretching the ratio
question

The rate at which a response occurs, once the subject begins performing it, is called the _________.
answer

Run Rate
question

A classic work on reinforcement schedules is by _________ .
answer

Ferster and Skinner
question

When reinforcement is contingent on continuous performance of an activity, a __________. reinforcement schedule is in force.
answer

duration
question

In a _____ schedule, reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for some period of time.
answer

fixed duration
question

One explanation for the PRE implies that the effect is really an illusion. This is the _________.
answer

response unit hypothesis
question

In schedules research, VD stands for ________.
answer

variable duration
question

___________ schedules differ from other schedules in that the rules describing the contingencies change systematically.
answer

Progressive
question

In VI schedules, the reinforcer occurs periodically regardless of what the organism does.
answer

false
question

One effect of the extinction procedure is an increase in the variability of behavior.
answer

true
question

A schedule that does not require the performance of a particular behavior is the _________.
answer

FT schedule
question

Harlan Lane and Paul Shinkman put a college student’s behavior on extinction following VI reinforcement . The student performed the behavior 8,000 times without reinforcement.
answer

True
question

Resurgence may help account for _______.
answer

regression
question

According to the ________ hypothesis, the PRE occurs because it is difficult to distinguish between intermittent reinforcment and extinction.
answer

discrimination
question

Of the following, the schedule that most closely resembles noncontingent reinforcement is _________.
answer

FT
question

Choice involves ________ schedules.
answer

concurrent
question

Extinction often increases the variability of behavior.
answer

True
question

A chain schedule is most like a _________ schedule.
answer

tandem
question

The response unit hypothesis suggests that there really is a partial reinforcement effect.
answer

false
question

Williams found that the greater the number of reinforcements before extinction, the _______.
answer

greater the number of responses during extinction
question

When behavior is on a FR schedule, animals often discontinue working briefly following reinforcement. These periods are called ________.
answer

any of the above
question

Although important, the matching law is restricted to a narrow range of species, responses, reinforcers, and reinforcement schedules.
answer

false
question

Your text reports the case of a man who apparently made hundreds of harassing phone calls. The man’s behavior was most likley on a(n) _________.
answer

VR schedule
question

One everyday example of a VR schedule is the lottery.
answer

true
question

The reappearance of previously effective behavior during extinction is called ____________.
answer

resurgence
question

Often the initial effect of an extinction procedure is an increase in the behavior called a(n) extinction ________.
answer

burst
question

The thinner of two schedules, VR 5 and VR 10, is VR 5.
answer

false
question

In one form of the matching law, BA stands for the behavior under consideration and B0 represents _______.
answer

all behaviors other than BA
question

The explanation of the PRE that puts greatest emphasis on internal cues is the ________ hypothesis.
answer

frustration
question

FT and VT are both kinds of ______ reinforcement.
answer

noncontingent
question

The explanation of the PRE that puts greatest emphasis on internal cues is the ________ hypothesis.
answer

frustration
question

John spent his summer picking cantaloupes for a farmer. The farmer paid John a certain amount for every basket of cantaloupes picked. John worked on a _________.
answer

fixed ratio schedule
question

In CRF, the ratio of reinforcers to responses is 1 to 1; in FR -1, the ratio is _______.
answer

1 to 1
question

_____________ led the way in the study of choice.
answer

Richard Herrnstein
question

A given reinforcement schedule tends to produce a distinctive pattern and rate of performance. These are called schedule _______.
answer

effects
question

CRF stands for ________.
answer

Continuous reinforcement
question

Reinforcement reduces creativity because creativity requires new forms of behavior.
answer

False
question

The classic experiments on insightful problem solving were done with chimpanzees by _________.
answer

Wolfgang Kohler
question

Studies of learned helplessness use the ______ procedure.
answer

escape training
question

Wagner and Morris studied ___________ behavior with the help of a mechanical clown named Bobo.
answer

superstitious
question

Kohler thought that insight was achieved suddenly, but other work suggests that it is achieved gradually.
answer

True
question

In her work with porpoises, Karen Pryor gradually realized that what she had to do to get novel behavior from the animals was to _______.
answer

reinforce novel behavior
question

Koichi Ono got superstitious behavior in university students by providing points noncontingently at regular intervals. One student ended up repeatedly ______.
answer

jumping to touch the ceiling
question

An aversive stimulus is one that any animal will __________.
answer

avoid
question

Some studies show that offering rewards reduces creativity. Research by Robert Eisenberger and others suggests that this is because in these studies _______.
answer

the rewards were not contingent on creative behavior
question

Learned helplessness may be avoided through _______ training.
answer

immunization
question

Skinner and two students discovered shaping in the course of teaching a pigeon to ________.
answer

bowl
question

Exposure to __________aversives leads to learned helplessness.
answer

inescapable
question

Shaping is the reinforcement of successive _______ of a desired behavior.
answer

approximations
question

Stuart Vyse’s book on superstition is called _______.
answer

Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition
question

Harlow’s data show that insightful solutions may be arrived at _________ as a result of a number of learning experiences.
answer

slowly
question

All of the following are useful tips for shaping behavior except ________.
answer

never back up
question

A _____________ is a series of behaviors, the last of which produces reinforcement.
answer

behavioral chain
question

In shaping, it is sometimes a good idea to back up– i.e., to reinforce earlier approximations of the desired behavior.
answer

