Psy 309 Final Exam – Ch. 1-13

Flashcard maker : Lisa Currey
The gollypod, a fictitious aquatic animal, breaks out in a cold sweat whenever exposed to the sun. This reaction is most likely ______.
a reflex
The evidence from biology suggests that the first “eyes” were not eyes at all, but_______
light-sensitive cells
Mutations provide new variations, which if _______, will be selected.
adaptive
A reflex is ________ .
a relationship between an event and a simple response
Work on selective breeding in ___________ over a period of 40 years shows that behavioral characteristics can be selectively bred so that the descendants behave more like a different species than like their own ancestors.
foxes
The dispute over the relative importance of genetics and learning is often called the ________ debate.
Nature-Nurture
Learning is a change in behavior due to ________.
experience
Experience refers to ________
changes in the environment
A stimulus is an environmental event that is capable of affecting _______.
Behavior
The author of your text evidently believes that _______.
learning is a way of adapting to change
The quotation, “Change is the only constant,” is attributed to ______.
Lucretius
Modal action patterns are induced by events called ______.
releasers
The chief advantage of learning over natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that learning ________ .
is faster
Darwin suggested that natural selection is analogous to
breeding.
The brown-headed cowbird puts its eggs in other birds’s nests. This is an example of a ______.
modal action pattern/instinct
Hart and Risley did a longitudinal study of the influence of the home verbal environment on children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. They found that _______.
children whose parents talked to them a lot later scored higher on IQ tests
The cowbird deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. This is most likely a ________.
modal action pattern
Steven says that he was very nervous when he first attended college classes, but now he feels quite relaxed. Steven’s loss of anxiety is most likely an example of _______.
learning
A thumbtack stuck in a bulletin board several feet away is less likely to affect your behavior than a thumbtack placed on the chair on which you are sitting. Even though both examples involve a thumbtack, the second is more likely to qualify as a ________.
stimulus
Learning is evolved _________.
modifiability
Lee Cronk wrote an article on how evolved behavior can prove nonadaptive when the environment changes. The article was called ________.
Old Dogs, Old Tricks
Darwin was influenced by the book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, by
Darwin was influenced by the book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, by
There is debate between psychologists on the position that learning refers to durable changes. What is the problem with this position?
The concept of duration is vague.
Zing Yang Kuo found that 86% of kittens that saw their mothers kill rats later killed rats themselves. He found that _____ of kittens that never saw their mothers kill rats later killed rats themselves.
45%
Teenagerus Americanus, a two-legged ape indigenous to North America, breaks out in a cold sweat whenever exposed to elevator music. This reaction is most likely ______.
learned behavior
Variation and natural selection are the foundations of _______.
evolution
_____ changes when learning occurs.
Behavior
Most mutations _______.
are not helpful to survival
The list of alleged human instincts ______.
has gotten shorter over the years
Evolution is widely accepted except in
America.
Natural selection is often _______.
behind the times
_______, like natural selection, is a biological mechanism for adapting to change.
learning
The chief limitation of natural selection as a means of adapting to change is that ___________.
it is slow/takes place over generations/helps the species but not the individual
The person who demonstrated that the marching of tropical army ants is not intelligent behavior is ______.
Schneirla
The quotation, “Change is the only constant,” is attributed to ______.
Lucretius
The cowbird deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. This is most likely a ________.
modal action pattern
The evidence from biology suggests that the first “eyes” were not eyes at all, but_______.
light-sensitive cells
Natural selection is illustrated by changes in the coloration of the Peppered Moth resulting from _______.
industrial pollution
The rooting of pigs (for worms, larvae, and truffles) is an example of a
MAP
Experimental research on behavior is often said to be artificial. To compensate for this problem, researchers do ________ .
field experiments
In a cumulative record, learning is indicated by a change in response ________ .
rate
Response _______
refers to the time that passes before a response occurs.
latency
Your text describes four basic sources of evidence: anecdotal, case study, descriptive study, experimental study. The least reliable of these is ______.
anecdotal
One problem with computer simulations as a substitute for animal research is that ___________.
no one knows what behavior to program until the research has been done
Marjorie drives a school bus. Sometimes the kids get rather noisy. She decides to play music the kids like through speakers on the bus, but whenever the kids get too noisy she turns the music off. When they quiet down, she turns the music back on. In this way, she hopes to get the kids to make less noise. Marjorie is probably going to measure learning as a change in response _________.
intensity
An ________ is something an organism tries to escape or avoid.
aversive
In within-subject experiments, each subject’s performance is compared with his or her performance during a ______.
baseline period
Experiments done in natural settings are called _______.
field experiments
Harry teaches an advanced painting class. His goal is to teach students to paint more creatively. Harry will probably measure learning as a change in response _________.
topography
The person who suggested that to learn how nature works, we must “sit down before fact as a little child,” and “be prepared to give up every preconceived notion” was ______.
T. H. Huxley
Using an ABA reversal design is rather like using a ______.
light switch
A computer simulation that is useful for teaching certain principles of learning is called ________ .
Sniffy the Virtual Rat
The kind of study that is most likely to involve a large number of subjects is one with a ________.
between-subjects design
The natural science approach assumes that things are caused only by natural events.
True
Any variable an experimenter manipulates is a(n) ________ variable.
independent
A computer simulation that is useful for teaching certain principles of learning is called _________.
Sniffy the Virtual Rat
A teacher who looks for an increase in the number of correct performances per minute is using _______ as a measure of learning.
fluency
A flat cumulative record indicates that the behavior is ________.
not occurring
B. F. Skinner was the first person to record data cumulatively
False
Any variable that is allowed to vary freely is a(n) __________ variable.
dependent
In the cumulative record below, the rate of behavior is ________.
decreasing
Researchers can control _________better with animal subjects than with human subjects.
all of the above
A cumulative record shows the total number of responses that have occurred in a given period of time as well as the rate at which they occurred.
True
In group-design experiments, researchers often use ________ to reduce differences among participants.
matched sampling
The kind of experiment that is most likely to require statistical analysis is a(n) _______.
between-subjects experiment
One highly readable little book on research methods mentioned in your text is called _________.
Psychological Research: An Introduction
Research results with humans usually parallel those with animals.
True
An _____________ is something an organism tries to escape or avoid.
aversive
A flat cumulative record indicates that the behavior is ________
not occurring
The first person to use a single-subject reversal design was probably ____________.
Galen
Balster suggests that inhumane treatment of research animals is __________.
bad science
Speed and rate
are different terms for the same measure of learning
False
Each pairing of a CS and US is one _______.
trial
A key feature of Pavlovian conditioning is that the CS and US appear together regardless of what the
animal or person does.
True
Pavlov became interested in psychic reflexes around ________.
1900
One way to test for the effects of conditioning is to use test trials
True
In Pavlovian conditioning, contiguity usually refers to the ________.
time between CS and US
In ____________ conditioning, the CS and US occur at the same time.
simultaneous
The procedure of pairing a neutral stimulus with a well-established CS is called higher-order
Conditioning
True
The term ___________ response refers to an innate reflex response to a stimulus.
unconditional
One way to determine if conditioning has occurred is to present the CS alone. Each such presentation is called a(n) ______ trial.
Test
If, following conditioning, a CS is repeatedly presented without the US, the procedure is called ________.
extinction
Pavlov was a ________.
Russian
In Pavlovian conditioning, ISI refers to ______.
interstimulus interval
Many people think of scientists as dull people without feelings, but Pavlov said that science requires ______________.
supreme passion
Higher-order conditioning is probably most important to ___________.
humans
In so far as the rate of learning is concerned, the most important pairings of the CS and US are those that come _________.
at the beginning of training
The notation that best describes the Pavlovian procedure is _______
CS–>US
The time between conditioning trials is called the _______.
intertrial interval
Pavlov’s work paved the way for Darwin’s theory of evolution.
False
Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for his research on conditioning.
