PStest1 – Flashcard

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Communication Model:
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Source
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or sender, is the person who creates a message
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Encoding
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The process of converting thoughts into words; creating, organizing and producing the message.
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Reviever
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or audience, the recipient of the source’s message
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Decoding
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the process of interpreting the message; audience members decode the meaning of the message selectively, based on their own experiences and attitudes
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Feedback
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the audiences response to a message can be conveyed both verbally and nonverbally
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Message
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the content of the communication process: thought and ideas put into meaningful expressions, expressed verbally or nonverbally
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Channel
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the medium through which the speaker sends a message
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Noise
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anything that interferes with the message
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Shared meaning
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the mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience; the lowest level of shared meaning exists when the speaker has merely caught the audiences attention, and as the message develops, a higher degree of shared meaning is possible
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context
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includes anything that influences the speaker, the audience, the occasion — and the speech
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rhetorical situation
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a circumstance calling for a public response; all speeches are delivered in response to a specific rhetorical situation
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audience perspective
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keeping the needs, values, and attitudes of your listeners firmly in focus, bearing the rhetorical situation in mind endures that you maintain
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speech purposes
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or goal; what you want the audience to learn or do as a result of the speech; this is a final prerequisite for an effective speech
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(look at graph on review of encoding/decoding)
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Classical roots of Public Speaking:
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Rhetoric
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originally the practice of speech was known as rhetoric (also known as oratory)
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History of RHETORIC
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– Rhetoric first flourished in the greek city-state of Athens in the fifth century B.C.E. and referred to making effective speeches, particularly those of a persuasive nature – Later on rhetoric became equally dominant in the roman society, where patrician families educated their sons in the necessary art of oratory. – Following the eventual conquest of Greece, citizens in the roman republic used oratory to create the worlds first known representative democracy. Assembling in a public space called forum, the Romans plied their public speaking skills to lobby for civic issues and debate political disputes.
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Public Forum
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Today this term denotes a variety of venues for the discussion of the issues of public interest, including traditional physical spaces such as town halls as well as virtual forums streamed to listeners online. Some have even called the internet our global public forum or agora.
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Aristotle
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responsible for the Canons Of Rhetoric
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The Canons of Rhetoric
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Greek and Roman teachers divided the process of preparing a speech into five parts: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery these parts correspond to the order in which they believed a speech should be put together.
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invention
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refers to discovering the types of evidence and arguments you will use to make your case to an audience
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arrangement
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refers to organzing the speech in ways that are best suited to the topic/audience.
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style
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refers to the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas
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memory
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refers to the practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered
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delivery
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refers to the vocal and nonverbal behavior you use when speaking
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later known as…
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invention, disposition, elocution, memoria, and pronuntitio
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differences between spoken and written languages
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similarities: -both depend on having focused sense of who the audience is. -both require that you research a topic, offer credible evidence, employ effective transitions to signal the logical flow of ideas, and devise persuasive appeals. differences: -successful speakers generally use familiar words, easy to follow sentences, and transitional words and phrases. -speakers also repeat key words and phrases to emphasize ideas and help listeners follow along, and even the briefest speeches make frequent use of repetition. -more interactive and inclusive of the audience
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Public Speech Anxiety
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– a state of increased fear or arousal – researchers have identified several factors that underlie the fear of public speaking: a lack of public speaking experience, having a negative experience, feeling different from members of the audience, and uneasiness about being the center of attention. – each factor can precipitate PSA, which can be described as a situation-specific social anxiety that arises from the real or anticipated enactment of an oral presentation
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lack of positive experiences
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it can be hard to know what to expect, without these positive experiences to fall back on, its hard to put this anxiety into perspective. Gaining more experience is key in overcoming the anxiety, although most people tend to avoid it.
