PSY 235 Test Answers

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homunculus theory
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Jean Jacques Rousseau
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Belief that people develop from savage to more civilized with the two maximizing in appearance during stage 3 (noble savage)
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John Locke
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Tabula rasa
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continuity v discontinuity
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stability v change
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nature v nurture
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How to calculate degree of nature v nurture
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-Identical twins (MZ) and same-sex fraternal twins (DZ) -Raised apart v together
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General influences of development
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1. Heredity/genetic 2. Shared environmental influences 3. Nonshared environmental influences
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Heritability estimates (high, moderate, low)
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Three Kinds of Gene-Environment Interactions
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1. Passive 2. Active – 3. Evocative
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Freud (psychosexual theory of development)
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Libido – 0 – 1.5: 1.5 – 3: 3 – 6: 6 – puberty: Puberty onward:
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Erikson (Psychosocial thoery of development)
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Operant conditioning
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Theory vs. hypothesis
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Freud’s structure of personality
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ID – born with, driven by pleasure principle, subconscious, no ethics or values o EGO – developed around age 1, driven by reality principle o SUPEREGO – developed around age 5, driven by morality principal, how you ought to behave (right and wrong)
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Fixation
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according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
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Oedipus complex
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according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
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Electra complex
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conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals, counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females
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Defense Mechanisms
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Repression, Regression, Projection, Reaction formation
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Reaction formation
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psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
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Repression
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in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
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Regression
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psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
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Projection
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psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
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B.F. Skinner
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Life-span developmental perspective (Paul Bates)
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Development is: 1. lifelong 2. multidimensional 3. multidirectional 4. plastic 5. shaped by historical-cultural context 6. multiply influences 7. multidisciplinary
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Knowledge & Hypothesis types
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descriptive, correlational, causal
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Sources of knowledge
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Intuition Authority Rational-inductive argument Empirical knowledge
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Conclusions based on empirical knowledge
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– can never find certain proof – evidence is probabilistic
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Descriptive knowledge
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description/definition/classification of a phenomenon
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Correlational (predictive) knowledge
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relationship/association/correlation between 2+ phenomena
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Correlation coefficient interpretation
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0.1- 0 0.29 weak 0.30 – 0.59 moderate 0.60 – 1.00 strong
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Causal understanding
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determine most likely cause of a phenonmenon Independent var & dependent var
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Descriptive, Correlational, & Causal hypotheses
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1. descriptive – determines if behavior exists, can be measured & distinguished from others 2. correlational – hypothesizes relationship 3. causal – difference in amount/kind of one variable cause difference in amount/kind of other
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Three critical features of true experiments
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1. Random assignment of individuals to treatment conditions, 2. Manipulation of independent variable, 3. Experimental control
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Methods (section)
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sample (who?) study design (how/when/where?) measures (which instruments) plan of analysis (type)
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Examples of constructs
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Mental health, emotions/affect, SES, relationship with, achievement/performance, traits, health behaviors, stress, leisure activities, delinquent behaviors
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Operationalizations of mental health
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major depressive episode, depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms
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Data collection methods
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1. Behavioral observation 2. Verbal/self-report 3. Psychophysiological measures
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Behavioral observation
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Naturalistic structured
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Types of verbal/self-report
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1. questionnaires/surveys 2. interviews
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Examples of psychophysiological measurements
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1. CNS – fMRI & EEG 2. Autonomic nervous system – HR & BP 3. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis (serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, 24hr urinary cortisol, hair cortisol)
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Psychophysiological measurements: advantages & limitations
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Developmental research designs
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1. cross-sectional 2. longitudinal designs (long-term, short-term) 3. Sequential designs
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Research: Words of caution
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– don’t assume group research applies to each individual – don’t overgeneralize about a small or clinical sample – don’t take a single study as the defining word – don’t accept causal conclusions from correlational studies
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research ethics
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standards of conduct that protect participants: -informed consent -debriefing -protection from harm -confidentiality -adverse events
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Gender role
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The set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex
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gender role stereotype
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socially determined model which contains the cultural beliefs about what the gender roles should be. It is what a society expects men and women to think, look like, and behave. Gender role stereotypes are often based on gender norms.
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gender identity
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One’s sense of being male or female.
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gender typing
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The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts (motives), and emotions (values) associated with a particular gender.
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gender similarities hypothesis
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Hyde’s proposition that men and women (and boys and girls) are much more similar than they are different.