False
Pavlov is best described as ________.
an experimenter from head to foot
________ said that Pavlov was one of the greatest geniuses of all time.
H. G. Wells
A CS that consists of two or more stimuli is called a _________ stimulus
compound
When exposure to a stimulus prior to pairing with a US interferes with conditioning, the phenomenon is called ________.
latent inhibition
Spontaneous recovery is associated with _______.
extinction
In _______ conditioning the CS and US overlap
delayed
Conditional reflexes are so named because they ____________.
were considered rude
The experiments of Staats and Staats with nonsense syllables are examples of ____________ conditioning.
higher-order
J. M. Graham and Claude Desjardins established a(n) ______ as a CS for sexual arousal in rats.
odor
In studying “psychic secretions,” Pavlov focused his attention on the ________.
events in the dog’s environment
An experimenter presents a flash of light and a bell simultaneously followed by food. Conditioning proceeds satisfactorily, but when the experimenter presents the light and bell separately, he finds that the bell is an effective CS, but the light is not. The experimenter has demonstrated _______
overshadowing
Each time a buzzer sounds, a puff of air makes a rabbit blink. Soon the rabbit blinks when it hears the
buzzer. George believes that this meANS the buzzer takes the place of the air puff. George is an
advocate of ________.
Rescorla-Wagner model
b. preparatory response theory
c. stimulus substitution theory
d. valence theory
Pavlovian conditioning is also called ________ conditioning.
classical
George Bernard Shaw said that Pavlov was __________.
the biggest fool he knew
Two students, Edward and Edwina, serve as subjects in a conditioning experiment. The CS is a
buzzer; the US is a mild electric shock; the UR is a change in the electrical conductivity of their skin called the Galvanic Skin Response. Both subjects undergo 50 trials, but the experimenter feels sorry for Edwina so periodically he lets her off without a shock. The results will indicate that _______
the CR is stronger in Edward
In general, the more intense a US, the __________.
faster conditioning proceeds
If two stimuli are paired and then one becomes a CS, the other will become a CS more rapidly than it
otherwise would have, a phenomenon called sensory ________.
preconditioning
Generally, the _____ (more/less) intense a stimulus, the faster conditioning occurs.
more
Of the following, the one that does not belong with the others is ________.
higher-order conditioning
The first conditioning trials are typically _____ (more/less) effective than later trials
more
__________ stimuli are typically events that are important to survival.
Unconditional
Braun and Geiselhart found that eyelid conditioning generally proceeded slowly with _______.
older adults
Ivan Pavlov is best known for his research on the ________.
psychic reflex
The experiment in which a dog learned to salivate at the sight of a black square after it had been paired with a CS for salivating is an example of _________ conditioning.
higher-order
The Rescorla-Wagner model has been very influential, but it does not explain inhibition.
False
The author of your text uses the terms unconditional reflex and conditional reflex, but he notes that most authors use the terms _______ and _______ reflexes.
conditioned and unconditioned
Oafish Bill (John’s twin brother; see items above) has heard nothing of John’s unfortunate encounter with Carole, and he decides to ask her out. Just as he approaches her she bursts into laughter, apparently in response to a joke someone just told. Bill immediately pops the question and she politely declines, having decided to join a convent at the end of the semester. A week later Bill bumps into Carole on campus but feels no particular embarrassment. The pairing of Bill’s request for a date and Carole’s laughter is most likely an example of ________.
backward conditioning
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, blocking occurs because when the second (blocked) CS is
presented, most of the learning that can occur has already been “used up” by the first CS.
True
John, “Mr. Anxiety,” finally musters up the courage to ask the beautiful and popular Carole to go to the movies. She finds the idea so ridiculous that she laughs out loud the instant he has gotten the question out. John’s face turns the color of a steamed lobster. In classical conditioning terms, John’s experience is an example of ________.
trace conditioning
In the study by Thompson and Russell, there was a toy on a mat, but it was out of reach. Children learned to retrieve the toy by observing a model who pulled the mat closer.
False
The Herbert and Harsh study found that cats that had observed a model perform 30 times did no better than those that had observed a model perform 15 times.
False
A panel of experts reviewed studies on the influence of violence depicted on television and in films
on the aggressive behavior of children. They found that the evidence for a causal connection between
viewing such violence and aggressive behavior was _______.
overwhelming
The book, The Last Gentleman Adventurer, includes an anecdote that illustrates cross-species observational learning.
True
Videotapes of flossing monkeys suggest that mother monkeys attempt to teach their infants how to floss through modeling.
True
In a study by Hopper and colleagues, some observers watched a model slide a door and retrieve a desired item. Other observers saw the door slide in the absence of a model, revealing the desired item. The latter procedure is called the __________ condition.
ghost
In Bandura’s theory of observational learning, steps taken during observation to improve later recall of a model’s behavior are called ________.
retentional processes
When researchers arrange for an event to occur in the absence of a model, this is called the _______ condition.
ghost
Research suggests that some students who do not naturally learn from a model can be taught the skills necessary to do so.
True
The author of your text identifies two kinds of observational learning: _______ and _______.
social and asocial
Jill is an impressionable 17-year-old college freshman with average academic skills. She lives in the
college dorms with two roommates. One of them, Martha, is bright, attractive, popular, rich, and a
local celebrity because of her singing; she seldom studies. Jill’s other roommate, Ann, is also bright,
but has only a few friends, wears inexpensive clothes, and plays the tuba poorly; she studies all the
time. On the basis of what you know about observational learning, you predict that Jill will ______.
flunk out
The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced is called _______.
generalized imitation
The first studies of observational learning ______.
failed to find evidence of observational learning in animals
Experiments on asocial observational learning raise the question of the extent to which the social variety is truly social.
True
Research suggests that humans tend to imitate behavior that is irrelevant to obtaining reinforcers.
True
Judith Fisher and Mary Harris found that if a model wore an eye patch, observers learned _______.
more from the model’s behavior
If an observer watches a well-trained model perform a response, the procedure is not really
observational learning.
False
The traditional view of observational learning is what the author of your text calls _______ observational learning.
social
Those who are most likely to learn from observing a model are probably _______.
adults
Social observational learning may be defined as _________.
a change in behavior due to observing a model
Ellen Levy and her colleagues found that children would imitate a model’s reinforced preferences for _______.
pictures
Whether children imitate an aggressive model depends largely on ________.
whether the model’s behavior is reinforced or punished
Of the following terms, the one most associated with Bandura’s theory is ________.
retentional processes
The earliest experiments on observational learning were performed by ______.
E. L. Thorndike
Berger found that one important variable affecting observational learning in humans is the _______ of
the model.
status
Alan Kazdin found that praising attentiveness in one child actually reduced the attentiveness in another child.
False
Efforts to influence people through modeling via mass media are called _______.
edutainment
Keith and Catherine Hayes found that their adoptee, Viki, learned more from observing models than some children of about the same age. This was surprising because Viki was a _________.
chimpanzee
Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models. In their study, the observers _______.
listened to models on a tape
In _______, an observer looks on as a model’s behavior is punished.
vicarious punishment
There are two kinds of social observational learning experiences, vicarious _______ and vicarious _______.
reinforcement; punishment
Some researchers believe that the tendency of humans to imitate irrelevant modeled acts is beneficial.
True
The research of Rosekrans and Hartup on aggression suggests that if a model’s behavior is sometimes reinforced and sometimes punished, it is more
likely to be imitated than if it is consistently reinforced.
False
Little of classroom learning is observational.
False
Herbert and Harsh compared the behavior of cats that had observed a model perform an act 30 times with cats that had observed only 15 performances. They found that _________.
cats that observed 30 performances did substantially better than those that observed 15
Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. In observational learning, the experience consists
of _______.
observing events and their consequences
You hear on the radio that Smash, the most popular rock music performer in Germany, has killed
himself. He left a note (“Goodbye, cruel world”). You predict that _______.
there will be a rash of suicides or suicidal gestures among German rock music fans
Bandura says that observational learning involves four processes. One of these is _______
all of the above
Models who are not proficient at the skill they demonstrate are called unskilled or _______ models.
learning
Herbert and Harsh demonstrated observational learning in cats.
