Psy 307 Final

Gina is MOST likely to experience disenfranchised grief if her _____ dies.
o
Ex-husband

Myette has just been told that she has breast cancer and that her tests show that the cancer has spread to her liver. Myette says, “I feel great. The lab obviously has my test results mixed up with someone else.” According to Kübler-Ross, Myette is in the _____ stage of dying.
o
Denial and isolation

In general, research suggests that physicians have a(n) ______ attitude toward advance directives.
o
Positive

Active euthanasia is legal in the state of:
o
Oregon

Traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:
o
provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.

A recent study found that advance care planning was associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
o
Decreased quality of care at the end of life

Which of the following statements about hospice care is TRUE?
o
Hospice care emphasizes palliative care.

Pining and preoccupation with thoughts of the deceased person are associated with:
o
separation anxiety.

Emilio is facing imminent death. Given a choice, the LEAST desirable place he would choose to die is:
o
In a nursing home

_____ is the emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love.
o
Grief

Active euthanasia is legal in:
o
the Netherlands and Uruguay.

In 1994, the state of _____ passed the Death With Dignity Act, which allows active euthanasia.
o
Oregon

Six months after their loss, approximately _____ percent of survivors have difficulty moving on with their life, feel numb or detached, believe their life is empty without the deceased, and feel that the future has no meaning.
o
10 to 20

A flat EEG (electroencephalogram) recording for a specified period of time is one criterion of:
o Brain death

Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?
o
Only the terminally ill can write one.

In the Gond culture of India, death is believed to be caused by:
o
Magic and demons

_____ is a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible.
o
Hospice

After accepting the certainty of death, a period of _____ or preparatory grief may appear.
o
Depression

Turning off a respirator or a heart-lung machine is an example of _____ euthanasia.
o
Passive

_____ grief is grief over a deceased person that is socially ambiguous and cannot be openly mourned or supported.
o
Disenfranchised

Vashti believes that the more energetic and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives. Thus she believes in:
Activity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, the emotion trajectory is high during:
infancy and early childhood.

Alice, Jane, Lois, and Sandra have been friends since grade school. Over the years, they have given each other support and shared in each other’s joys and sadness. This is an example of which model of social relations?
The convoy model

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?
Older adults have more selective social networks and a greater acceptance of solitude.

Which of the following is the MOST frequent form of ageism?
Disrespect for older adults

Aging expert Laura Carstensen concluded that people:
choose close friends over new friends as they grow older

All of the following are associated with reminiscence therapy in older adults EXCEPT:
Increased physical mobility.

Approximately _____ of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults 65 and over, who comprise only 12 percent of the population.
One-third

Which of the following statements about cohabiting older adults is TRUE?
Research indicates that middle-aged and older adult cohabiting men and women reported higher levels of depression than their married counterparts.

One study revealed that an important factor among older adults who showed a higher level of emotion regulation and successful aging was:
reduced responsiveness to regrets.

Which of the following is NOT true of Internet penetration and usage amongst older adults?
Older adults log lesser time on the Internet than younger adults.

Which of the following theories challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?
Socioemotional selectivity theory

In 2012, _____ percent of U.S. adults over 65 years of age were married.
58

A recent analysis concluded that rates of volunteering do not decline significantly until the:
Mid-seventies

Data from a recent longitudinal study found that internet use by older adults was associated with a decrease of one-third in the likelihood of developing:
Depression

A recent study found that activities with friends _____ positive affect and life satisfaction in older adults.
Increased

Which of the following theories explains why older adults spend MOST of their time with familiar individuals and family?
Socioemotional selectivity theory

Which of the following statements about social support for older adults is FALSE?
Social support has not been shown to affect depression in older adults.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
Life review

A longitudinal study of more than 1,200 individuals across seven decades revealed that a higher score on the Big Five personality factor of _____ predicted a lower risk of earlier death from childhood through late adulthood.
Conscientiousness

According to research, each successive generation in the twentieth and now the twenty-first century is _____ educated than generations prior.
More

Which of the following is the leading cause of death in the 75-84 and 85 and over age groups?
Cardiovascular disease

In 2011, 1 in _____ men 75 or older was still working.
9

Which of the following is NOT one of the three major diseases that can impair the vision of older adults?
Myopia

Cognitive neuroscience has uncovered some important links between aging, the brain, and cognitive functioning. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
In older adults, the functioning of the hippocampus declines more than the functioning of the frontal lobes.