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research findings on gender differences (or similarities)
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gender differences: birth
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gender differences: infancy
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gender differences: childhood
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gender differences: adolescence
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young adulthood
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midlife & older adulthood
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Psychological androgyny
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Psychological androgyny: Research findings
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Eagly’s (1987) social-role hypothesis
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-Emphasis is that gender differences directly relate to economic/raising roles taken by men & women in society -Men in industry & business must be forceful, women raising children at nurturer. (Eventually social role perceived as \”natural\”) -Contextual view, not biological explanation of gender differences
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Kohlberg’s cognitive theory of gender typing
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-children use physical and behavioral clues to differentiate gender roles and to gender type themselves very early in life -three phases: (1) age 2-3: basic gender identity; (2) age 4-5: gender stability; (3) age 6-7: gender constancy -children begin to recognize males and females as distinct categories when they are still infants prior to language ability (suggests that the process of understanding gender begins earlier than Kohlberg proposed) -by 17-28 months, most children are using gender labels (but, still have limited understanding of gender identity)
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Social-learning theorists
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theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influences of other people’s behavior and of a person’s own expectancies of learnin. — went against skinner
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information processing theory
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a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
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biosocial theory
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gender role development theory by Money and Ehrhardt. calls attention to the ways in which biological events influence the development of boys and girls.prenatal hormones. suggest that early biological development influences how people react to a child and that these social reactions then have much to do with children assuming gender roles.
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prenatal development periods
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1. Germinal Period (0-2 wks) zygote 2. Embryonic Period (3-8 wks) 3. Fetal Period (9 wks-birth)
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Types of Teratogens
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diseases of the mother, enviromental pollutants, social & behavioral factors, legal and illegal drugs, radiation
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Mother’s influence
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Age, race/ethnicity, emotional condition, nutrition
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Father’s influence
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State
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Kangaroo care
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Used for low birth weight babies
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Breast feeding & its benefits
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– Best nourishment (recommended by all major health orgs) for 6 months – Mother: reduce breast cancer, less thyroid problems, reduce cervical cancer – Child: childhood obesity, allergies, bone density, SIDs, cognitive development
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bottle feeding
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risk factor not protected from anti bodies like breastfed babies
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Mother’s least likely to breast feed
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– full time working – under 25 yo – no HS degree – AA mothers – low SES
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Puberty
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Sexual maturation; the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible
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Physical changes of puberty
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Primary sex characteristics (related to reproduction), Secondary sex characteristics
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Triggers of pubertal maturation
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Genetics, nutrition, obesity, Family environmental (less proximity to biological relatives),
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menarche
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the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman – greater with 106 ilbs (+/- 3) or 17% body fat
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Typical start of puberty
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Girls: 7 to 13 year Boys: 9 to 14 years Last 1.5 to 6 years
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Puberty effects on social development
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Psychological effects Bullying
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Effect of puberty 25 laters
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Early: more responsible, self-controlled, less humor, more aligned to standards Late: more insightful, more inventive/creative, stronger sense of identity
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Aging: can it be reversed?
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Can change structure, but no aging process – aerobic exercise improves heart & lung – sexual activity stimulates reproductive health – HGH may accelerate growth (mice studies)
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Theories of aging: wear & tear
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body wears down
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Theories of aging: cellular clock theory
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– cells replicate no more than 75 – 80 times – no matter what, they couldn’t divide anymore – cells from children divide more than adults
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Theories of aging: free-radical theory
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– every time a cell metabolizes energy, free radicals are produced, damaging cells internally – overeating causing higher free radicals
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How to predict longevity
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biomarkers – universal markers of biological aging. E.g.: immune system & DHEA (produced in andrenal glands)
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Centenarians
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– ppl over 100 yo (70,000 in the world) – Jeanne Clements lived to be 122 y.o. – supercentenarians are over 110 y.o. (153 in the world)
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Life expectancy
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-Japan has highest -Afghanistan & Kenya have lowest – US males 74, females 80 – influenced by environmental, but twin studies reveal 25% is genetic
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Midlife: Physical changes (40 to 64 years)
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-Skin sags/wrinkles -age spots -hair thin & gray -nails thicker, brittle, and yellow -teeth – yellow -weight – height decreases
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Midlife: Sensory changes
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– accommodation of the eyes decreases with reduced blood supply – hearing i simpaired by age 30 bc of loud noise exposure
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Midlife: Cardiovascular changes
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– high blood pressure – prevention: diet (rich in fruit & vegetables) and exercise
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Midlife: muscular changes
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Sarcopenia – age related loss of muscle mass and strength (most common in back and legs)
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Midlife: Lung changes
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– reduced long capacity and elasticity – smokers show most significant changes
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Midlife: skeletal changes