True
Ellen Levy and her colleagues found that children’s liking for pictures was influenced by the
consequences of the model’s preferences.
True
Observing a model is particularly helpful if the task involved is easy.
False
Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models, even
though the observers did not see the models.
True
According to the author of your text, observational learning involves observing
events and their consequences.
Fisher and Harris found that observers learned more when a model _______.
frowned and shook her head
All studies of observational learning involve learning to solve a problem or perform a skill.
False
Research suggests that the tendency to imitate the irrelevant acts of a model increases with age.
True
If an observer looks on as a model’s behavior is reinforced, we speak of _______.
vicarious reinforcement
The operant learning model of observational learning takes the _________.
natural science approach
The learning history of observers has a powerful influence on what they learn from models. This is illustrated by the fact that chimpanzees that have had __________ training get more from observing a model than those that have not.
language
A panel of experts reviewed studies on the influence of violence depicted on television and in films
on the aggressive behavior of children. They found that the evidence for a causal connection between
viewing such violence and aggressive behavior was _______.
overwhelming
Primatologist Elizabeth Lornsdorf found that wild young female chimps are more likely than males to learn about __________ .
termite fishing
Lyons, Young, and Keil actively encouraged children not to imitate the acts of a model that were irrelevant to solving a problem. The result was that the children _________.
imitated the irrelevant acts
If the consequences of a model’s behavior strengthen the observer’s tendency to behave in a similar manner, we say that the behavior has been _______ .
vicariously reinforced
In the Thompson and Russell two-mat study, children who observed a model __________.
did better than those who did not observe a model
The influence of literary models on behavior was seen in the 18th century with the publication of _________.
The Sorrows of Young Werther
Carl Warden was one of the first researchers to demonstrate observational learning in animals.
True
Time out is a form of punishment.
True
Skinner devised a mechanical teaching machine that divided the material to be learned into short segments called ________.
Frames
The Lamere study found that performance-based bonuses improved productivity, but there was no difference between the effects of a 9% bonus and a 3% bonus.
True
John gets into fights on a regular basis, always with formidable opponents. He has often been injured in these fights and knows that he runs the risk of sustaining serious brain damage or other permanent injuries, yet he continues to fight. John is a very successful professional boxer. This example illustrates that bizarre behavior _________.
is less puzzling when the reinforcers maintaining it are known
Taub’s research suggests that one reason people do not recover following a stroke or injury that causes paralysis is because they do not use the damaged limb.
True
Wesley Becker suggests that parents should think of themselves as _________.
Teachers
A study by John Austin and colleagues increased safe practices in roofers by providing those who followed safe practices at least 80% of the time with ________.
Time Off
To restore function in a limb damaged by a stroke, therapists use
constraint-induced movement therapy
Edward Taub’s treatment of people with paralyzed limbs emerged from research with ___________.
Monkeys
Hal __________ pioneered the use of operant procedures to improve the quality of life of captive wild animals.
Markowitz
Research demonstrates that when teachers provide positive consequences for good behavior and ignore minor misbehavior, the usual result is an increase in both good and bad behavior.
False
Most teachers reprimand students more often than they praise them.
True
In animal training, secondary reinforcement may be provided with a toy called a ______
cricket
Problem behavior in children can usually be dealt with effectively through ________ reinforcement.
differential
Brad Alford’s study of the man who thought he was followed by a witch is an example of ________.
an ABA design experiment
Wesley Becker argues that parents are _______.
Teachers
Ivar Lovaas first noticed that aversives could reduce self-injurious behavior when he absentmindedly slapped a child who was banging his head against a wall.
True
The idea that for bizarre behavior to result in reinforcement it must sometimes occur when reinforcement is unavailable has been called __________.
Goldiamond’s Paradox
Layng and Andronis reported the case of a psychiatric patient who feared that her head was falling off. This delusion appeared to be due to the fact that it got her social contact from the staff.
True
Problem behavior in children can usually be dealt with effectively through ___________.
differential reinforcement
The first true teaching machines were built by B. F. Skinner.
True
Lovaas and Simmons used punishment to reduce self-injurious behavior in a boy. Before treatment, this boy would hit himself at a rate of up to _______.
30 times a minute
At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two grade levels in one school year.
True
Betty Hart and Todd Risley found that the parents who provided the most instruction and practice in language later had the children with the best-developed verbal skills.
True
Using extinction alone to eliminate tantrums is problematic. A better approach is to use extinction in conjunction with a form of ___________ reinforcement.
differential
Your text describes the use of _______ to get a bull elephant to cooperate with having his toenails trimmed.
Shaping
Delusions are often thought of as the products of a disordered “inner world,” but operant learning research suggests that they are the products of a disordered _________.
Environment
Jack is a homeless man who lives on the streets of New York City. One cold January night he takes up
a position outside a fancy restaurant and starts shouting, “God has ordered an equestrian invasion of
Long Island.” The restaurant owner calls the police and they take Jack to a hospital, where he spends
a quiet night. You look into Jack’s medical history and find that he _____________.
has been hospitalized for bizarre behavior in the winter more than in other seasons
When teachers focus on reinforcing appropriate behavior rather than on punishing inappropriate behavior, disruptive behavior _________ and the rate of academic learning _________.
decreases; increases
Self-injurious behavior sometimes occurs in healthy people, including college students.
True
In the treatment of long-standing self-injurious behavior, punishment is often ________.
effective
___________ is the idea that any problem behavior that is eliminated through learning-based treatment will be replaced by a new problem behavior.
Symptom substitution
Carr and McDowell found that Jim’s scratching was reinforced mainly by _______.
parental attention
Charles Madsen and his colleagues asked a teacher to _______ . This change in teacher behavior produced a marked reduction in misconduct .
constraint-induced movement therapy
A highly effective web-based instructional program designed to teach reading that makes use of reinforcement and shaping is called _______.
Headsprout
Ivar Lovaas was perhaps the first person to use punishment to suppress _____________
self injurious behavior
Hopkins and Conard found that when teachers made a few simple changes in how they taught,
changes that included a shift from reprimands and threats to praise and positive feedback, students advanced at ______ the normal rate in reading.
More than twice
Skinner’s teaching machines presented the student with some information, then asked a question. The reinforcer for answering correctly was _________.
the opportunity to move on to the next frame
Tarpley and Schroeder attempted to reduce face-slapping in an 8-year-old boy by providing food when the boy played with a ball. The result was that face-slapping __________.
decreased by 90% in 40 minutes
Eddie McNamara’s study showed that praising students when they are “on task” does not increase the frequency of on-task behavior in adolescents.
False
In Skinner’s teaching machines, the only reinforcer was the opportunity to move on to the next item.
True
At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two
grade levels in one school year.
True
Efforts to treat stroke victims with paralyzed limbs have proved unsuccessful.
False
There is substantial
scientific support for symptom substitution.
False
The first teaching machines were designed by ___________.
B. F. Skinner
The author of your text suggests that the worst orphanages illustrate the importance of operant learning to normal child development.
True
Research suggests that bonuses based on employee performance can improve productivity ________.
and reduce company costs
Murray Sidman’s book on aversive control, including punishment, is called ______.
Coercion and Its Fallout
________ punishment is often confused with ________ reinforcement.
positive; negative
David Camp and colleagues found that even a delay of only _____ reduced the effectiveness of a
punisher.
2 seconds
Positive and negative punishment have in common that they both ________ the frequency of
behavior.
reduce
Although punishment can have negative side effects, there is evidence that it can also have positive
side effects.
True
The one process in the one-process theory of punishment is ________.
operant learning
Generally speaking, the more intense a punisher, the _______.
more it suppresses behavior
The two-process theory of punishment assumes that punishment involves ___________.
Pavlovian and operant learning
When a student repeatedly behaves in an inappropriate way, probably the teacher’s first step should be to ______.
try to discover what is reinforcing the behavior
When aversive events occur independently of behavior they are called _______
non-contingent
When disciplining their son, Jacob, Mr. and Ms Grinch begin with an extremely mild form of
punishment and gradually increase its strength if the offenses continue. This procedure is likely to
result in _______.
the use of excessively strong aversives
Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says “Mithithippi” or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells, “Idiot!”