True
question

Shaping is the reinforcement of successive _______.
answer

approximations of a desired behavior
question

The solution to a problem is behavior that produces_______.
answer

reinforcement/reinforcers (176)
question

____________ is the tendency to persist at a problem as a result of previous reinforcement of persistance at difficult problems.
answer

learned industrialness
question

A ____________ is a situation in which reinforcement is available but the behavior necessary to produce it is not.
answer

problem
question

The first step in building a behavior chain is to do a ______.
answer

task analysis
question

Robert Eisenberger and his colleagues demonstrated that reinforcement can establish learned ______.
answer

industriousness
question

Creative behavior is a function of its consequences.
answer

True
question

The author of your text probably believes that most childhood tantrums are due to unintentional shaping by adults.
answer

True
question

One tip for successful shaping of behavior is to provide large reinforcers.
answer

False
question

__________ behavior is that which occurs even though it does not produce reinforcers.
answer

superstitious
question

Normally, the first step in chaining is task _______ .
answer

analysis
question

Superstitous behavior is behavior that occurs repeatedly despite the fact that it __________.
answer

does not produce the reinforcers that maintain it
question

Successive ____________ are used in differential reinforcement or shaping paradigm.
answer

approximations of a desired behavior
question

Insightful problem solving is best viewed as an example of _______.
answer

operant learning
question

The experiment by Epstein and colleagues demonstrated that insightful problem solving is largely the product of ________.
answer

reinforcement
question

Task analysis is the procedure of identifying the component elements of a __________.
answer

behavior chain
question

In shaping, it is sometimes a good idea to back up– i.e., to reinforce earlier approximations of the desired behavior.
answer

True
question

The author of your text probably believes that most childhood tantrums are due to unintentional shaping by adults.
answer

True
question

Kohler thought that insight was achieved suddenly, but other work suggests that it is achieved gradually.
answer

True
question

One idea for preventing learned helplessness is _______ training.
answer

immunization
question

Karen Pryor demonstrated that she could reinforce novel behavior. Her subjects were ________.
answer

porpoises
question

Meerkats train their young using procedures that resemble shaping.
answer

True
question

__________ is the tendency to give up on a problem as a result of previous exposure to insoluable problems.
answer

learned helplessness
question

Donald Zimmerman found that a buzzer became a positive reinforcer after it was repeatedly paired with ______.
answer

water
question

The Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert may have involved operant as well as Pavlovian learning because the loud noise ______.
answer

occurred as Albert reached for the rat
question

All of the following are recognized kinds of reinforcers except ______.
answer

classical
question

Secondary reinforcers are also called _______ reinforcers.
answer

conditioned
question

The experimental chamber developed by Skinner is often called a _________.
answer

Skinner Box
question

Operant learning probably always involves Pavlovian conditioning as well.
answer

True
question

________ gave Skinner’s experimental chamber the name, “Skinner box.”
answer

Clark Hull
question

Reinforcement is often said to increase the frequency of a behavior, but research suggestss that any feature of a behavior (e.g., intensity, duration, form, etc.) can be strengthened if a reinforcer can be made contingent on that feature.
answer

True
question

The Premack principle says that reinforcement involves _______.
answer

a relation between behaviors
question

Positive reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior.
answer

True
question

Another term for operant is instrumental.
answer

True
question

Positive reinforcement is sometimes called ______ learning.
answer

reward
question

Positive reinforcement is sometimes called _______.
answer

reward learning
question

Money is a good example of a _______ reinforcer.
answer

generalized
question

Thorndike complained that _______ evidence provided a “supernormal psychology of animals.”
answer

anecdotal
question

________ demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could be reinforcing.
answer

Olds and Milner
question

The opposite of a conditioned reinforcer is a ______.
answer

primary reinforcer
question

Operant learning is sometimes called ________ learning.
answer

instrumental
question

Thorndike emphasized that we learn mainly from _______.
answer

success
question

The one thing that all reinforcers have in common is that they _______.
answer

strengthen behavior
question

Sylvia believes that the reinforcement properties of an event depend on the extent to which it provides access to high probability behavior. Sylvia is most likely an advocate of _______ theory.
answer

relative value
question

Thorndike made important contributions to all of the following fields except _____.
answer

social psychology
question

Unexpected reinforcers produce more dopamine than expected reinforcers.
answer

True
question

With reinforcement, it is easy for a person to lower his blood pressure
answer

False
question

Operant learning may also be referred to as _______.
answer

instrumental learning
question

Douglas Anger proposed that there is a signal in the Sidman avoidance procedure. The signal is ________.
answer