_____ is the most common chronic disorder in late adulthood.
Arthritis

All of the following are characteristics associated with centenarians EXCEPT:
Smoking

Older adults who participated in 20 one-hour video game training sessions with the program Lumosity showed improvements in their:
selective attention.

Researchers are exploring _____ buffering strategies, such as exercise, in an effort to find ways to attenuate some of the negative effects of stress on the aging process.
Stress

Which of the following is observed in older adults?
The chest size decreases.

Alzheimer disease is a form of:
Dementia

Estimates indicate that as many as _____ percent of individuals 65 years of age and older have mild cognitive impairment.
10 to 20

The cognitive benefits for older adults who exercise include all of the following EXCEPT
Expanded short-term memory capacity.

Salina walks with a marked stoop now that she is old. This is most likely due to:
Osteoporosis

Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of various types of training in improving working memory in older adults. These studies provide evidence for the ______ of working memory in older adults.
Plasticity

In 2011, which of the following countries had the highest life expectancy?
Monaco

_____ is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease.
Mild cognitive impairment

_____ is a condition in which individuals may have relatively normal peripheral vision but are unable to see clearly what is right in front of them.
Macular degeneration

Ellie is 75 years old. According to your text, she is MOST likely to complain about:
Back pain

Which of the following statements about older workers is TRUE?
Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

_____ develops when individuals sense that they have done nothing for the next generation.
Stagnation

Which of the following aspects of life do middle-aged adults feel they have less control over?
Sex life

According to the Big Five factors of personality, which of the following personality supertrait describes whether an individual is either secure or insecure?
Neuroticism

_____ encompasses adults’ desire to leave legacies of themselves to the next generation.
Generativity

In a recent study by Cox & others, _____ was strongly linked to middle-aged adults’ positive social engagement in contexts such as family life and community activities.
Generativity

What did Levinson’s research conclude about women in midlife transition?
Levinson reported that his stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for women as well as men.

George Vaillant concludes that _____ is a time for detecting parental flaws and discovering the truth about childhood.
Adolescence

Which of the following is TRUE of middle-aged and older adults who had poor sibling relationships in childhood?
Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.

Which of the following is one of the Big Five factors of personality?
Extraversion

The _____ model of personality development states that with time and age people become more adept at interacting with their environment in ways that promote increased stability in personality.
Cumulative personality

According to Levinson, the transition to middle adulthood lasts about _____ years.
Five

Saeko has commited herself to the continuation and improvement of society as a whole through her connection with their children and grandchildren. According to Erikson, she is:
Generative

According to Levinson, one of the changes to middle adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts?
Being attractive versus being unattractive

According to research, grandparents who are raising their grandchildren are at increased risk for developing:
Depression

Which of the following is a major difference between Levinson’s and Valliant’s view on midlife?
Valliant maintains that only a minority of adults experience midlife as a crisis.

In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the primary reason middle-aged and older women cited for wanting a divorce was:
verbal, physical, or emotional abuse.

According to the contemporary life-events approach, the influence of life events also depends on all of the following factors EXCEPT:
The individual’s cognitive capacity

Three prominent meanings are attached to being a grandparent. Which of the following is NOT one of those meanings?
A financial strain

Middle-aged partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they:
engage in mutual activities.

Which of the following is TRUE about Austrian psychiatrist Viktor Frankl?
He argued that examining the finiteness of our existence and the certainty of death adds meaning to life.

In a study of adults 55 years and older, sexual activity was linked to:
improvements in physical and mental health.

According to a study by Park, _____ religious individuals were less likely to be psychologically distressed
Highly

Harriet, a middle-aged woman, just started taking yoga classes. She is likely to see a decrease in her:
Menopausal symptoms

What was the average life expectancy in 1900?
47 years

All of the following have been identified as sources of chronic stress EXCEPT:
Marital satisfaction

On average, body fat accounts for about _____ of body weight in middle age.
20 percent

Which of the following statements about cardiovascular disease is TRUE?
When HDL is high and LDL is low, the risk of cardiovascular disease is lessened.

Exercise in middle-age was linked to a reduction in the occurrence of lung cancer by approximately:
68 percent

Which of the following statements about late midlife is FALSE?
People in late midlife are less likely to experience their last child leaving home than people in early midlife.

Age-related loss of muscle strength is especially marked in:
The back and legs

In a longitudinal study of individuals from their early thirties through their late sixties/early seventies:
a significant increase in spirituality occurred between late middle and late adulthood.

Stan, a middle-aged man, rarely gets more than five hours of sleep a night. Stan is at risk for:
a weakening of his immune system.

