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psy 3 – Flashcard

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a
answer

. The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as A) chunking. B) automatic processing. C) long-term potentiation. D) the spacing effect.
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c
answer

In one experiment, college men were injected with epinephrine before spending time with either a joyful or an irritated person. The results of this experiment support the idea that A) some emotions can be experienced apart from cognition. B) there are subtle but distinct physiological differences among the emotions. C) our experience of emotion depends on how we interpret the body’s arousal. D) happiness is largely a function of experience.
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b
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Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the A) thalamus. B) cortex. C) hypothalamus. D) cerebellum.
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a
answer

As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair’s heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system. A) sympathetic B) central C) somatic D) parasympathetic
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c
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The right prefrontal cortex is more active than the left prefrontal cortex when people experience A) pride. B) joy. C) disgust. D) love.
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a
answer

In response to stress, the adrenal glands release A) epinephrine. B) lymphocytes. C) carcinogens. D) serotonin
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c
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Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities. A) problem-focused B) emotion-focused C) Type A D) Type B
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a
answer

Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as A) deviant. B) disinhibiting. C) dysfunctional. D) disorganized.
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d
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Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior? A) panic disorder B) anorexia nervosa C) obsessive-compulsive disorder D) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
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a
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According to the medical model, psychological disorders are A) sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured. B) maladaptive responses to a troubling environment. C) purely imaginary symptoms of distress. D) learned habits that need to be extinguished
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a
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The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of A) social circumstances and psychological factors. B) biological evolution. C) the DSM-IV-TR. D) genetically influenced abnormalities.
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c
answer

When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of A) the medical model. B) linkage analysis. C) self-fulfilling prophecies. D) the psychoanalytic perspective.
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b
answer

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by A) offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person. B) a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal. C) hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion. D) alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
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d
answer

Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from A) obsessive-compulsive disorder. B) personality disorder. C) generalized anxiety disorder. D) a phobia.
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d
answer

Obsessions are A) persistent, irrational fears of specific objects, activities, or situations. B) false beliefs of persecution or grandeur. C) periodic episodes of intense dread accompanied by frightening physical sensations. D) offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
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c
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According to the ________ perspective, anxiety is sometimes produced by the submerged mental energy associated with repressed impulses. A) biological B) learning C) psychoanalytic D) social-cognitive
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d
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Which perspective emphasizes the role of classical conditioning in the onset of anxiety disorders? A) humanistic perspective B) psychodynamic perspective C) biological perspective D) learning perspective
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a
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Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors. A) reinforcement B) dissociation C) observational learning D) stimulus generalization
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b
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Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with A) antisocial disorder. B) major depressive disorder. C) obsessive-compulsive disorder. D) dissociative disorder.
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b
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A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as A) paranoia. B) mania. C) a panic attack. D) seasonal affective disorder.
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b
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In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement? A) panic disorder B) bipolar disorder C) obsessive-compulsive disorder D) schizophrenia
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a
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Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by A) disorganized and fragmented thinking. B) a lack of guilt feelings. C) alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism. D) periodic intervals of uncontrollable violence.
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b
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Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from A) obsessive-compulsive disorder. B) schizophrenia. C) panic disorder. D) dissociative identity disorder.
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c
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Brain scans have found enlarged fluid-filled areas in people with A) antisocial personality disorder. B) panic disorder. C) schizophrenia. D) agoraphobia.
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d
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The treatment of serious psychological disorders with prescribed medications or medical procedures that directly influence the nervous system is called A) systematic desensitization. B) cognitive-behavioral therapy. C) psychodynamic therapy. D) biomedical therapy.
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d
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A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is A) stress inoculation training. B) systematic desensitization. C) active listening. D) free association.
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a
answer

Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of A) behavior therapy. B) humanistic therapy. C) psychodynamic therapy. D) cognitive therapy.
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c
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A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger unwanted responses is called A) light exposure therapy. B) transference. C) counterconditioning. D) unconditional positive regard.
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d
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An integrative therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as A) light exposure therapy. B) meta-analysis. C) psychopharmacology. D) cognitive-behavioral therapy.
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c
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Which form of therapy most directly encourages clients to question their interpretations, decatastrophize their thinking, and reattribute responsibility for past outcomes? A) humanistic therapy B) behavior therapy C) cognitive therapy D) psychodynamic therapy
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d
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Rational-emotive behavior therapies are most likely to A) encourage clients to value their own unique moment-to-moment feelings. B) focus attention on the client’s positive and negative feelings toward the therapist. C) identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences. D) vigorously challenge clients’ self-defeating ways of thinking.
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b
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The assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is most clearly central to A) progressive relaxation. B) cognitive therapies. C) behavior modification. D) exposure therapies.
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c
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Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of A) classical conditioning. B) light exposure therapy. C) behavior modification. D) progressive relaxation.
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c
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In treating alcohol dependence, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as A) operant conditioning. B) systematic desensitization. C) aversive conditioning. D) transference.
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d
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The placebo effect refers to A) relief from symptoms without psychotherapy. B) the alleviation of depression and anxiety by means of aerobic exercise. C) the use of drugs in the therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. D) the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
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d
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Colette received a surprisingly high grade on her first biology test. She failed to perform as well on her second test, even though she studied equally for both tests. Which of the following best explains Colette’s deteriorating pattern of performance? A) the placebo effect B) systematic desensitization C) meta-analysis D) regression toward the mean
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c
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Behavioral conditioning therapies have achieved especially favorable results in the treatment of A) bipolar disorders. B) tardive dyskinesia. C) phobias. D) major depressive disorder.
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b
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Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to A) the therapeutic alliance. B) the placebo effect. C) progressive relaxation. D) stress inoculation training.
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d
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Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and an understanding of patient characteristics best illustrates A) EMDR. B) meta-analysis. C) long-term potentiation. D) evidence-based practice.
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b
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Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without triggering seizures or memory loss? A) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing B) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation C) systematic desensitization D) psychosurgery
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d
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Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of A) phobias. B) dissociative disorders. C) schizophrenia. D) depression.
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a
answer

After discontinuing heavy use of an antianxiety drug, Angela experienced increased anxiety and difficulty sleeping. Angela was experiencing symptoms of A) withdrawal. B) transference. C) tardive dyskinesia. D) neurogenesis.
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b
answer

Instead of focusing on unconscious and repressed thoughts and impulses, ________ therapies focus on conscious thoughts and self-perceptions. A) behavior B) humanistic C) biomedical D) psychodynamic