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feeling different
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it is important to remember that being different does not mean being inferior
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fear of being center of attention
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this type of anxiety can cause us to think that we are doing something wrong and can distract us from the speech itself. – we become insecure and more sensitive when in reality the audience rarely notices anything about us that we dont want revealed
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pre-preparation anxiety
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when people are anxious the minute they find out about giving a speech. often times this person will put off writing the speech and planning for it. It is important to start immediately if this is the stage you feel anxious in.
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preparation anxiety
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some people feel anxious due to the pressure and stress of creating a speech, which can lead to a cycle of stress, procrastination, and outright avoidance. – for most people, this stage is when stress is usually the lowest.
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pre-performance anxiety
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some people get anxious when they practice their speech, this can lead to a person not wanting to rehearse, if that is the casethen they should consider using ANXIETY STOP TIME.
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anxiety stop time
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all your anxiety to present itself for up to a few minutes until you declare time for confidence to step in so you can proceed to complete your practice
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performance anxiety
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most common time when anxiety is the highest is during the actual speech, perform. anxiety is probably most pronounced during the introduction portion of the speech when we are most aware of the audiences attention
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trait anxiety
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people with high levels of trait anxiety are naturally anxious all the time, where as people with low trait anx. are nervous in only unusual situations.
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strategies for reducing anx.
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visualization
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is a highly effective method of reducing speech anxiety. this exercise requires the speaker to close their eyes and visualize a series of positive feelings and actions that will occur on the day of the speech.
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fight or flight response
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this is the body’s automatic response to threatening or fearing-inducing events. controlled breathing and meditation techniques can reduce the sensations.
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communication apprehension
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an individuals level of fear or anxiety associated wiht the real or anticipated communication with another person 20% of the pop. suffers from CA
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4 types of CA
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Trait like CA:
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is when a person feels anxious about speaking in most situations whether it is one on one or in front of a group of people
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context based CA:
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is when a person is anxious whenever he or she has to speak in particular setting. Examples include public speaking, meetings, group discussion, and one on one.
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audience based CA:
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is when a person is anxious about speaking in front of a certain group, for instance, classmates, coworkers, or a particular person.
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situational CA:
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is a short-lived anxiety that occurs during a specific encounter. Examples include interviews, speaking to a professor about an assignment, or speaking to a significant other about a situation.
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internal effects of CA
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an internally experienced feeling of discomfort, fright, unable to cope, inadequate, being dumb – rapid beatings of the heart, queasy stomach, sweating, shakiness, dry mouth, things that cannot be seen.
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external effects
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avoidance, withdrawal, over-communication– things that can be seen
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types of listening
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hearing
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is the physiological, largely involuntary process of perceiving sound. While hearing has to do with the intelligibility of sounds, listening is the conscious act of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and nonverbal messages.
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active listening
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listening that is focused and purposeful
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selective perception
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people pay attention selectively to certain messages while ignoring others
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dialogic communication
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the open sharing of ideas in an atmospheric of respect true dialogue encourages both speaker and listener to reach conclusions together
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barriers to active listening
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listening distraction
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is anything that competes for attention that we are trying to give something else. distractions can originate outside from us, in the enviroment (external distractions) or from within us, our thoughts and feelings (internal distractions)
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defensive listening
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is similar to scriptwriting: we focus on what is going to be said next, and then we dice either that we don’t like what the speaker is going to say or that they know better. Its important to wait for the speaker to finish before devising your argument
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cultural barriers
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can effect active listening; differences in dialects or accents, non verbal cues, listening styles, and even physical appearance can serve as barriers to active listening
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1st amendment and the limitations to the 1st amendment
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The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution plays a pivotal role in enforcing these safeguards by guaranteeing freedom of speech. However, our state and federal judges find it difficult to find a satisfactory balance between our right to express ourselves, and our right to be protected from speech that may harm us.
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“fighting words”
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speech that provokes violence, and that “by their utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace.”
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slander
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potentially harmful to an individual’s reputation at work or in the community
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hate speech
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is any offensive communication – verbal or nonverbal – that is directed against people’s racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characteristics. Racism, sexism, ageist slurs, gay bashing, and cross burnings are all forms of hate speech. Ethically, you are bound to actively avoid any hint of hate speech, ethnocentrism, and stereotyping.