However, there is no evidence that Evelyn’s efforts to reduce the frequency of such
mispronunciations have been effective. We can therefore conclude that ______.
Charles’s behavior has not been punished
Harriet hears a noise in the kitchen and investigates. She finds the cookie jar in pieces on the floor and 5-year-old Willy standing nearby. Harriet knows what happened, but asks Willy anyway. Willy admits that he broke the jar while trying to get cookies. Harriet gives Willy a spanking. Willy is most likely to learn from this experience that _______.
it doesn’t pay to tell the truth
In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as
needed.
False
Negative punishment is also sometimes called ______ training.
penalty
Research has shown that abnormal behavior is often _______ .
an inappropriate way of obtaining appropriate reinforcers
One problem with punishment is the tendency to imitate the use of punishment. Two other problems
are________.
all of the above
The term punishment, as used by behavior scientists, has nothing to do with retribution
true
The use of punishers is so common that _______ concluded that “The world runs on fear.”
Jack Michaels
When using punishment to suppress an undesirable behavior, it is important to provide alternative means of obtaining the reinforcers that have maintained that behavior.
true
If a rat receives a shock each time it presses a lever, but not otherwise, we can say that _______.
shock is contingent on lever pressing
David Camp and colleagues found that, compared to a two-second delay in punishment, a 30-second delay resulted in _______.
about half as much response suppression
One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining
reinforcement.
true
Differential reinforcement is best used in combination with ______.
extinction
The one-process theory of punishment goes back to ________.
Thorndike
Frequent use of weak punishers is more effective than occasional use of intense punishers.
false
An early theory of punishment proposed that response suppression occurred because aversives disrupt
ongoing behavior.
true
Positive punishment necessarily involves aversives.
true
Farmer Gable had a problem with motorcyclists riding across his meadow land, tearing up sod and
frightening his cattle. He installed barbed wire fencing in the area and no longer had a problem.
Gable’s approach is best described as an example of _______.
response prevention
In positive punishment, a stimulus that serves as a punisher is called a(n) _________.
aversive
Abnormal behavior may persist despite aversive consequences because it also produces reinforcing
consequences.
true
The word positive in positive punishment refers to the fact that _______.
something is added
Of the following procedures, the one that reinforces behavior that cannot
be performed at the same
time as the unwanted behavior is ______.
DRI
One problem with extinction as a way of reducing the frequency of potentially harmful behavior is
that _________.
the behavior on extinction sometimes increases at first
Of the following procedures, the one that focuses on reducing the rate at which a behavior occurs is ________.
DRL
Delaying delivery of a punisher is most likely to ______.
reduce its effectiveness
The first formal studies of punishment were probably done by _________ .
Thorndike
If Charles Catania’s thinking about reinforcement is applied to punishment, we can say that all of the
following are true of punishment except _______.
the consequence of the behavior must be negative
All of the following enhance the effectiveness of punishment except _______.
increasing the reinforcer deprivation level
Positive punishment is most often confused with _______.
negative reinforcement
Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says “Mithithippi” or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells, “Idiot!”
However, there is no evidence that Evelyn’s efforts to reduce the frequency of such
mispronunciations have been effective. We can therefore conclude that ______.
Charles’s behavior has not been punished
One problem with punishment is the tendency to imitate the use of punishment. Two other problems
are________.
all of the above
One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining
reinforcement.
true
Of the following procedures, the one that reinforces behavior that cannot
be performed at the same
time as the unwanted behavior is ______.
DRI
Although punishment can have negative side effects, there is evidence that it can also have positive
side effects.
true
Abnormal behavior may persist despite aversive consequences because it also produces reinforcing
consequences.
true
The main difference between positive and negative punishment is that in negative punishment a
stimulus is_________.
removed
In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as
needed.
false
One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining
reinforcement.
true
Positive and negative punishment have in common that they both ________ the frequency of
behavior.
reduce
Post-reinforcement pauses are now often referred to as _________.
pre-ratio pauses
The study of reinforcement schedules suggests that the behavior we call stick-to-itiveness is largely the product of _________.
reinforcement history
The rule describing the delivery of reinforcement is called a ________of reinforcement.
Schedule
CRF is synonymous with _________.
FR 1
The term ________ refers to the pattern and rate of performance produced by a particular reinforcement schedule.
schedule effects
The schedule to use if you want to produce the most rapid learning of new behavior is _______.
CRF
A reduction in response rate following reinforcement is called a _________.
post-reinforcement pause
The schedule that is not
an intermittent schedule is _________.
FR 1
When food is the reinforcer, it is possible to stretch the ratio to the point at which an animal expends more energy than it receives.
True
In a multiple schedule, the organism is forced to choose between two or more reinforcement schedules.
False
Stanley wants to determine which of two reinforcement schedules is more attractive to rats. He trains a rat to press a lever for food, and then puts the rat into an experimental chamber containing two levers. Pressing one lever produces reinforcement on an FR 10 schedule; pressing the other lever produces reinforcement on an FI 10″ schedule. Lever pressing is on a _________.
concurrent schedule
When a response is placed on extinction, there is often an increase in emotional behavior.
True
A schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of more than one subject is a
_________.
cooperative schedule
Bill spends his summer in the city panhandling. Every day he takes a position on a busy corner and
accosts passersby saying, “Can you spare some change?” Most people ignore him, but every now and
then someone gives him money. Bill’s reinforcement schedule is best described as a _________.
variable ratio schedule
If you increase the requirements for reinforcement too quickly you are likely to see evidence of ratio _______.
strain
Things are going pretty well for George (see item 26) until he jumps from reinforcing every tenth
response to reinforcing every 50th response. At this point, the pigeon responds erratically and nearly
stops responding entirely. George’s pigeon is suffering from _________.
ratio strain
__________ refers to the point at which a behavior stops or its rate falls off sharply.
Break point
The more effort a behavior requires, the more times the behavior will be performed during extinction.
Flase
George trains a pigeon to peck a disk by reinforcing each disk peck. Once the response is learned,
George begins to cut back on the reinforcers. At first he reinforces every other response, then every
third response, every fifth response, every tenth response, and so on. George is using a procedure
called _________.
stretching the ratio
The rate at which a response occurs, once the subject begins performing it, is called the _________.
Run Rate
A classic work on reinforcement schedules is by _________ .
Ferster and Skinner
When reinforcement is contingent on continuous performance of an activity, a __________. reinforcement schedule is in force.
duration
In a _____ schedule, reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for
some period of time.
fixed duration
One explanation for the PRE implies that the effect is really an illusion. This is the _________.
response unit hypothesis
In schedules research, VD stands for ________.
variable duration
___________ schedules differ from other schedules in that the rules describing the contingencies change systematically.
Progressive
In VI schedules, the reinforcer occurs periodically regardless of what the organism does.
false
One effect of the extinction procedure is an increase in the variability of behavior.
true
A schedule that does not
require the performance of a particular behavior is the _________.
FT schedule
Harlan Lane and Paul Shinkman put a college student’s behavior on extinction following VI reinforcement . The student performed the behavior 8,000 times without reinforcement.
True
Resurgence may help account for _______.
regression
According to the ________ hypothesis, the PRE occurs because it is difficult to distinguish between intermittent reinforcment and extinction.
discrimination
Of the following, the schedule that most closely resembles noncontingent reinforcement is _________.
FT
Choice involves ________ schedules.
concurrent
Extinction often increases the variability of behavior.
True
A chain schedule is most like a _________ schedule.
tandem
The response unit hypothesis suggests that there really is a partial reinforcement effect.
false
Williams found that the greater the number of reinforcements before extinction, the _______.
greater the number of responses during extinction
When behavior is on a FR schedule, animals often discontinue working briefly following reinforcement. These periods are called ________.
any of the above
Although important, the matching law is restricted to a narrow range of species, responses,
reinforcers, and reinforcement schedules.
false
Your text reports the case of a man who apparently made hundreds of harassing phone calls. The
man’s behavior was most likley on a(n) _________.