Questions such as, “To which age group do you belong?” and “How old do you feel?” reflect the concept of:
Age identity

The pleasant times after work when individuals are free to pursue activities of their own interest is called:
Leisure

A man in his mid-forties is MOST likely to notice:
Joint stiffness

Toby has the ability to visualize three-dimensional objects and rotate them. Toby’s ability is known as:
spatial orientation

According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older women?
Lack of sexual interest

Identify a possible reason for the changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence of different age groups in John Horn’s cross-sectional study
Cohort effects

Which of the following is MOST typical of the vision-related issues faced by middle-aged persons?
Difficulty viewing close objects

In terms of attachment, who fulfills the needs for young adults that parents did for their children?
Romantic partners

A recent study found that an insecure attachment to parents at age 14 predicted:
a more anxious romantic attachment style at age 22.

Juggling the competing demands of intimacy, identity, and independence becomes a central task of:
Adulthood

Juggling the competing demands of intimacy, identity, and independence becomes a central task of:
Intimacy

Development in early adulthood involves a balance of:
intimacy and commitment on the one hand, with independence and freedom on the other.

A recent study revealed that in their early twenties, women showed more _____ with their closest friend than did men.
emotional intimacy

According to Ellen Berscheid, the most important ingredient of romantic love is:
Sexual desire

A relationship marked by intimacy and commitment but low or lacking in passion is called _____, a pattern often found among couples who have been married for many years.
Affectionate love

Bob worships his colleague Anne. He loves her from afar but there is no intimacy or closeness between them. Sternberg would characterize this as _____ love.
Fatuous

According to Robert Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, consummate love is characterized by:
passion, intimacy, and commitment.

According to Sternberg, the strongest, fullest form of love is ______ love.
Consummate

Carlise feels passionate about her husband, they often disclose their innermost thoughts to one another, and both are committed to the relationship. Which type of love describes their relationship?
Consummate

Which of the following is NOT a problem that face many cohabitating couples?
Pet ownership

Living together in a sexual relationship without being married is known as:
Cohabitation

Which country has the highest divorce rate?
Russia

With regard to the timing of remarriage, in the United States:
men tend to remarry sooner than women do.

The average age that a woman gives birth for the first time in the United States is:
26

Most parents learn parenting practices from:
Their own parents

According to Tannen, women enjoy _____ talk more than _____ talk.
Rapport; report

“I don’t need all the elaborate details, just tell me what I need to know.” This phrase is typical of someone who prefers _____ talk when communicating.
report

In the United States, the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood is:
holding a permanent, full-time job.

James, an American, will most likely consider himself an adult when he _____, whereas Nirmal, an Indian, will most likely consider himself an adult when he _____.
gets a full-time job; gets married

Just as the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school involves change and possible stress, so does the transition from high school to college. The two transitions have many parallels. Which of the following is one of them?
The top-dog phenomenon

Muscle tone and strength usually begin to show signs of decline around the age of:
30

A recent study revealed that college students from low-SES backgrounds _____ than their higher-SES counterparts.
engaged in lower levels of physical activity

A recent study of college students from low-SES backgrounds and high-SES backgrounds showed that college students from low-SES backgrounds _____ than their higher-SES counterparts.
ate more fast food and fewer fruits/vegetables

Being overweight or obese is linked to increased risk of:
Hypertension

Rhett is looking for the most effective way to lose his excess weight and to keep it off. You would tell him that the most effective weight-loss programs invariably include:
Exercise

Sustained exercises such as jogging, swimming, or cycling that stimulate heart and lung activity are known as:
aerobic exercises.

Marie is reluctant to marry since she is worried that her husband might cheat on her. You would tell her that adultery is:
clearly the exception rather than the rule.

In 1994, Robert Michael and his colleagues conducted a comprehensive survey of American sexual patterns. Results from this “Sex in America” survey suggested that Americans’ sexual lives are _____ than previously believed.
more conservative

Which of the following is true regarding gender differences in heterosexual and homosexual relationships?
Both heterosexual women and lesbians have fewer sexual partners than men

Condoms are less effective against the spread of:
Herpes

According to Jean Piaget, which of the following characterizes the thinking of 7- to 11-year-olds?
Concrete operational thinking

Some developmentalists theorize that it is not until adulthood that many individuals consolidate their _____ thinking.
formal operational

Identify the way in which young adults think differently from adolescents.
The thinking of young adults is more reflective.