Time
question

According to the one-process theory of avoidance, the avoidance response is reinforced by _______.
answer

a reduction in the number of aversive events
question

_______ reinforcers are those that have been arranged by someone.
answer

Contrived
question

Negative reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior.
answer

True
question

According to Skinner, people are rewarded, but behavior is reinforced.
answer

True
question

Schlinger and Blakely found that the reinforcing power of a delayed reinforcer could be increased by ________.
answer

preceding the reinforcer with a stimulus
question

Negative reinforcement is sometimes called ______ learning.
answer

Escape avoidance
question

An action that improves the effectiveness of a reinforcer is called a ______.
answer

motivating operation
question

The level of deprivation is less important when the reinforcer used is a(n) _________reinforcer.
answer

Secondary
question

The area of the brain that seems to be associated with reinforcement is called the reward _______.
answer

pathway/ circuit
question

Vomiting is ordinarily an involuntary response, but sometimes it can be modified by operant procedures.
answer

True
question

Negative reinforcement and punishment are synonyms
answer

False
question

_______ theory assumes that a behavior becomes reinforcing when we are prevented from performing it as ofen as we normally would.
answer

Response deprivation
question

In _______ _ a response is followed by the withdrawal of, or reduction in the intensity of, an aversive stimulus.
answer

Negative reinforcement
question

People can learn to behave randomly provided that reinforcers are made contingent on random acts.
answer

True
question

Premack’s name is most logically associated with _______.
answer

relative value theory
question

Charles Catania identified three characteristics that define reinforcement. These include all of the following except _______.
answer

the consequence of the behavior must be positive
question

Reinforcers such as praise, positive feedback, and smiles are called ______ reinforcers.
answer

Secondary/conditioned
question

The _______ principle states that high probability behavior reinforces low probability behavior.
answer

Premack
question

Operant learning is often described as trial-and-error learning, but Thorndike argued that behavior was selected by ______.
answer

success
question

Negative reinforcement is also called _______.
answer

escape-avoidance training
question

The author of your text calls Skinner the ______.
answer

Darwin of behavior science
question

Clark Hull’s explanation of reinforcement assumes that reinforcers _____.
answer

reduce a drive
question

A general assumption of behavioral research is that any feature of a behavior may be strengthened by reinforcement, so long as reinforcement can be made contingent on that feature
answer

True
question

In operant learning, the word contingency usually refers to the degree of correlation between a behavior and a consequence.
answer

True
question

Studies of delayed reinforcement document the importance of ______.
answer

contiguity
question

The more you increase the size of a reinforcer, the less benefit you get from the increase.
answer

True
question

In one of Thorndike’s puzzle boxes, a door would fall open when a cat stepped on a treadle, thus allowing the cat to reach food outside the box. Eventually the cat would step on the treadle as soon as it was put into the box. Thorndike concluded that ________.
answer

treadle stepping increased because it had a “satisfying effect”
question

Studies demonstrate that operant learning is as effective with involuntary behavior, such as the salivary reflex, as it is with voluntary behavior
answer

False
question

Mary decides to try to modify Pearl’s behavior (see above item). She and the rest of the family refuse to respond to any comment or request by Pearl that they know she is capable of expressing in English. For example, if during dinner she says, “Pass the potatoes” in English, she gets potatoes; if she says it in her native language she gets ignored. The procedure being used to change Pearl’s behavior is ______.
answer

positive reinforcement
question

Pavlovian and operant learning often occur together.
answer

True
question

Clark Hull’s name is associated with the _______ theory of reinforcement.
answer

drive-reduction
question

_____is a neurotransmitter that seems to be important in reinforcement.
answer

Dopamine
question

The number of operant procedures indicated in the contingency square is ______.
answer

four
question

According to ___________ theory, schoolchildren are eager to go to recess because they have been deprived of the opportunity to exercise.
answer

response deprivation
question

Skinner describes some of his most important research in _______.
answer

The Behavior of Organisms
question

The use of classical conditioning to change feelings (such as likes and dislikes) is sometimes called ___________.
answer

evaluative conditioning
question

Political campaign ads attempt to use conditioning by pairing their candidate with stimuli that evoke positive emotions and by pairing the opponent candidate with stimuli that evoke negative emotions.
answer

True
question

Pavlovian conditioning accounts for negative emotions, but not for positive ones.
answer