VR schedule
One everyday example of a VR schedule is the lottery.
true
The reappearance of previously effective behavior during extinction is called ____________.
resurgence
Often the initial effect of an extinction procedure is an increase in the behavior called a(n) extinction ________.
burst
The thinner of two schedules, VR 5 and VR 10, is VR 5.
false
In one form of the matching law, BA stands for the behavior under consideration and B0 represents
_______.
all behaviors other than BA
The explanation of the PRE that puts greatest emphasis on internal cues is the ________ hypothesis.
frustration
FT and VT are both kinds of ______ reinforcement.
noncontingent
The explanation of the PRE that puts greatest emphasis on internal cues is the ________ hypothesis.
frustration
John spent his summer picking cantaloupes for a farmer. The farmer paid John a certain amount for
every basket of cantaloupes picked. John worked on a _________.
fixed ratio schedule
In CRF, the ratio of reinforcers to responses is 1 to 1; in FR -1, the ratio is _______.
1 to 1
_____________ led the way in the study of choice.
Richard Herrnstein
A given reinforcement schedule tends to produce a distinctive pattern and rate of performance. These are called schedule _______.
effects
CRF stands for ________.
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcement reduces creativity because creativity requires new forms of behavior.
False
The classic experiments on insightful problem solving were done with chimpanzees by _________.
Wolfgang Kohler
Studies of learned helplessness use the ______ procedure.
escape training
Wagner and Morris studied ___________ behavior with the help of a mechanical clown named Bobo.
superstitious
Kohler thought that insight was achieved suddenly, but other work suggests that it is achieved gradually.
True
In her work with porpoises, Karen Pryor gradually realized that what she had to do to get novel behavior from the animals was to _______.
reinforce novel behavior
Koichi Ono got superstitious behavior in university students by providing points noncontingently at regular intervals. One student ended up repeatedly ______.
jumping to touch the ceiling
An aversive stimulus is one that any animal will __________.
avoid
Some studies show that offering rewards reduces creativity. Research by Robert Eisenberger and others suggests that this is because in these studies _______.
the rewards were not contingent on creative behavior
Learned helplessness may be avoided through _______ training.
immunization
Skinner and two students discovered shaping in the course of teaching a pigeon to ________.
bowl
Exposure to __________aversives leads to learned helplessness.
inescapable
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive _______ of a desired behavior.
approximations
Stuart Vyse’s book on superstition is called _______.
Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition
Harlow’s data show that insightful solutions may be arrived at _________ as a result of a number of learning experiences.
slowly
All of the following are useful tips for shaping behavior except ________.
never back up
A _____________ is a series of behaviors, the last of which produces reinforcement.
behavioral chain
In shaping, it is sometimes a good idea to back up– i.e., to reinforce earlier approximations of the desired behavior.
True
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive _______.
approximations of a desired behavior
The solution to a problem is behavior that produces_______.
reinforcement/reinforcers (176)
____________ is the tendency to persist at a problem as a result of previous reinforcement of persistance at difficult problems.
learned industrialness
A ____________ is a situation in which reinforcement is available but the behavior necessary to produce it is not.
problem
The first step in building a behavior chain is to do a ______.
task analysis
Robert Eisenberger and his colleagues demonstrated that reinforcement can establish learned ______.
industriousness
Creative behavior is a function of its consequences.
True
The author of your text probably believes that most childhood tantrums are due to unintentional shaping by adults.
True
One tip for successful shaping of behavior is to provide large reinforcers.
False
__________ behavior is that which occurs even though it does not produce reinforcers.
superstitious
Normally, the first step in chaining is task _______ .
analysis
Superstitous behavior is behavior that occurs repeatedly despite the fact that it __________.
does not produce the reinforcers that maintain it
Successive ____________ are used in differential reinforcement or shaping paradigm.
approximations of a desired behavior
Insightful problem solving is best viewed as an example of _______.
operant learning
The experiment by Epstein and colleagues demonstrated that insightful problem solving is largely the product of ________.
reinforcement
Task analysis is the procedure of identifying the component elements of a __________.
behavior chain
In shaping, it is sometimes a good idea to back up– i.e., to reinforce earlier approximations of the
desired behavior.
True
The author of your text probably believes that most childhood tantrums are due to unintentional
shaping by adults.
True
Kohler thought that insight was achieved suddenly, but other work suggests that it is achieved
gradually.
True
One idea for preventing learned helplessness is _______ training.
immunization
Karen Pryor demonstrated that she could reinforce novel behavior. Her subjects were ________.
porpoises
Meerkats train their young using procedures that resemble shaping.
True
__________ is the tendency to give up on a problem as a result of previous exposure to insoluable problems.
learned helplessness
Donald Zimmerman found that a buzzer became a positive reinforcer after it was repeatedly paired with ______.
water
The Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert may have involved operant as well as
Pavlovian learning because the loud noise ______.
occurred as Albert reached for the rat
All of the following are recognized kinds of reinforcers except ______.
classical
Secondary reinforcers are also called _______ reinforcers.
conditioned
The experimental chamber developed by Skinner is often called a _________.
Skinner Box
Operant learning probably always involves Pavlovian conditioning as well.
True
________ gave Skinner’s experimental chamber the name, “Skinner box.”
Clark Hull
Reinforcement is often said to increase the frequency of a behavior, but research suggestss that any feature of a behavior (e.g., intensity, duration, form, etc.) can be strengthened if a reinforcer can be made contingent on that feature.
True
The Premack principle says that reinforcement involves _______.
a relation between behaviors
Positive reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior.
True
Another term for operant is instrumental.
True
Positive reinforcement is sometimes called ______ learning.
reward
Positive reinforcement is sometimes called _______.
reward learning
Money is a good example of a _______ reinforcer.
generalized
Thorndike complained that _______ evidence provided a “supernormal psychology of animals.”
anecdotal
________ demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could be reinforcing.
Olds and Milner
The opposite of a conditioned reinforcer is a ______.
primary reinforcer
Operant learning is sometimes called ________ learning.
instrumental
Thorndike emphasized that we learn mainly from _______.
success
The one thing that all reinforcers have in common is that they _______.
strengthen behavior
Sylvia believes that the reinforcement properties of an event depend on the extent to which it provides
access to high probability behavior. Sylvia is most likely an advocate of _______ theory.
relative value
Thorndike made important contributions to all of the following fields except _____.
social psychology
Unexpected reinforcers produce more dopamine than expected reinforcers.
True
With reinforcement, it is easy for a person to lower his blood pressure
False
Operant learning may also be referred to as _______.
instrumental learning
Douglas Anger proposed that there is a signal in the Sidman avoidance procedure. The signal is ________.
Time
According to the one-process theory of avoidance, the avoidance response is reinforced by _______.
a reduction in the number of aversive events
_______ reinforcers are those that have been arranged by someone.
Contrived
Negative reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior.
True
According to Skinner, people are rewarded, but behavior is reinforced.
True
Schlinger and Blakely found that the reinforcing power of a delayed reinforcer could be increased by
________.
preceding the reinforcer with a stimulus
Negative reinforcement is sometimes called ______ learning.
Escape avoidance
An action that improves the effectiveness of a reinforcer is called a ______.
motivating operation
The level of deprivation is less important when the reinforcer used is a(n) _________reinforcer.
Secondary
The area of the brain that seems to be associated with reinforcement is called the reward _______.
pathway/ circuit
Vomiting is ordinarily an involuntary response, but sometimes it can be modified by operant
procedures.
True
Negative reinforcement and punishment are synonyms
False
_______ theory assumes that a behavior becomes reinforcing when we are prevented from performing it as ofen as we normally would.
Response deprivation
In _______ _ a response is followed by the withdrawal of, or reduction in the intensity
of, an aversive stimulus.
Negative reinforcement
People can learn to behave randomly provided that reinforcers are made contingent on random acts.