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– Bone loss – women 2x rate of men – stiff joints – more use, the better (thought the opposite was once thought)
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Midlife: Health problem changes
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Increased: diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, heart condition, visual impairement
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Top causes of death
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– Heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lung disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, diabetes – Study: people who have low fitness were three more times as likely to die as those with high fitness
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Exercise
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Benefits mood (lower incidence of depression), cognitive functioning – Estimated to delay onset of physical disabilities by 7 years
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Older age (65+) changes
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– physical changes continue – sarcopenia continues
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Cognition
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Piaget’s Basic Assumption
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-**Active and motivated learners** -Construct knowledge from their own personal experiences -Learn through assimilation and accommodation -Interactions with one’s physical and social environments are essential for development -Equilibration promotes progression towards more complex thought -Cognitive development depends to some degree on neurological development
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Scheme/a (schemes/schemata)
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– cognitive structure or organized pattern of action or thought used to deal with experiences – knowledge acquired via organization, adaptation
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Assimilation
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the process of fitting objects and experiences into one’s schemas
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Accommodation
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– in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality – cognitive conflict = cognitive growth
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Piaget’s cognitive development: Sensorimotor
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birth to nearly 2 years; experiencing the world through senses and actions; objective permanence, stranger anxiety
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Piaget’s preoperational stage
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– (age 2-6/7) prelogical, child begins to represent the world symbolically, inability to deal with several aspects of a problem simultaneously – Characteristics of this period: a. \”Immanent justice\”—punishment for bad deeds is unavoidable b. \”Egocentrism\”—children see themselves as the center of the universe, are unable to understand another’s point of view c. \”Phenomenalistic causality\”—events that occur together are thought to cause one another d. \”Animistic thinking\”—physical events and objects are endowed with feelings and intentions e. lacks class inclusion and conservation
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Piaget’s concrete operational stage
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– (7-11 y.o.) – logical reasoning about concrete events & objects – conservation: can add, subtract, line from shortest to tallest BUT cannot make hypotheses – less egocentrism and classification problems
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Piaget’s formal operational stage
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(11+ y.o.) *characterized by abstract thinking, hypothetico-deductive reasoning and propositional reasoning *adolescent egocentrism is characteristic of the early formal operational stage and involves an inability to distinguish one’s own abstract perspectives from those of others *personal fable and the imaginary audience are two manifestations of adolescent egocentrism *Invincibility attitude (drug use, suicide, having unprotected sex)
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Piaget: Contributions
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– there are stages to cognitive development – infants are active in cognitve development
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Piaget: Limitations
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– abrupt changes in cognitive development – underestimated cognitive abilities – lack of recognition of social influences on cognitive development
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Spearman’s g
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a general intelligence factor that predicts our abilities in varied academic areas. Strenghts: Different abilities, such as verbal and spacial, do have some tendency to correlate. Other Considerations: human abilities are too diverse to be encapsulated by a single general intelligence factor.
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Catell & Horn
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Fluid (problem solving) and crystallized (facts learned) intelligence
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Stanford-Binet IQ test
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– Calculates IQ as (mental age/ chronological age)*100 – Composite score of verbal, quantitative, abstract/visual/spatial, short-term memory
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Weschler Scales
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an IQ test that provides separate measures of verbal and performance(or nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score.
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IQ: Nature or nurture?
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– twin studies show IQ has moderate to high heritability – influence of nature increases with age
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IQ: Evidence for nature
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Heritability of intelligence: twins raised with same family (r=0.9), different families (0.79)
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IQ Evidence for nurture: Flynn effect
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Flynn effect
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finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately 3 points per decade
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How environmental factors impact children IQ (at age 4)
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Poverty: inadequate heath care, overcrowded/unsafe neighborhoods, family chronic stress, lack of cognitive stimulation, less parental involvement, lack of resources – Poverty: avg 10-20 drop in IQ for below middle-class peers
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Reasons for race/ethnicity differences IQ
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– no evidence linking racial genetic makeup – Reasons: culture bias, motivational differences, negative stereotypes, more likely to be impoverished
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Summary of factors associated with high IQ
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stimulating environment, parental involvement, exposure to culture of school tests (so they know how to take them)
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Age & fluid vs. crystallized intelligence
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– fluid is highest in young adults and crystallized increases throughout life
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Does intelligence increase during adulthood?
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Cross-sectional: younger adults do better than older Longitudinal: increases until 50s at least
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Seattle Longitudinal study
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– Made decline seem more gradual than cross-sectional study does – 1956 study of verbal, spatial, reasoning, numerical ability, and word fluency – multidimensionality – numerical ability and perceptional speed decline more rapidly than other constructs
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Critique of longitudinal studies
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practice effects, selective dropout
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Selective optimization and compensation (SOC) theory
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– Adults use strategies that allow them to maintain functions into adulthood – Selection: choose – Optimization: practice – Compensation: alter behavior to deal with decreased ability, make deficiencies less noticeable – Eg: Arthur Rubenstein remained pianist throughout lifetime bc he focused on few songs more frequently

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