False
question

The most recent variation of counterconditioning involves__________.
answer

virtual reality
question

Shepard Siegel’s work suggests that some deaths attributed to _____________ are actually the result of conditioning.
answer

drug overdose
question

Staats and Staats demonstrated that both positive and negative biases could be established through conditioning.
answer

True
question

Blue jays acquire a taste aversion for _________.
answer

monarch butterflies
question

The first person to use counterconditioning to treat a phobia was probably__________.
answer

Mary Cover Jones
question

Mary Cover Jones cured Peter’s fear of ______.
answer

Rabbit
question

Elnora Stuart and colleagues paired slides of pleasant scenes with__________.
answer

Toothpaste
question

Barry Maletzky treated exhibitionists by having them imagine that they were about to perform the inappropriate behavior, and then _______.
answer

exposing them to an unpleasant odor
question

Studies of taste aversion demonstrate that conditioning can occur despite a long inter-stimulus Interval
answer

True
question

Diana Woodruff-Pak found that people who condition slowly are more likely to develop ___________.
answer

dementia
question

People are most likely to tolerate painful and humiliating events if these events consistently __________.
answer

precede positive events
question

VRET owes a debt to the work of Mary Cover Jones.
answer

True
question

Peter’s fear, like Albert’s, was the result of conditioning by a researcher.
answer

False
question

VRET stands for _________.
answer

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
question

Pavlovian conditioning is an adaptive mechanism but can nevertheless result in the acquisition of maladaptive behavior.
answer

True
question

The studies of Carolyn and Arthur Staats demonstrating that neutral words paired with pleasant words become pleasant are examples of__________.
answer

higher-order conditioning
question

The CS and US in the Little Albert experiment were a __________, respectively.
answer

rat and loud sound
question

Blue jays usually do not eat Monarch butterflies. This is an example of a(n) __________.
answer

conditioned taste aversion
question

Barbara Rothbaum and colleagues used virtual reality exposure therapy to treat a fear of __________.
answer

Flying
question

Exposure therapy is really a form of counterconditioning.
answer

True
question

Prejudice is an example of a CER, or __________.
answer

Conditioned Emotional Response
question

Arne Ohman and his colleagues used conditioning to establish a fear of ______ in college students.
answer

snakes b.heights c. closed spaces d. darkness
question

One VRET program for treating spider phobias is called ______.
answer

SpiderWorld
question

The CS in the Little Albert experiment was a __________.
answer

Rat
question

Pavlov found that when he paired painful stimuli with food, the dog came to show no distress at the painful stimuli. This experiment may help explain __________ behavior in humans.
answer

masochistic
question

Garcia’s interest in the role of learning in taste aversions may have begun when he became sick after eating ____________.
answer

licorice
question

Research shows that when women receiving chemotherapy return to the hospital, they show __________.
answer

decreased immune functioning
question

Senatorial candidate Smith’s popularity increased dramatically after he was seen on television shaking hands with a very popular public figure. This is probably an example of__________.
answer

emotional conditioning
question

Conditioned Reflexes and Psychiatry was written by __________.
answer

Ivan Pavlov
question

If a person sneezes after coming close to a realistic-looking artificial flower, you can be pretty sure that he or she is__________.
answer

allergic to pollen
question

A follow-up of exhibitionists treated by Barry Maletzky with a variation of aversion therapy showed that those who had undergone treatment involuntarily ____________.
answer

improved as much as voluntary patients
question

Garcia’s first experiment on taste aversion was unusual in that the ________.
answer

interval between CS and US was several minutes
question

The phenomenon of __________ suggests that we should be more likely to develop aversions to novel foods than to familiar ones.
answer

latent inhibition
question

Researchers tried to change the preferences for two brands of ____________ but were unsuccessful when the subjects were strongly attached to a brand.
answer

Soft drinks
question

In treating Peter’s fear of rabbits, Jones used a procedure called__________.
answer

counterconditioning
question

Peter’s fear of a rabbit was established in a laboratory.
answer

False
question

In ______ therapy, a stimulus that elicits an inappropriate response is paired with a negative stimulus such as shock or an emetic drug.
answer

aversion
question

Morgan Doran and his colleagues found that after taste aversion training, ___________ would remove weeds from a vineyard without damaging the grape plants.
answer

Sheep
question

Thomas Parish and colleagues reduced the bias of white American children toward the Vietnamese by pairing images of Vietnamese with________.
answer

Positive words
question

If an aversive stimulus, such as a noxious odor, regularly precedes a pleasant stimulus, such as a tasty meal, the former stimulus may lose much of its unpleasant quality.
answer

True
question

The CS and US in the Garcia et al. experiment were__________.
answer

flavored water and radiation
question

Pavlovian conditioning suggests that stimuli associated with chemotherapy (such as the clinic where the patient is treated) might suppress the patient’s system.
answer