True
Premack’s name is most logically associated with _______.
relative value theory
Charles Catania identified three characteristics that define reinforcement. These include all of the
following except _______.
the consequence of the behavior must be positive
Reinforcers such as praise, positive feedback, and smiles are called ______ reinforcers.
Secondary/conditioned
The _______ principle states that high probability behavior reinforces low probability behavior.
Premack
Operant learning is often described as trial-and-error learning, but Thorndike argued that behavior was selected by ______.
success
Negative reinforcement is also called _______.
escape-avoidance training
The author of your text calls Skinner the ______.
Darwin of behavior science
Clark Hull’s explanation of reinforcement assumes that reinforcers _____.
reduce a drive
A general assumption of behavioral research is that any feature of a behavior may be strengthened by
reinforcement, so long as reinforcement can be made contingent on that feature
True
In operant learning, the word contingency usually refers to the degree of correlation between a
behavior and a consequence.
True
Studies of delayed reinforcement document the importance of ______.
contiguity
The more you increase the size of a reinforcer, the less benefit you get from the increase.
True
In one of Thorndike’s puzzle boxes, a door would fall open when a cat stepped on a treadle, thus
allowing the cat to reach food outside the box. Eventually the cat would step on the treadle as soon as it
was put into the box. Thorndike concluded that ________.
treadle stepping increased because it had a “satisfying effect”
Studies demonstrate that operant learning is as effective with involuntary behavior, such as the
salivary reflex, as it is with voluntary behavior
False
Mary decides to try to modify Pearl’s behavior (see above item). She and the rest of the family refuse to respond to any comment or request by Pearl that they know she is capable of expressing in English. For example, if during dinner she says, “Pass the potatoes” in English, she gets potatoes; if she says it in her native language she gets ignored. The procedure being used to change Pearl’s behavior is ______.
positive reinforcement
Pavlovian and operant learning often occur together.
True
Clark Hull’s name is associated with the _______ theory of reinforcement.
drive-reduction
_____is a neurotransmitter that seems to be important in reinforcement.
Dopamine
The number of operant procedures indicated in the contingency square is ______.
four
According to ___________ theory, schoolchildren are eager to go to recess because they have been deprived of the opportunity to exercise.
response deprivation
Skinner describes some of his most important research in _______.
The Behavior of Organisms
The use of classical conditioning to change feelings (such as likes and dislikes) is sometimes called ___________.
evaluative conditioning
Political campaign ads attempt to use conditioning by pairing their candidate with stimuli that evoke
positive emotions and by pairing the opponent candidate with stimuli that evoke negative emotions.
True
Pavlovian conditioning accounts for negative emotions, but not for positive ones.
False
The most recent variation of counterconditioning involves__________.
virtual reality
Shepard Siegel’s work suggests that some deaths attributed to _____________ are actually the result
of conditioning.
drug overdose
Staats and Staats demonstrated that both positive and negative biases could be established through
conditioning.
True
Blue jays acquire a taste aversion for _________.
monarch butterflies
The first person to use counterconditioning to treat a phobia was probably__________.
Mary Cover Jones
Mary Cover Jones cured Peter’s fear of ______.
Rabbit
Elnora Stuart and colleagues paired slides of pleasant scenes with__________.
Toothpaste
Barry Maletzky treated exhibitionists by having them imagine that they were about to perform the inappropriate behavior, and then _______.
exposing them to an unpleasant odor
Studies of taste aversion demonstrate that conditioning can occur despite a long inter-stimulus
Interval
True
Diana Woodruff-Pak found that people who condition slowly are more likely to develop ___________.
dementia
People are most likely to tolerate painful and humiliating events if these events consistently __________.
precede positive events
VRET owes a debt to the work of Mary Cover Jones.
True
Peter’s fear, like Albert’s, was the result of conditioning by a researcher.
False
VRET stands for _________.
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
Pavlovian conditioning is an adaptive mechanism but can nevertheless result in the acquisition of
maladaptive behavior.
True
The studies of Carolyn and Arthur Staats demonstrating that neutral words paired with pleasant words become pleasant are examples of__________.
higher-order conditioning
The CS and US in the Little Albert experiment were a __________, respectively.
rat and loud sound
Blue jays usually do not eat Monarch butterflies. This is an example of a(n) __________.
conditioned taste aversion
Barbara Rothbaum and colleagues used virtual reality exposure therapy to treat a fear of __________.
Flying
Exposure therapy is really a form of counterconditioning.
True
Prejudice is an example of a CER, or __________.
Conditioned Emotional Response
Arne Ohman and his colleagues used conditioning to establish a fear of ______ in college students.
snakes
b.heights
c. closed spaces
d. darkness
One VRET program for treating spider phobias is called ______.
SpiderWorld
The CS in the Little Albert experiment was a __________.
Rat
Pavlov found that when he paired painful stimuli with food, the dog came to show no distress at the painful stimuli. This experiment may help explain __________ behavior in humans.
masochistic
Garcia’s interest in the role of learning in taste aversions may have begun when he became sick after eating ____________.
licorice
Research shows that when women receiving chemotherapy return to the hospital, they show __________.
decreased immune functioning
Senatorial candidate Smith’s popularity increased dramatically after he was seen on television shaking
hands with a very popular public figure. This is probably an example of__________.
emotional conditioning
Conditioned Reflexes and Psychiatry was written by __________.
Ivan Pavlov
If a person sneezes after coming close to a realistic-looking artificial flower, you can be pretty sure that he or she is__________.
allergic to pollen
A follow-up of exhibitionists treated by Barry Maletzky with a variation of aversion therapy showed that those who had undergone treatment involuntarily ____________.
improved as much as voluntary patients
Garcia’s first experiment on taste aversion was unusual in that the ________.
interval between CS and US was several minutes
The phenomenon of __________ suggests that we should be more likely to develop aversions to novel foods than to familiar ones.
latent inhibition
Researchers tried to change the preferences for two brands of ____________ but were unsuccessful when the subjects were strongly attached to a brand.
Soft drinks
In treating Peter’s fear of rabbits, Jones used a procedure called__________.
counterconditioning
Peter’s fear of a rabbit was established in a laboratory.
False
In ______ therapy, a stimulus that elicits an inappropriate response is paired with a negative stimulus such as shock or an emetic drug.
aversion
Morgan Doran and his colleagues found that after taste aversion training, ___________ would remove
weeds from a vineyard without damaging the grape plants.
Sheep
Thomas Parish and colleagues reduced the bias of white American children toward the Vietnamese by pairing images of Vietnamese with________.
Positive words
If an aversive stimulus, such as a noxious odor, regularly precedes a pleasant stimulus, such as a tasty
meal, the former stimulus may lose much of its unpleasant quality.
True
The CS and US in the Garcia et al. experiment were__________.
flavored water and radiation
Pavlovian conditioning suggests that stimuli associated with chemotherapy (such as the clinic where
the patient is treated) might suppress the patient’s system.
Immune
In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented _______.
by a different teacher
Harriet gives a monkey a choice between two blocks of wood, one rough and the other smooth. If the
animal selects the rough block, it receives a raisin; if it picks the smooth one, it receives nothing.
When the animal regularly picks the rough block, Harriet gives the animal a choice between the rough
block of wood and a new block of wood that is even rougher than the first. You predict that the
monkey will _______.
pick the new, very rough block
Robert Allan trained pigeons to peck pictures containing human figures. He found that birds ______.
pecked the human figures
Response maintenance can be considered generalization across _________.
time
The kind of generalization your text focuses on is ______.
stimulus generalization
Arthur Bachrach and colleagues demonstrated generalization of therapy in their treatment of a woman
suffering from an eating disorder called ________.
anorexia
Robert Eisenberger found that rewarding a high level of effort on one task increases the level of effort on other tasks. This illustrates _______.
generalization
When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an SD, but not in the presence of an S-, we can say the behavior is _______.
under stimulus control
The tendency of changes in one behavior to spread to other behaviors is called __________ generalization.
response
You test Mary’s drawing ability by having her draw fruit, animals, landscapes, and houses. Mary then takes a drawing class in which she learns to draw human figures. You decide to test Mary again to see if her drawing ability has improved. You predict that if she shows any improvement at all it will be at drawing _______.
animals
Judy gives a monkey a choice between a sphere and various other three-dimensional shapes. Each time the animal selects the sphere, it receives a grape; if it selects the other object, it receives nothing. Judy is engaged in _______.
concept training
Frederica believes that generalization occurs because of a lack of experience with stimuli that differ from the SD. Frederica is probably most comfortable with the theory of generalization and discrimination proposed by _______.