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ethnocentrism
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speakers who exhibit this act as though everyone shares their point of view and points of reference. They may tell a joke that requires a certain context or refer only to their own customs. Ethical speakers, by contrast, assume differences and address them respectfully.
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stereotypes
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when such racial, ethnic, gender, or any other stereotypes roll of the speaker’s tongue, they pack a wallop of indignation and pain for the people to whom they refer.
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focus on dignity and integrity
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Dignity refers to bearing and conduct that are respectful to self and others. Integrity signals the speaker’s incorruptibility – that he or she will avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency. For example, slanting facts to persuade audience members to do something you want them to do lacks integrity.
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be trustworthy
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We find trustworthy when we sense that they are honest about their intentions and don’t sacrifice the truth to achieve their arms. Trustworthiness is a combination of honesty and dependability; trustworthy speakers support their points truthfully and don’t mislead with false information.
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demonstrate respect
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speakers demonstrate respect by addressing audience members as unique human being and refraining from any form of personal attacks. They behave with civility and courtesy. In most cases, it’s not necessary to use graphic pictures or upsetting verbal descriptions just to make a point. More drastically, drowning out a speaker’s message with which you disagree – called a heckler’s veto – robs us of the ability to make up our own minds about an issue and silences the free expression of ideas.
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make responsible choices
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: Communication is a strong tool for influencing people, and even one message has the potential to change people’s lives.
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demonstrate fairness
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Few subjects are black and white; rarely is there only one right or wrong way to view a topic. Fairness refers to making a genuine effort to see all sides of an issue and acknowledge the information listeners need in order to make informed decisions.
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be civic-minded
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Being civic-minded means caring about your community, in word and deed. It means recognizing that things don’t get better unless people volunteer their efforts to improve things. At the broadest level, being civic-minded is essential to the democratic process because democracy depends on our participation in it.
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avoiding plagiarism
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Crediting sources is a crucial aspect of any speech. Plagiarism is the passing off of another person’s information as one’s own, which is unethical. To plagiarize is to use other people’s ideas or words without acknowledging the source.
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audience analysis
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is the process of gathering and analyzing information about audience members’ attributes and motivations with the explicit aim of preparing your speech in way that will be meaningful to them.
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pandering
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is when you abandon your own convictions or cater to the audience’s whims. This practice is not what audience-centered means and will only undermine your credibility in the eyes of the audience.
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ethnic or cultural background
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As a speaker in a multicultural and multiethnic society, you should expect that your audience might have a great deal in common with you. So members of the audience may belong to a distinct co-culture, or a social community whose values and style of communication may or may not mesh with your own.
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Demographic Characteristics-
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demographics: the statistical characteristics of a given population..at least 7 characteristics: age, ethnic and cultural background, socioeconomic status (including income, occupation, and education), religious and political affiliations, gender, group affiliations, and disability….Various other traits: sexual orientation and place of residence— may also be important to investigate.
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Differences between specific speech purpose and thesis
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The specific purpose describes in action form what outcome you want to achieve with the speech. The thesis statement concisely declares, in a single idea, what the speech is about.
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Brainstorming Techniques
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“Word association”-Write down one topic that might interest you and your listeners. Then jot down the first thing that comes to mind related to it. Repeat the process until you have a list of fifteen to twenty items. Narrow the list to two or three, and then select a final topic. “Topic Mapping”-Lay out words in a diagram form to show categorial relationships among them. Put a potential topic in the middle of a piece of paper and draw a circle around it. As related ideas come to you, write them down, and keep going until you hit upon an idea that appeals most to you.
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types of supporting materials
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Good speeches contain relevant, motivating, and audience centered supporting material in the form of examples, narratives, testimony, facts, and statistics…Types of supporting materials: magazine articles, academic journals, or books serve as several key purposes
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Evaluating Web Sources
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Examine the domain in the Web address, Look for an “about” link that describes the organization or a link to a page that give more information, and Identify the creator of the information.