Immune
question

In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented _______.
answer

by a different teacher
question

Harriet gives a monkey a choice between two blocks of wood, one rough and the other smooth. If the animal selects the rough block, it receives a raisin; if it picks the smooth one, it receives nothing. When the animal regularly picks the rough block, Harriet gives the animal a choice between the rough block of wood and a new block of wood that is even rougher than the first. You predict that the monkey will _______.
answer

pick the new, very rough block
question

Robert Allan trained pigeons to peck pictures containing human figures. He found that birds ______.
answer

pecked the human figures
question

Response maintenance can be considered generalization across _________.
answer

time
question

The kind of generalization your text focuses on is ______.
answer

stimulus generalization
question

Arthur Bachrach and colleagues demonstrated generalization of therapy in their treatment of a woman suffering from an eating disorder called ________.
answer

anorexia
question

Robert Eisenberger found that rewarding a high level of effort on one task increases the level of effort on other tasks. This illustrates _______.
answer

generalization
question

When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an SD, but not in the presence of an S-, we can say the behavior is _______.
answer

under stimulus control
question

The tendency of changes in one behavior to spread to other behaviors is called __________ generalization.
answer

response
question

You test Mary’s drawing ability by having her draw fruit, animals, landscapes, and houses. Mary then takes a drawing class in which she learns to draw human figures. You decide to test Mary again to see if her drawing ability has improved. You predict that if she shows any improvement at all it will be at drawing _______.
answer

animals
question

Judy gives a monkey a choice between a sphere and various other three-dimensional shapes. Each time the animal selects the sphere, it receives a grape; if it selects the other object, it receives nothing. Judy is engaged in _______.
answer

concept training
question

Frederica believes that generalization occurs because of a lack of experience with stimuli that differ from the SD. Frederica is probably most comfortable with the theory of generalization and discrimination proposed by _______.
answer

Lashley and Wade
question

In the ________ discrimination training procedure, the discriminative stimuli alternate.
answer

successive
question

In ______, the task is to select from two or more alternatives the stimulus that matches a standard.
answer

matching to sample
question

If a person smokes a pack of cigarettes a day, in a year, cigarette smoking is reinforced ________.
answer

73,000 times
question

An SD is analogous to a ______.
answer

CS+
question

An ________ is a stimulus that indicates that a particular behavior will be reinforced.
answer

SD
question

Generalization is a by-product of learning that nearly always occurs spontaneously.
answer

False
question

Howard studied hard for his math test and found that what he learned helped him on his physics test. Howard benefited from _______.
answer

generalization
question

Spence’s theory anticipated the discovery of the peak shift phenomenon.
answer

True
question

With discrimination training, pigeons have learned to discriminate between paintings by Monet and Picasso, even when the pictures were ones they had never seen before.
answer

True
question

According to your text, mental rotation data are best viewed as evidence of ______.
answer

generalization
question

When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an SD, but not in the presence of an S-, we can say the behavior is _______.
answer

under stimulus control
question

Harriet gives a monkey a choice between two blocks of wood, one rough and the other smooth. If the animal selects the rough block, it receives a raisin; if it picks the smooth one, it receives nothing. When the animal regularly picks the rough block, Harriet gives the animal a choice between the rough block of wood and a new block of wood that is even rougher than the first. You predict that the monkey will _______.
answer

pick the new, very rough block
question

The findings of Eisenberger and others concerning increasing effort is called _______.
answer

learned industriousness
question

Arthur Bachrach and colleagues demonstrated generalization of therapy in their treatment of a woman suffering from an eating disorder called ________.
answer

anorexia
question

Bill conducts an experiment in which he pairs the word psychologist with words such as nasty, evil, and corrupt. Later Bill asks his subjects to give their opinion of various professions by rating them on a scale from very positive to very negative. Of the following professions, _______ will probably receive the lowest rating.
answer

social worker
question

Oddity ________ is a form of MTS in which reinforcement is contingent on selecting a stimulus that is different from the sample.
answer

matching
question

The CS+ of Pavlovian discrimination training is analogous to the ___ /___of operant discrimination training.
answer

SD/S+
question

The effects of reinforcement generalize, but the effects of extinction and punishment do not
answer

False
question

In a classic study, Guttman and Kalish trained pigeons to peck a disc of a particular color, and then gave them the opportunity to peck ________.
answer

discs of various colors
question

Honig and Slivka trained pigeons to peck discs of various colors. After this they began shocking the birds when they pecked a disc of a particular color. This __________.
answer

reduced pecking discs of all colors, but especially those that resembled the punished color
question

Frederick believes that discrimination training produces inhibitory as well as excitatory gradients of generalization. Frederick is most likely an advocate of the theory of generalization and discrimination proposed by _______.
answer