Lashley and Wade
In the ________ discrimination training procedure, the discriminative stimuli alternate.
successive
In ______, the task is to select from two or more alternatives the stimulus that matches a standard.
matching to sample
If a person smokes a pack of cigarettes a day, in a year, cigarette smoking is reinforced ________.
73,000 times
An SD is analogous to a ______.
CS+
An ________ is a stimulus that indicates that a particular behavior will be reinforced.
SD
Generalization is a by-product of learning that nearly always occurs spontaneously.
False
Howard studied hard for his math test and found that what he learned helped him on his physics test. Howard benefited from _______.
generalization
Spence’s theory anticipated the discovery of the peak shift phenomenon.
True
With discrimination training, pigeons have learned to discriminate between paintings by Monet and
Picasso, even when the pictures were ones they had never seen before.
True
According to your text, mental rotation data are best viewed as evidence of ______.
generalization
When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an SD, but not in the presence of an S-, we can say the behavior is _______.
under stimulus control
Harriet gives a monkey a choice between two blocks of wood, one rough and the other smooth. If the
animal selects the rough block, it receives a raisin; if it picks the smooth one, it receives nothing.
When the animal regularly picks the rough block, Harriet gives the animal a choice between the rough
block of wood and a new block of wood that is even rougher than the first. You predict that the
monkey will _______.
pick the new, very rough block
The findings of Eisenberger and others concerning increasing effort is called _______.
learned industriousness
Arthur Bachrach and colleagues demonstrated generalization of therapy in their treatment of a woman
suffering from an eating disorder called ________.
anorexia
Bill conducts an experiment in which he pairs the word psychologist
with words such as nasty, evil,
and corrupt. Later Bill asks his subjects to give their opinion of various professions by rating them on
a scale from very positive to very negative. Of the following professions, _______ will probably
receive the lowest rating.
social worker
Oddity ________ is a form of MTS in which reinforcement is contingent on selecting a stimulus that is different from the sample.
matching
The CS+ of Pavlovian discrimination training is analogous to the ___ /___of operant discrimination
training.
SD/S+
The effects of reinforcement generalize, but the effects of extinction and punishment do not
False
In a classic study, Guttman and Kalish trained pigeons to peck a disc of a particular color, and then gave them the opportunity to peck ________.
discs of various colors
Honig and Slivka trained pigeons to peck discs of various colors. After this they began shocking the
birds when they pecked a disc of a particular color. This __________.
reduced pecking discs of all colors, but especially those that resembled the punished color
Frederick believes that discrimination training produces inhibitory as well as excitatory gradients of generalization. Frederick is most likely an advocate of the theory of generalization and discrimination proposed by _______.
Spence
Concepts involve both generalization and discrimination.
True
Generalization is sometimes called _________.
transfer
When six-month old Joey cries, his mother, Martha, can tell what he needs even before she goes to
him. Martha’s skill is an example of ______.
discrimination
Dweck and Repucci had teachers give students unsolvable problems, and then problems that could be solved. The result was that the students __________.
failed to solve the problems in the second set
Jill trains her dog, Boozer, to come to her when she snaps her fingers. She snaps her fingers, then gives the dog a bit of food when it approaches. Finger snapping is a(n) _________
SD
A dog learns to salivate at the sound of a soft buzzer, but not at the sound of a loud buzzer. After
training, the dog is presented with buzzers of various volumes. You predict that the dog will salivate
most in response to a buzzer that is _______.
slightly softer than the CS+
In ________ discrimination training an S∆ is introduced in a form so weak that the organism does not
respond to it.
errorless
The person whose name is most associated with errorless discrimination training is _______.
Herbert Terrace
Providing different consequences for different responses can enhance discrimination training. This
finding is called the _______.
differential outcomes effect
In stimulus generalization, a behavior “travels” from one situation to another.
True
In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented _______.
by a different teacher
In _______ discrimination training, the SD and S∆ are presented at the same time.
simultaneous
In errorless discrimination training, _______.
the S∆ is introduced in very weak form and its strength is gradually increased
The flatter the generalization curve, the greater the degree of generalization.
True
In _______, the task is to select from two or more alternatives the stimulus that is different from a
standard.
oddity matching
Robert Eisenberger found that rewarding a high level of effort on one task increases the level of effort on other tasks. This illustrates _______.
generalization
Steven, a drug abuser, is released from a clinic. He is free of drugs, and has sworn never to take drugs
again. He returns to his old neighborhood. You predict that within six months, Steven will ______.
be abusing drugs again
Honig and Slivka trained pigeons to peck discs of various colors. After this they began shocking the
birds when they pecked a disc of a particular color. This __________.
reduced pecking discs of all colors, but especially those that resembled the punished color
In _______ discrimination training, the SD and S∆ are presented at the same time.
simultaneous
An ________ is a stimulus that indicates that a particular behavior will be reinforced.
SD
Bill conducts an experiment in which he pairs the word psychologist
with words such as nasty, evil,
and corrupt. Later Bill asks his subjects to give their opinion of various professions by rating them on
a scale from very positive to very negative. Of the following professions, _______ will probably
receive the lowest rating.
social worker
In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented _______.
by a different teacher
The CS+ of Pavlovian discrimination training is analogous to the ___ /___of operant discrimination
training.
SD/S+
Harriet gives a monkey a choice between two blocks of wood, one rough and the other smooth. If the
animal selects the rough block, it receives a raisin; if it picks the smooth one, it receives nothing.
When the animal regularly picks the rough block, Harriet gives the animal a choice between the rough
block of wood and a new block of wood that is even rougher than the first. You predict that the
monkey will _______.
pick the new, very rough block
Howard studied hard for his math test and found that what he learned helped him on his physics test.
Howard benefited from _______.
generalization
With discrimination training, pigeons have learned to discriminate between paintings by Monet and
Picasso, even when the pictures were ones they had never seen before.
True
Herrnstein and others trained pigeons to respond to images of people. The researchers did this by
pinpointing a single defining feature (such as hair) on which the birds could discriminate humans
from other objects.
False
Studies of interference often involve learning pairs of words. This procedure is called paired _______ learning.
associate
The “man who couldn’t forget” was studied by__________.
Luria
Marjory memorized her part in the school play thoroughly in her apartment, but found that she
couldn’t remember her lines at rehearsal. Her trouble is consistent with the effects of context cues.
True
Bob is introduced to Matilda at a party. A few minutes later he is introduced to Harriet. When he
meets Matilda again, he can’t recall her name. This is most likely an example of _______
interference.
retroactive
When performance varies with an organism’s physiological condition, it is said to be _______ .
state-dependent
Endel Tulving said that _____ memories have to do with “knowledge of the world.”
semantic
In one of Rovee-Collier`s experiments with babies and mobiles, after a retention interval there was no sign of forgetting when the context was the same as that during training.
True
Memories that cannot be expressed are called _____.
nondeclarative
When the task is to identify stimuli to which the subject was exposed earlier, the measure of forgetting used is called_______.
recognition
When forgetting occurs because the environment during recall is different from the environment
during training, it is said to be ____________.
cue-dependent
A system for learning with flash cards is known by the acronym____________.
SAFMEDS
One measure of forgetting is called delayed matching to sample. This procedures could be considered a form of____________.
prompted recall
The first person to argue that the passage of time does not cause forgetting was probably __________.
McGeoch
To measure forgetting, Ebbinghaus used the ____________ method.
Relearning
Another term for episodic memory is ____ memory.
autobiographical
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of
learning.
