PSY 1A CHAP 1 KEY TERMS

question

What is Psychology ?
answer

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes is called ?
question

What is Structuralism ?
answer

What is the early school of psychology that emphasized studying of the most basic components, or structures of conscious experiences called ?
question

What is Functionalism ?
answer

What is the early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences called ?
question

What is Psychoanalysis ?
answer

What is personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconcious factors in personality and behavior called ?
question

What is Behaviorism?
answer

What is the school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, espically as they pertain to the process of learning called ?
question

What is Humanistic Psychology ?
answer

What is the school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological and self direction called ?
question

What is Neuroscience ?
answer

What is the study of the nervous system, especially the brain called ?
question

What is Positive Psychology ?
answer

What is the study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communities called ?
question

What is Evolutionary Psychology ?
answer

What is the application of princaples pf evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena called ?
question

What is Culture ?
answer

What are the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to another called ?
question

What is Cross Cultural Psychology?
answer

What is the branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviorand mental processes called ?
question

What is Enthnocentrism ?
answer

What is the belief that one’s own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one’s own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures called ?
question

What are Individualistic Cultures ?
answer

What are cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group called ?
question

What are Collective Cultures ?
answer

What are cultures that emphasize the needs and goals over the needs and goals of the individual called ?
question

What is Psychiatry ?
answer

What is the medical specialty area focused on the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders called ?
question

What is the Scientific Method ?
answer

What is a set of assumptions, attitudes,and procedeures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions called?
question

What is Empirical Evidence ?
answer

What is verifiable evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation called?
question

What is a Hypothesis ?
answer

What is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables called ?
question

What is Critical Thinking ?
answer

What is the active process of minimizing preconceptions and biases while evaluating evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explinations for research findings or other phenomena called ?
question

What is a Variable ?
answer

What is a factor that can vary,or change, in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified called?
question

What is an Opperational Definition?
answer

What is a precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured ?
question

What are Statistics ?
answer

What is a branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize, and interpret data called ?
question

What is Statistically Significant ?
answer

What is a mathmatical indication that research results are not very likley to have occured by chance called ?
question

What is is Meta Analysis ?
answer

What is a statistical technique that involves `
question

What does replicate mean ?
answer

What is to repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings
question

What is theory ?
answer

What is a tentative explination that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations called ?
question

What is are descriptive research methods ?
answer

What are scientfic procedeures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events called ?
question

What is naturalistic observation ?
answer

What is the systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting called ?
question

What is pseudoscience ?
answer

What is fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence called?
question

What is a case study ?
answer

What is an intensive study of a single individual or small group of individuals called ?
question

What is a survey ?
answer

What is a questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group called ?
question

What is a sample ?
answer

What is a selected segment of the population used to represent a group that is being studied called ?
question

What is a representative sample ?
answer

What is a selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied called ?
question

What is random selection ?
answer

What is a process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included called ?
question

What is a correlation coefficient ?
answer

What is a numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship (correlation) between two variables called ?
question

What is a positive correlation ?
answer

What is a finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together called ?
question

What is a negative correlation ?
answer

What is a finding that two factors vary systematically in oppisite directions, one increasing as the other decreases called ?
question

What is the experimental method ?
answer

What is a method of investigation used to demonstrate cause and effect relationshyips by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor called ?
question

What is an independent variable ?
answer

What is the purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment, aka the treatment variable called ?
question

What is a extraneous variable ?
answer

What is a factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could affect the outcome of an experiment aka confounding variable called ?
question

What is an experimental group/condition ?
answer

When in an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable called ?
question

What is a placebo ?
answer

What is a fake substance, treatment, or procedure that has no known direct effects called ?
question

What is the placebo effect ?
answer

What is any change attributed to a persons beliefs and expectations rather than an actual drug, treatment, or procedeure aka expectancy effect called ?
question

What is a random assignment ?
answer

What is the process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have and equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups of the study called ?
question

What is the double blind technique ?
answer

What is an experimental control in which neither the participants or the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned called ?
question

What are demand characteristics?
answer

What is it when in a research study, subtle cues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of responce or behavior that is expected from the participant called ?
question

What is the practice effect ?
answer

What is any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task called ?
question

What is the main effect ?
answer

What is any change that can be directly attributed to the independent or treatment variable after controlling for other possible influences called ?
question

What is a control group/condition ?
answer

What is in an experiment,the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable, the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared to called ?
question

What is a natural experiment ?
answer

What is a study investigating the effects of a naturally occuring event on the research participants called ?
question

What is a PET scan ?
answer

How is positron emission tomography abbreviated ?
question

What is positron emission tomograpy ?
answer

What is an invasive imaging technique that provides color coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain’s use of radioactivity tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug called ?
question

What is MRI ?
answer

How is magnetic resonance imaging abbreviated ?
question

What is magnetic resonance imaging ?
answer

What is a noninvaesive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the body’s structures and tissues using electromagnetic signals generated by the body in responce to magnetic field called ?
question

What is functional magnetic resonance imaging ?
answer

FMRI is a noninvasive technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brains blood flow and oxygen levels called ?
question

What is comparative psychology ?
answer

What is a branch of psychology that studies the behavior or different animal species called ?

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member