Spence
question

Concepts involve both generalization and discrimination.
answer

True
question

Generalization is sometimes called _________.
answer

transfer
question

When six-month old Joey cries, his mother, Martha, can tell what he needs even before she goes to him. Martha’s skill is an example of ______.
answer

discrimination
question

Dweck and Repucci had teachers give students unsolvable problems, and then problems that could be solved. The result was that the students __________.
answer

failed to solve the problems in the second set
question

Jill trains her dog, Boozer, to come to her when she snaps her fingers. She snaps her fingers, then gives the dog a bit of food when it approaches. Finger snapping is a(n) _________
answer

SD
question

A dog learns to salivate at the sound of a soft buzzer, but not at the sound of a loud buzzer. After training, the dog is presented with buzzers of various volumes. You predict that the dog will salivate most in response to a buzzer that is _______.
answer

slightly softer than the CS+
question

In ________ discrimination training an S∆ is introduced in a form so weak that the organism does not respond to it.
answer

errorless
question

The person whose name is most associated with errorless discrimination training is _______.
answer

Herbert Terrace
question

Providing different consequences for different responses can enhance discrimination training. This finding is called the _______.
answer

differential outcomes effect
question

In stimulus generalization, a behavior “travels” from one situation to another.
answer

True
question

In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented _______.
answer

by a different teacher
question

In _______ discrimination training, the SD and S∆ are presented at the same time.
answer

simultaneous
question

In errorless discrimination training, _______.
answer

the S∆ is introduced in very weak form and its strength is gradually increased
question

The flatter the generalization curve, the greater the degree of generalization.
answer

True
question

In _______, the task is to select from two or more alternatives the stimulus that is different from a standard.
answer

oddity matching
question

Robert Eisenberger found that rewarding a high level of effort on one task increases the level of effort on other tasks. This illustrates _______.
answer

generalization
question

Steven, a drug abuser, is released from a clinic. He is free of drugs, and has sworn never to take drugs again. He returns to his old neighborhood. You predict that within six months, Steven will ______.
answer

be abusing drugs again
question

Honig and Slivka trained pigeons to peck discs of various colors. After this they began shocking the birds when they pecked a disc of a particular color. This __________.
answer

reduced pecking discs of all colors, but especially those that resembled the punished color
question

In _______ discrimination training, the SD and S∆ are presented at the same time.
answer

simultaneous
question

An ________ is a stimulus that indicates that a particular behavior will be reinforced.
answer

SD
question

Bill conducts an experiment in which he pairs the word psychologist with words such as nasty, evil, and corrupt. Later Bill asks his subjects to give their opinion of various professions by rating them on a scale from very positive to very negative. Of the following professions, _______ will probably receive the lowest rating.
answer

social worker
question

In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented _______.
answer

by a different teacher
question

The CS+ of Pavlovian discrimination training is analogous to the ___ /___of operant discrimination training.
answer

SD/S+
question

Harriet gives a monkey a choice between two blocks of wood, one rough and the other smooth. If the animal selects the rough block, it receives a raisin; if it picks the smooth one, it receives nothing. When the animal regularly picks the rough block, Harriet gives the animal a choice between the rough block of wood and a new block of wood that is even rougher than the first. You predict that the monkey will _______.
answer

pick the new, very rough block
question

Howard studied hard for his math test and found that what he learned helped him on his physics test. Howard benefited from _______.
answer

generalization
question

With discrimination training, pigeons have learned to discriminate between paintings by Monet and Picasso, even when the pictures were ones they had never seen before.
answer

True
question

Herrnstein and others trained pigeons to respond to images of people. The researchers did this by pinpointing a single defining feature (such as hair) on which the birds could discriminate humans from other objects.
answer

False
question

Studies of interference often involve learning pairs of words. This procedure is called paired _______ learning.
answer

associate
question

The “man who couldn’t forget” was studied by__________.
answer

Luria
question

Marjory memorized her part in the school play thoroughly in her apartment, but found that she couldn’t remember her lines at rehearsal. Her trouble is consistent with the effects of context cues.
answer

True
question

Bob is introduced to Matilda at a party. A few minutes later he is introduced to Harriet. When he meets Matilda again, he can’t recall her name. This is most likely an example of _______ interference.
answer

retroactive
question

When performance varies with an organism’s physiological condition, it is said to be _______ .
answer

state-dependent
question

Endel Tulving said that _____ memories have to do with “knowledge of the world.”
answer

semantic
question

In one of Rovee-Collier`s experiments with babies and mobiles, after a retention interval there was no sign of forgetting when the context was the same as that during training.
answer

True
question

Memories that cannot be expressed are called _____.
answer

nondeclarative
question

When the task is to identify stimuli to which the subject was exposed earlier, the measure of forgetting used is called_______.
answer

recognition
question

When forgetting occurs because the environment during recall is different from the environment during training, it is said to be ____________.
answer

cue-dependent
question

A system for learning with flash cards is known by the acronym____________.
answer

