PSY 223 Exam 4

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Actual Self
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Person’s perception of the self as it is, contrasted with the possible self
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Possible Self
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Person’s conceptions of the self as it potentially may be; may include both an ideal self and a feared self
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Ideal Self
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Person one would like to be
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Feared Self
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Person one imagines it is possible to become but dreads becoming
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False Self
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Self a person may present to others while realizing that it does not represent what he or she is actually thinking and feeling
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Gender-Intensification Hypothesis
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Hypothesis that psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed gender roles
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Preconventional Reasoning
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First level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on perceptions of the likelihood of external rewards and punishments
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Conventional Reasoning
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Second level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the expectations of others
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Post-conventional Reasoning
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Third level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the individual’s own independent judgments rather than on what others view as wrong or right
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Worldview
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Set of cultural beliefs that explain what it means to be human, how human relations should be conducted, and how human problems should be addressed
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Secular
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Based on nonreligious beliefs and values
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Autonomy
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Quality of being independent and self-sufficient, capable of thinking for one’s self
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Cyberbullying
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Bullying via electronic means, mainly through the Internet
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Intimacy
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Degree to which two people share personal knowledge, thoughts and feelings
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Clique
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Small group of friends who know each other well, do things together, and form a regular social group
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Crowd
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Large, reputation-based group of adolescents
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Permissive Culture
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Culture that encourages and expects sexual activity from their adolescents
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Semirestrictive Culture
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Culture that has prohibitions on premarital adolescent sex, but the prohibitions are not strongly enforced and are easily evaded
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Restrictive Culture
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Culture that places strong prohibitions on adolescent sexual activity before marriage
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Sexual Orientation
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A person’s tendencies of sexual attraction
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Coming Out
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For homosexuals, the process of acknowledging their homosexuality and then disclosing the truth to their friends, family, and others
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Homophobia
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Fear and hatred of homosexuals
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Secondary School
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School attended during adolescence, after primary school
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Rote Learning
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Learning by memorization and repetition
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Apprenticeship
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An arrangement, common in Europe, in which an adolescent \”novice\” serves under contract to a \”master\” who has substantial experience in a profession, and through working under the master, learns the skills required to enter the profession
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Life-Course-Persistent Delinquent (LCPD)
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Delinquent who shows a pattern of problems from birth onward and whose problems continue into adulthood
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Adolescent-Limited Delinquent (ALD)
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Delinquent who shows no evidence of problems prior to adolescence and whose delinquent behavior in adolescence is temporary
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Depressed Mood
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Enduring period of sadness, without any other related symptoms of depression
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Major Depressive Disorder
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Clinical diagnosis that includes a range of specific symptoms such as depressed mood, appetite disturbances, sleeping disturbances, and fatigue
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Resilience
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Overcoming adverse environmental circumstances and achieving healthy development despite those circumstances
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Protective Factors
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Characteristics of young people that are related to lower likelihood of problems despite experiencing high-risk circumstances
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VO2 Max
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Ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs; also called maximum oxygen update
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Cardiac Output
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Quantity of blood flow from the heart
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Morningness
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Preference for going to bed early and waking up early
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Eveningness
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Preference for going to bed late and waking up late
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Social Control
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Restraints on behavior imposed by social obligations and relationships
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Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL)
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Government program in which young people obtain driving privileges gradually, contingent on a safe driving record, rather than all at once
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Binge Drinking
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Consuming five or more drinks in a row for men, four in a row for women
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Unstructured Socializing
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Socializing with friends without any specific goal or activity; includes behavior such as riding around in a car for fun, going to parties, visiting friends informally, and going out with friends
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Postformal Thinking
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According to some theorists, the stage of cognitive development that follows formal operations and includes advances in pragmatism and reflective judgment
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Pragmatism
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Theory of cognitive development proposing that postformal thinking involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations
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Dialectical Thought
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According to Basseches, a kind of thinking in emerging adulthood that involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have some merit
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Reflective Judgment
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Capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments, and theorized to develop during emerging adulthood
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Tertiary Education
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Education or training beyond secondary school
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Identity Versus Identity Confusion
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In Erikson’s theory, the crisis of adolescence, with two alternative paths, establishing a clear and definite identity, or experiencing identity confusion, which is a failure to form a stable and secure identity
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Identity Status Model
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Model for researching Erikson’s theory of identity development, classifying identity development into four categories: diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, or identity achievement
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Diffusion
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Identity status that combines no exploration with no commitment. The person in this status is not seriously attempting to sort through potential choices and make enduring commitments
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Moratorium
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Involve exploration but no commitment. Actively trying out different personal, occupational, and ideological possibilities.
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Foreclosure
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Have not experimented with a range of possibilities but have nevertheless committed themselves to certain choices- commitment but no exploration
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Identity Achievement
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Status of young people who have made definite personal, occupational, and ideological choices. Combination of exploration and commitment
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Bicultural Identity
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Identity with two distinct facets, for example one for the local culture and one for the global culture, or one within one’s ethnic group and one for others
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Separated
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Low Identification with majority culture and High Identification with Ethnic Group.
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Assimilated
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High Identification with majority culture and Low Identification with Ethnic Group.
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Marginal
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Low Identification with both majority and ethnic culture. Rejects Ethnic Group but also feels rejected by the majority culture
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Stereotype
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Belief that others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group
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Cohabitation
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Unmarried romantic partners living together
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Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)
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Infection transmitted through sexual contact
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Unemployment
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Work status of adults who are not in school, are not working, and are looking for a job
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Social-Networking Website
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Website that allows people to establish and maintain electronic contact with a wide social group
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Text Messaging
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Form of communication on mobile phones that involves typing a message on the screen and sending it
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Digital Device
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Electronic device that allows contact via phone and text message as well as access to the Internet, videos, television, and direct video conversations

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