The number of full and part-time college students who are also working has _____ since 2008.
decreased

According to the 2014-2015 Occupational Outlook Handbook, all of the following are projected to be the fastest growing job categories EXCEPT:
Lawyers

Which of the following is NOT linked to cardiovascular disease?
Life satisfaction

Alonzo is unemployed. According to your text, he is at risk for
cardiovascular disease.

Identity development:
gets done in bits and pieces.

An individual’s body image encompasses his/her:
physical identity

Which of the following is the term Erik Erikson uses to describe the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy?
Psychosocial moratorium

Which of the following is the identity status where crisis and commitment are both absent?
Identity diffusion

Which of the following is the identity status where a crisis is present but commitment is absent?
identity moratorium

Most researchers believe that changes in identity are more likely to take place during:
emerging adulthood.

Which of the following is NOT associated with low levels of parental monitoring?
Higher academic achievement

Which of the following statements about autonomy-granting in adolescence is TRUE?
Boys are given more independence than girls.

Reggie, 16, gets into a lot of arguments with his parents. Going by what is generally observed about parent-adolescent conflict, it is likely that most of the arguments center around:
everyday events of family life.

Mexican-origin adolescent girls living in the United States expected autonomy:
at an earlier age than their mothers preferred.

_____, the most influential theorist to discuss the importance of adolescent friendships, proposed that friends become increasingly important in meeting social needs in adolescence
Harry Stack Sullivan

Sullivan argued that the need for _____ intensifies during early adolescence, motivating teenagers to seek out close friends.
Intimacy

_____ are small groups that range from two to about twelve individuals and average about five or six individuals
Cliques

What is the difference between cliques and crowds?
Cliques are more personal than crowds.

A study of tenth graders revealed that:
having more romantic experience was linked to a higher level of substance use and delinquency.

Sita is girl who lives in India; Suki is a girl who lives in Japan. They both have two older brothers. According to research, who is MOST likely to have better access to education?
Sita is girl who lives in India; Suki is a girl who lives in Japan. They both have two older brothers. According to research, who is MOST likely to have better access to education?
o Suki

A national survey revealed that _____ percent of 18- to 24-year-olds had created a profile on a social networking site and _____ percent of them visited a social networking site several times a day.
81;31

Which of the following statements about the trends in juvenile delinquency in the U.S. is FALSE?
about half of the delinquency caseloads in 2005 involved females.

Which of the following is TRUE about why males are more likely than females to succeed in committing suicide?
They use more lethal means than do females.

Who among the following are LEAST likely to exhibit suicidal behavior?
African-American male adolescents

The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs approximately _____ for girls than for boys.
two years earlier

Which of the following statements about the timing and variations in puberty is TRUE?
For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.

Who amongst the following is MOST likely to be dissatisfied with body image as pubertal change proceeds?
A girl in early adolescence

Donna is concerned about her adolescent daughter’s tendency to flare up at the mildest provocations. Donna says that her daughter refuses to see reason sometimes and seems unable to exercise much self-control. As a specialist in the development of adolescents, you would tell Donna that her daughter’s behavior could partly be explained by the biological reason that:
the amygdala—the seat of emotions such as anger—matures earlier than the prefrontal cortex in adolescents.

The _____ is the “judgment” region that reins in intense emotions but doesn’t finish developing until at least emerging adulthood.
Prefrontal cortex

Over the last two decades, the U.S. birth rate for 15- to 19-year-olds has decreased by approximately ______ percent.
50

In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _____ percent risk of getting HIV.
1

In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a ______ percent risk of contracting gonorrhea.
50

Daughters of teenage mothers are:
at increased risk for teenage childbearing.

Research has shown that infants born to adolescent mothers are more likely to have:
Childhood illnesses

In terms of sex education, most experts agree:
that sex education programs reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections.

Sleep deprivation during adolescence contributes to all of the following EXCEPT:
Better academic achievement.

Mary Carskadon and her colleagues’ research on adolescent sleep patterns found that:
when given the opportunity, adolescents will sleep an average of 9 hours and 25 minutes a night.

Anorexia nervosa is about _____ likely to occur in females than males.
10 times more

Identify the similarity between anorexics and bulimics.
They have a distorted body image

In contrast to Piaget’s views, the development of formal operational thinking:
is promoted by education in the logic of science and mathematics.

According to David Elkind, personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent:
Egocentrism

Fifteen-year-old Juanita wants to skip school today because she is having a bad hair day and is convinced that everybody will notice and think badly of her. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?
Imaginary audience

In terms of decision making, adolescents make better decisions:
When they are calm

In a study, almost 50 percent of high school dropouts cited _____ reasons for leaving school.
School-related

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