SAFMEDS
question

One measure of forgetting is called delayed matching to sample. This procedures could be considered a form of____________.
answer

prompted recall
question

The first person to argue that the passage of time does not cause forgetting was probably __________.
answer

McGeoch
question

To measure forgetting, Ebbinghaus used the ____________ method.
answer

Relearning
question

Another term for episodic memory is ____ memory.
answer

autobiographical
question

The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of learning.
answer

True
question

Harry Bahrick’s studies of forgetting have involved retention inervals of up to _______.
answer

five decades
question

Declarative memories include _______ and _______ memories.
answer

semantic; episodic
question

The length of the retention interval is unrelated to the degree of forgetting.
answer

False
question

Forgetting is a deterioration in learned performance following a period without practice.
answer

True
question

Loftus found that eyewitness reports are influenced by the words used to ask about the event. In one experiment, she found that use of the word “smashed” produced higher estimates of car speed than use of the word____________.
answer

hit
question

Forgetting can be measured as a flattening of the generalization gradient, a procedure called gradient____________.
answer

degradation
question

Forgetting is the deterioration of ____________ .
answer

Performance
question

According to the _____________ metaphor, experiences are stashed in the brain like photographs in an album.
answer

storage
question

Forgetting can be studied by requiring the subject to match a stimulus presented earlier, a procedure called ____________.
answer

DMTS
question

Sir Frederick Barlett’s classic study of forgetting used the story, _________.
answer

The War of the Ghosts
question

The term _______ memory refers to learned behavior that can be expressed, usually in words.
answer

declarative
question

The period between the end of a learning experience and its recall is called the _______ interval.
answer

retention
question

The first person to demonstrate the relationship between forgetting and degree of learning was probably____________ .
answer

Ebbinghaus
question

The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of ____________.
answer

Learning
question

It turns out that Jack (see item 7) can’t remember anything that happened from the time he and Jill started up the hill. Jill takes Jack up the hill again and finds that he remembers seeing the well before. Jill is measuring forgetting by using ____________.
answer

prompted recall
question

The work of Levine and Murphy suggests that people are more likely to forget what they read if they ____________.
answer

Disagree with it
question

The measure of forgetting called gradient degradation has to do with extinction.
answer

False
question

The Chase and Simon study comparing chess masters and ordinary players showed that when chess pieces were arranged in random order, ____________ .
answer

chess masters and ordinary players forgot about the same amount
question

The name Benton Underwood is associated with paired associate learning.
answer

True
question

A study of immobilized cockroaches showed the importance of ________________ in forgetting.
answer

retroactive interference
question

Jack and Jill go up a hill to fetch a pail of water. Jack falls down and breaks his crown and Jill thinks he may have suffered a concussion. To test his memory, she asks him if he remembers what happened. Jill is measuring forgetting by the method known as ____________.
answer

Free recall
question

When measuring forgetting using the extinction method, the behavior studied is ___________.
answer

put on extinction after the retention interval
question

In _________ learning, two stimuli, A and B, are presented, and the task is then to recall B when presented with A.
answer

paired associate
question

Endel Tulving said that _____ memories have to do with “knowledge of the world.”
answer

semantic
question

In _________ learning, two stimuli, A and B, are presented, and the task is then to recall B when presented with A.
answer

paired associate
question

The names of the Great Lakes can be recalled with help of the acronym, _______.
answer

HOMES
question

When what we learned on Monday interferes with our ability to recall what we learned the following Tuesday, we speak of ____________.
answer

proactive interference
question

Jack and Jill go up a hill to fetch a pail of water. Jack falls down and breaks his crown and Jill thinks he may have suffered a concussion. To test his memory, she asks him if he remembers what happened. Jill is measuring forgetting by the method known as ____________.
answer

free recall
question

Declarative knowledge is also called explicit knowledge.
answer

True
question

The measure of forgetting called gradient degradation has to do with extinction.
answer

False
question

The Chase and Simon study comparing chess masters and ordinary players showed that when chess pieces were arranged in random order, ____________ .
answer

chess masters and ordinary players forgot about the same amount
question

Bob is introduced to Matilda at a party. A few minutes later he is introduced to Harriet. When he meets Matilda again, he can’t recall her name. This is most likely an example of _______ interference.
answer

retroactive
question

The “savings method” is one way of measuring forgetting.
answer

True
question

The first person to demonstrate the relationship between forgetting and degree of learning was probably____________ .
answer

Ebbinghaus
question

Clark’s nutcrackers apparently recall the location of something like _________ food caches.
answer

2,000
question

Meaningful material is forgotten less readily than nonsense material. This shows the importance of ____________.
answer

previous learning
question

When forgetting occurs because the environment during recall is different from the environment during training, it is said to be ____________.
answer

cue-dependent
question

Kamil and Balda found that Clark’s nutcrackers could recall the location of food caches for up to ____________.
answer