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Components of an oral citation:
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oral citation credits the source of speech material that is derived from other peoples ideas. During your speech, always cite your sources at the same time as you present the info derived from them, rather than waiting until the end of the speech to disclose them to the audience. For each source plan on briefly altering the audience to the following: The Author or Origin of the source, The type of source, The title or a description of the source, The date of the source.
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Types of transitions:
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Transitions: are words, phrases, or sentences that tie the speech together and enable the listener to follow the speaker as he or she moves from one point to the next..considered the “neurosystem” of speeches, transitions (also called connectives) are especially important in speeches because listeners cannot go back and re-read what they might have missed.
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Types of informative organizational arrangements-
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Chronologically: (also the temporal pattern)follows the natural sequential order of events in time (such as events leading to the adoption of peace treaty) or develop in line with a set pattern of actions or tasks call out to be organized according to a chronological pattern of arrangement. Spatial Pattern: main points be arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to each other. Casual (cause/effect) Pattern: in order of cause and effect. Problem-Solution Pattern: organizes main points both to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solution. Arranging Points Topically: When each of the main points is a subtopic or category of the speech topic, (also called the categorical pattern) Arranging points in a Narrative Pattern: the speech consists of a story or a series of short stories, replete with characters, settings, plot, and vivid imagery.
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Types of outline formats:
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The Sentence Outline Format: each main point is stated in the sentence form as a declarative sentence. The Phrase Outline Format: uses partial construction of the sentence form of each point. The Key Word Outline Format: uses the smallest possible units of understanding to outline the main and supporting points.
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introduction functions and components
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-arouse your audience’s attention and willingness -introduce the topic and purpose -establish your credibility to speak on the topic -preview the main points -motivate the audience to accept your speech goals
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conclusion/functions and components:
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-signal the audience that speech is coming to an end and provide closure -summarize key points -reiterate the thesis or central idea of the speech -challenge the audience to respond -end the speech memorably
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definitions of all elements of vocal delivery (volume, pitch, rate, etc)
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volume: the relative loudness of a speakers voice while giving a speech, is usually the mosy obvious and frequently cited vocal element in speech making, and with reason pitch: range of sounds from high/low rate: is the pace at which you convey speech. vocal fillers: uh, umm, you know, i mean, like pauses: enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation, emphasizing a point, drawing attention to a key thought
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audience preferences w/ speakers vocal delivery
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– maintain eye contact -use gestures that feel natural – create a feeling of immediacy – maintain good posture – dress appropriately – focus on the message
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types of body movement (facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, etc.)
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facial expressions: smiling is a sign of mutual welcome eye contact: maintains the quality of directness, lets people know they are recognized, indicates acknowledgment and respect, signals to audience members that you see them as unique human beings
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**
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the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion (ARISTOTLE)
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birth of democracy
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– to settle civil disputes – to determine public policy – to establish laws –
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corax + tisias
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student of corax, teacher credited w/ writing first public speaking manual
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The Sophists
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traveling teachers first consultants (paid to teach) introduced ideas of counter argument (debate) also argues they could make anyone a orator
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socrates + plato
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not a fan of sophists (didnt agree w/charging for teaching) “prostitutes of wisdom”= sophists plato put together a lot of writings to make the sophists look bad considered to be the foundation/root of communication – not as pessimistic as his teacher about rhetoric
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3 types of rhetorical proofs
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logos: appeals to logic or reason ethos: appeals to speaker credibility or character pathos: appeal to emotion
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aristotle classified 3 parts of speech
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forensic oratory- legal speech deliberative oratory- legislature or political speech epideictic speech- ceremonial speech
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a fear of public speaking..
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85% of general public fears speaking publicly (motley) 70% of students approach public speaking courses w/ high levels of anxiety (McCroskey)

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