PS300. Research Methods

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Two different types of research (e.g. descriptive and exploratory) can often blend together in practice.
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True
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This type of data collection typically requires that a researcher closely observes a small group of people over a length of time.
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ethnographic field research
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Which of the following is NOT a major purpose of research?
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to find hidden treasure
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Dr. Marsh designed a study to determine if the new healthcare guidelines impacted practitioner procedures. This study is most likely a(n)
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evaluative study.
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A study that is developed to determine whether a new immigration law is effective is considered what type of study?
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evaluative
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Dr. Van Offer is conducting a survey research study. He will
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ask people questions in a written format or in an interview format.
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Explanatory research
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identifies sources of social behaviors and beliefs
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Dr. Van Offer is a medical doctor with an idea about how to improve his dermatology patients care. He would like to perform a study. What type of study should he consider?
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descriptive
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Basic social research increases general knowledge and
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is the source of most new scientific ideas.
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In practical application the seven-step research process requires that one must finish one step before undertaking the next step.
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True
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Dr. Mottle is interested in studying the Amish migration into the Midwest during the 1900s. Which of the following would best fit her research?
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historical research/qualitative research
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Descriptive research
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can blend together with explanatory research.
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Quantitative data collection techniques include all BUT the following:
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historical comparative research.
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Argument used in the research context means a set of of logically connected statements that end with a logical conclusion.
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True
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Applied science researchers often use the results in decision making.
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True
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Dr. Marsh did an exploratory study on a topic that he thought was very interesting. He spent hours and hours collecting data and analyzing the data, but when he tried to interpret the data he didn’t get anywhere – nothing made sense. Which of the following steps in the research process do you think that Dr. Marsh skipped?
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designing the study
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Applied researchers rarely
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worry about building, testing, or connecting findings to a larger theory.
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Which of the following is NOT a step in the research process?
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take a course in research
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Two types of research are typically done in the later stage of the learning process. They are
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explanatory, evaluation
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Strong, solid evidence is directly correlated with quantitative research and has nothing to do with qualitative research.
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False
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A researcher has little responsibility in minimizing the risk of harm to participants.
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False
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Qualitative research is NOT
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usually number-related.
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For what reason(s) would a researcher NOT conduct a literature review?
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It is more fun to read than a novel.
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When does a researcher focus the research question when his/her research uses quantitative data?
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early in the process
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Value free means
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research without any prior assumptions or theory.
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Which of the following is NOT a part of the Six Step Process of Literature Review?
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design your study
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Professional associations promote codes of ethics, and
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the penalty for a minor ethical violation rarely goes past public embarrassment and a letter of complaint.
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Researchers test hypotheses in two ways: a straightforward way and
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by using the null hypothesis.
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Synthesizing and writing the literature review is the first and easiest step of the literature review process
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False
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There are eight basic elements that need to be included in an informed consent document.
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true
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Violations of the ethical code
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have continued in modern times, and all over the world.
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Mr. Marsh is starting his literature review on the topic of children and tooth decay. He has found lots and lots of information and now he is really confused as to his next step. What do you think that he should have done first?
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refined the topic
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When a researcher reads a scholarly journal, s/he should
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form a mental image of the article’s topic.
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What questions should you ask when taking notes while reading material for your literature review?
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What is the study’s basic design?
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If Mr. Marsh traces research participants back to their identity using information they provided. He did not do a good job in protecting subjects’
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anonymity
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A researcher is not responsible for protecting research participants from an increased risk of arrest simply because they are in a study.
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False
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Some of the most notorious atrocities ever committed in the name of research were conducted by the Nazi doctors.
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True
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Which of the following is NOT true for quantitative research?
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Data is in the form of words and images.
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The Tuskegee syphilis study is one of the most outrageous instances of a disregard of basic ethical principles in research with humans in the United States.
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True
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A causal hypothesis
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specifies how the variables are connected.
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First thing that a researcher needs to do when using random sampling is
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develop an accurate sampling frame.