6 months
question

Riding a bicycle is an example of _____ memory.
answer

procedural
question

The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of learning.
answer

True
question

Forgetting can be measured as a flattening of the generalization gradient, a procedure called gradient____________.
answer

degradation
question

Allen and Beatrice Gardner taught a chimpanzee to ____.
answer

use sign language
question

Harry and Martha Frank found that on barrier problems dogs did not perform as well as ____.
answer

wolves
question

Substances that damage the nervous system are called ____.
answer

neurotoxins
question

John has difficulty training a raccoon to pick up coins and put them in a bank. It is most likely that ____.
answer

the raccoon was contraprepared to learn this task
question

Learning is of vital importance because so many problems that face society involve ____.
answer

behavior
question

Joseph Wolpe has raised doubts about the idea that people are ____.
answer

prepared to acquire certain phobias
question

Organisms differ in their readiness to learn certain tasks
answer

continuum of preparedness
question

Robert Tryon’s work demonstrates the role of heredity in ____.
answer

maze learning
question

The psychologist who mistakenly believed that learned behavior could be inherited was ____.
answer

McDougall
question

____ was one of the first to study imprinting.
answer

Konrad Lorenz
question

Efforts to teach chimps to talk probably failed because ____.
answer

of differences in anatomical structures/physical structure
question

Keller and Marion Breland are known for their article named ____.
answer

“The Misbehavior of Organisms”
question

Garcia and Koelling paired water with radiation. They found that rats avoided ____.
answer

tasty water if they were made sick by radiation and bright/noisy water if they had been shocked
question

Experiments in which young monkeys were reared in isolation from their mothers illustrates the importance of ____ periods for social development.
answer

critical
question

The name most associated with inheritance of acquired characteristics is ____.
answer

?
question

Learning does/doesn’t always mean progress.
answer

doesn’t
question

When a species is unlikely to learn a response, it is ____ to learn.
answer

question

The idea that an enriched environment in childhood can produce high intelligence is supported by ____.
answer

critical periods?
question

Then tendency to revert to a fixed (or modal) action pattern is called ____.
answer

instinctive drift
question

The person who suggests that humans may be biologically prepared to learn a language is ____.
answer

Lenneberg
question

Merely imagining an event sometimes convinces people the event took place, a phenomenon called ____.
answer

imagination inflation
question

True/False: Fixed action patterns and other innate behavioral tendencies affect the course of learning.
answer

True
question

An animal that can learn to perform one trick is sure to learn another trick of similar complexity.
answer

False
question

When performance varies with an organism’s physiological state, it is said to be ____ dependent.
answer

state
question

Researchers have found organisms differ in their readiness to learn certain tasks. Martin Seligman called this tendency ____.
answer

continuum of preparedness
question

Kendler, et al. found evidence that phobias ____.
answer

?
question

Imagination inflation is probably an example of ____.
answer

?
question

Armadillos curl up into a ball when attacked. It’s taught to curl at the sound of a buzzer. This is known as ____.
answer

preparedness
question

As animals become experienced in an avoidance task, ____.
answer

visible signs of fear decrease
question

Gardner and Gardner showed that the failure of chimpanzees to learn to speak may be due more to differences in ____ than in learning ability.
answer

anatomy
question

Dogs are typically bred by breeders based on physical appearance and temperament, not learning ability. Wolves are products of ____, and learning ability likely contributes to their survival.
answer

natural selection
question

Substances that damage neural tissues are called ____.
answer

neurotoxins
question

The Brelands showed that ____ might facilitate learning in one situation and inhibit in another.
answer

heredity/genetic factors
question

Martin Seligman proposed the ____.
answer

continuum of preparedness
question

Stages for optimum learning are referred to as ____.
answer

critical periods
question

The tendency of an animal to revert to a fixed action pattern is a phenomenon called ____.
answer

instinctive drift
question

When animals have an inclination to behave in certain ways, this means they will learn some things with ease while learning other things with difficulty. These tendencies can be characterized as a ____.
answer

continuum of preparedness
question

An animal comes to a learning situation ____, ____, or ____.
answer

genetically prepared to learn, unprepared, contraprepared
question

When an animal is genetically ____ to learn, case learning proceeds quickly.
answer

prepared
question

When an animal is genetically ____ to learn, learning proceeds steadily, but more slowly.
answer

unprepared
question

When an animal is genetically ____ to learn, learning is slow and irregular.
answer

contraprepared
question

Cook and Mineka had monkeys watch viedotapes of monkeys reacting fearfully to either snakes or flowers. The observers acquired a fear of ____ but not to ____.
answer

snakes, flowers
question

True/False: People have an innate disposition to fear certain kinds of stimuli.
answer

True

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