True
Harry Bahrick’s studies of forgetting have involved retention inervals of up to _______.
five decades
Declarative memories include _______ and _______ memories.
semantic; episodic
The length of the retention interval is unrelated to the degree of forgetting.
False
Forgetting is a deterioration in learned performance following a period without practice.
True
Loftus found that eyewitness reports are influenced by the words used to ask about the event. In one
experiment, she found that use of the word “smashed” produced higher estimates of car speed than
use of the word____________.
hit
Forgetting can be measured as a flattening of the generalization gradient, a procedure called
gradient____________.
degradation
Forgetting is the deterioration of ____________ .
Performance
According to the _____________ metaphor, experiences are stashed in the brain like photographs in an album.
storage
Forgetting can be studied by requiring the subject to match a stimulus presented earlier, a procedure called ____________.
DMTS
Sir Frederick Barlett’s classic study of forgetting used the story, _________.
The War of the Ghosts
The term _______ memory refers to learned behavior that can be expressed, usually in words.
declarative
The period between the end of a learning experience and its recall is called the _______ interval.
retention
The first person to demonstrate the relationship between forgetting and degree of learning was
probably____________ .
Ebbinghaus
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of ____________.
Learning
It turns out that Jack (see item 7) can’t remember anything that happened from the time he and Jill
started up the hill. Jill takes Jack up the hill again and finds that he remembers seeing the well before.
Jill is measuring forgetting by using ____________.
prompted recall
The work of Levine and Murphy suggests that people are more likely to forget what they read if they ____________.
Disagree with it
The measure of forgetting called gradient degradation has to do with extinction.
False
The Chase and Simon study comparing chess masters and ordinary players showed that when chess
pieces were arranged in random order, ____________ .
chess masters and ordinary players forgot about the same amount
The name Benton Underwood is associated with paired associate learning.
True
A study of immobilized cockroaches showed the importance of ________________ in forgetting.
retroactive interference
Jack and Jill go up a hill to fetch a pail of water. Jack falls down and breaks his crown and Jill thinks he
may have suffered a concussion. To test his memory, she asks him if he remembers what happened. Jill
is measuring forgetting by the method known as ____________.
Free recall
When measuring forgetting using the extinction method, the behavior studied is ___________.
put on extinction after the retention interval
In _________ learning, two stimuli, A and B, are presented, and the task is then to recall B when
presented with A.
paired associate
Endel Tulving said that _____ memories have to do with “knowledge of the world.”
semantic
In _________ learning, two stimuli, A and B, are presented, and the task is then to recall B when
presented with A.
paired associate
The names of the Great Lakes can be recalled with help of the acronym, _______.
HOMES
When what we learned on Monday interferes with our ability to recall what we learned the following
Tuesday, we speak of ____________.
proactive interference
Jack and Jill go up a hill to fetch a pail of water. Jack falls down and breaks his crown and Jill thinks he
may have suffered a concussion. To test his memory, she asks him if he remembers what happened. Jill
is measuring forgetting by the method known as ____________.
free recall
Declarative knowledge is also called explicit knowledge.
True
The measure of forgetting called gradient degradation has to do with extinction.
False
The Chase and Simon study comparing chess masters and ordinary players showed that when chess
pieces were arranged in random order, ____________ .
chess masters and ordinary players forgot about the same amount
Bob is introduced to Matilda at a party. A few minutes later he is introduced to Harriet. When he
meets Matilda again, he can’t recall her name. This is most likely an example of _______
interference.
retroactive
The “savings method” is one way of measuring forgetting.
True
The first person to demonstrate the relationship between forgetting and degree of learning was
probably____________ .
Ebbinghaus
Clark’s nutcrackers apparently recall the location of something like _________ food caches.
2,000
Meaningful material is forgotten less readily than nonsense material. This shows the importance of ____________.
previous learning
When forgetting occurs because the environment during recall is different from the environment
during training, it is said to be ____________.
cue-dependent
Kamil and Balda found that Clark’s nutcrackers could recall the location of food caches for up to ____________.
6 months
Riding a bicycle is an example of _____ memory.
procedural
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of
learning.
True
Forgetting can be measured as a flattening of the generalization gradient, a procedure called
gradient____________.
degradation
Allen and Beatrice Gardner taught a chimpanzee to ____.
use sign language
Harry and Martha Frank found that on barrier problems dogs did not perform as well as ____.
wolves
Substances that damage the nervous system are called ____.
neurotoxins
John has difficulty training a raccoon to pick up coins and put them in a bank. It is most likely that ____.
the raccoon was contraprepared to learn this task
Learning is of vital importance because so many problems that face society involve ____.
behavior
Joseph Wolpe has raised doubts about the idea that people are ____.
prepared to acquire certain phobias
Organisms differ in their readiness to learn certain tasks
continuum of preparedness
Robert Tryon’s work demonstrates the role of heredity in ____.
maze learning
The psychologist who mistakenly believed that learned behavior could be inherited was ____.
McDougall
____ was one of the first to study imprinting.
Konrad Lorenz
Efforts to teach chimps to talk probably failed because ____.
of differences in anatomical structures/physical structure
Keller and Marion Breland are known for their article named ____.
“The Misbehavior of Organisms”
Garcia and Koelling paired water with radiation. They found that rats avoided ____.
tasty water if they were made sick by radiation and bright/noisy water if they had been shocked
Experiments in which young monkeys were reared in isolation from their mothers illustrates the importance of ____ periods for social development.
critical
The name most associated with inheritance of acquired characteristics is ____.
?
Learning does/doesn’t always mean progress.
doesn’t
When a species is unlikely to learn a response, it is ____ to learn.
The idea that an enriched environment in childhood can produce high intelligence is supported by ____.
critical periods?
Then tendency to revert to a fixed (or modal) action pattern is called ____.
instinctive drift
The person who suggests that humans may be biologically prepared to learn a language is ____.
Lenneberg
Merely imagining an event sometimes convinces people the event took place, a phenomenon called ____.
imagination inflation
True/False: Fixed action patterns and other innate behavioral tendencies affect the course of learning.
True
An animal that can learn to perform one trick is sure to learn another trick of similar complexity.
False
When performance varies with an organism’s physiological state, it is said to be ____ dependent.
state
Researchers have found organisms differ in their readiness to learn certain tasks. Martin Seligman called this tendency ____.
continuum of preparedness
Kendler, et al. found evidence that phobias ____.
?
Imagination inflation is probably an example of ____.
?
Armadillos curl up into a ball when attacked. It’s taught to curl at the sound of a buzzer. This is known as ____.
preparedness
As animals become experienced in an avoidance task, ____.
visible signs of fear decrease
Gardner and Gardner showed that the failure of chimpanzees to learn to speak may be due more to differences in ____ than in learning ability.
anatomy
Dogs are typically bred by breeders based on physical appearance and temperament, not learning ability. Wolves are products of ____, and learning ability likely contributes to their survival.
natural selection
Substances that damage neural tissues are called ____.
neurotoxins
The Brelands showed that ____ might facilitate learning in one situation and inhibit in another.
heredity/genetic factors
Martin Seligman proposed the ____.
continuum of preparedness
Stages for optimum learning are referred to as ____.
critical periods
The tendency of an animal to revert to a fixed action pattern is a phenomenon called ____.
instinctive drift
When animals have an inclination to behave in certain ways, this means they will learn some things with ease while learning other things with difficulty. These tendencies can be characterized as a ____.
continuum of preparedness
An animal comes to a learning situation ____, ____, or ____.
genetically prepared to learn, unprepared, contraprepared
When an animal is genetically ____ to learn, case learning proceeds quickly.
prepared
When an animal is genetically ____ to learn, learning proceeds steadily, but more slowly.
unprepared
When an animal is genetically ____ to learn, learning is slow and irregular.
contraprepared
Cook and Mineka had monkeys watch viedotapes of monkeys reacting fearfully to either snakes or flowers. The observers acquired a fear of ____ but not to ____.
snakes, flowers
True/False: People have an innate disposition to fear certain kinds of stimuli.
True

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