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One key feature of random samples:
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must identify and pick a particular sampling element, rarely using substitutions.
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A random sampling distribution curve is in the shape of
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bell shape curve.
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Random sampling guarantees that every random sample a researcher picks perfectly represents the population.
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False
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Mr. Marsh is confused – a probability sample would allow him to do what?
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to make valid inferences from the sample to the population
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Sampling error assumes random sampling and is influenced by sample size and the diversity of cases in the sample.
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True
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The size of a sample is more important than its frame.
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False.
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Random-digit dialing
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nets many disconnected or nonoperating numbers.
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Dr. Van Offer has a very large sample with very little diversity among cases, so his sampling error will be
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very small
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The case or unit of analysis in a population is
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sampling element
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Mr. Marsh is creating a list ______of sample elements using a telephone directory. The list is called a(n)
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sampling frame.
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Mr. Marsh uses a list of all baseball season ticket holders for his sampling elements. This is called his
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sampling frame.
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Convenience sampling
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is easy and fast but of limited use.
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A researcher might use purposive sampling by
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selecting cases from a specific, difficult-to-reach population.
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A typical confidence level is 95 percent meaning
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that a researcher is 95 percent confident that the true population parameter falls within the range around what the researcher found in the sample.
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Which of the following might be an appropriate sample frame for a population aged 16-18?
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school registration
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Mr. Marsh is using Systemic Sampling and his sample frame has 2000 names from a directory. If he is sampling 400, what is his sample interval?
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5
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If a researcher walks into a bus station and starts interviewing people at random for his research is most likely using
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convenience sampling.
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Snowball sampling is the same as network sampling.
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True
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Stratified sampling is the same as snowball sampling.
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False
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A scale that typically measures opinions or ratings at the ordinal level is probably
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a Likert scale.
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Answer choices on a survey should be balanced. What does that mean?
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That the favorable or unfavorable choices are offered equally in a set of responses.
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The Guttman scale measures how well data fit into a
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hierarchical pattern.
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Mr. Marsh responded that he always completed employee evaluations on time when he was a manager, when in fact, he rarely conducted the task. As a respondent in a survey he exaggerated to look good. This is an example of
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social desirability bias.
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It is more important to have high reliability than have high reliability and validity.
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False
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A measurement can be valid for one purpose, but may not for another.
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False
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When respondents answer questions based on a context of preceding questions and the interview setting, this is known as __________.
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context effect
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Mr. Marsh changes his title to Dr. in order to influence survey respondents. He may be guilty of using
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prestige bias.
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This term is used to address how well a researcher’s measure of reality measures with the ideas she uses to understand that aspect of reality. What is this term?
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Validity
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This type of validity is easiest to achieve and the most basic kind of validity. It is a judgment by knowledgeable people that the indicator really measures the concept it purports to measure. It is known as
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face validity.
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The difference between open-ended questions and closed-ended questions is that
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open-ended questions let the respondent give any answer
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An IQ score is an example of what type of measurement?
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Interval
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Standard-format questions in a closed-ended survey do not offer which of the following?
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don’t know choice
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A social distance scale
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is a convenient way to determine how close a people feels toward a social group to which they do not belong.
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The length of a questionnaire depends on the format of the survey and
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on respondent characteristics.
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Reliability is necessary for validity and is easier to achieve than validity.
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True
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Scales and indexes should have many dimensions in addition to being mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
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False
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A good survey question is one in which the respondents know which answer the researcher expects.
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False
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In qualitative studies two different researchers may not get identical results when studying the same thing.
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True
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Which of the following is NOT true?
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The data, when plotted, in a Guttman scale form a triangle
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A researcher should look at what elements when reading an experimental research paper?
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How was the dependent variable measured?
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Dr. Mottle’s experiment is conducted in the School of Nursing’s cafeteria. The student nurses that she observes in the study do not know that they are being studied.
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Dr. Mottle wishes to avoid the Hawthorne effect.
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Selection bias and maturation are threats to
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internal validity.
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When using a true random process, over the long run the odds are
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the people in the groups will be equal.
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If a double-blind study means that the subject (participant) and the person administering the treatment do not know whether the treatment is the control or placebo, then what does a single-blind study mean?
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that the subject (participant) does not know what s/he is getting – treatment or control
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A placebo is an independent variable, typically an active treatment.
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False
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Researchers use deception in all their experiments to ensure that participants don’t alter their behavior or opinions to fit the researcher’s hypothesis.
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False
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Natural experiments are field experiments
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gather data after the fact.
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Researchers control experimenter expectancy by
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using double-blind experiments.
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In general, social scientists get their best results by comparing very different groups to each other.
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False
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The weakness of static group comparison is that the researcher
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cannot know whether group differences prior to the experiment or if the independent variable caused differences in post test outcomes.
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Threats to internal validity include all of the following EXCEPT
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quasi-experimental.
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An experimenter’s control over an experimental setting affects
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external validity.
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Dr. Van Offer is studying a new communication method. If he uses the new technique in a randomized study, it would be the
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independent variable.
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When a researcher is interested in how sequences affect the dependent variable, the design is
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Latin Square Design.
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How many independent variables are in a 2 x 3 x 6 x 8 factorial design?
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4
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Mr. Marsh conducts an experiment that he cannot translate into real life. The treatment is not realistic. This threat to external validity is called
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artificial treatment.
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A threat that might weaken external validity is
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artificial setting.
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Ethics can be an issue in research
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when researchers use deception in their research.
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Mr. Marsh is so anxious to start his research that he doesn’t consider the fact that his subjects may be completely humiliated by the research. Fortunately,
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the Institutional Review Board (IRB) suggests that he find a different way to conduct his research so as to protect his subjects.
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The Statistical Abstract of the United States contains large amounts of data; however, it is too much information for a researcher and should be avoided.
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False
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When a researcher uses coding s/he turns aspects of text content into quantitative variables.
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True
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Privacy is not an issue in nonreactive data collection.
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False
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Use of official existing statistics raises ethical issues regarding
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the fact that they are social and political products.
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When measuring space in content analysis, a researcher
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measures the size, volume, and amount of time or physical space.
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The primary ethical concern of physical evidence analysis is
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privacy and confidentiality of data.
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Which of the following is NOT a limitation when using existing statistics?
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timeliness of the input
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Identify one limitation of content analysis.
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interpret the content’s significance
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Many measures in large bureaucratic organizations are social indicators.
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True
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Creativity has no place in nonreactive research.
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False
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This particular limitation happens when a researcher quotes statistics in excessive detail.
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fallacy of misplaced concreteness
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What are the advantages of quantitative nonreactive research?
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It is often faster and easier to collect data.
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Coding (by assistants) is typically consistent so there is no need for measuring reliability.
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False
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Dr. Mottle is concerned that the information that was collected by one of the government agencies might have systematic errors in it limiting the __________ of the information.
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validity
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Physical evidence measures
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measure a behavior or viewpoint of interest.
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To make sure that assistant coders are consistent, a researcher should
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have the coders code the same text independent of one another and check for consistency.
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Text appears in all communication media, including
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All of the above
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Which of the following are things a researcher would do to conduct a study with physical evidence?
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All of the above
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If a researcher contemplates conduct of an existing statistics research study, it would be a good idea for him/her to talk with a(n) __________ first.
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information professional
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Social indicator is a measure of social conditions and
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can be used in policy decisions.
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A field site or setting is a fixed physical location.
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False
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The purpose of ethnography is
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to provide a description of a way of life from the standpoint of its insiders.
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When observing and collecting data
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the researcher becomes the data collection instrument.
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Which of the following is NOT a level of field notes?
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suggested notes
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Choosing people using a routine, special, or unanticipated focus is called
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sampling
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Which of the following is true when developing strategies for success in the field?
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A researcher should appear interested in people and events of a field site.
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Mr. Marsh is a poor note taker, what suggestion might be most helpful for him while doing his field research?
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Jot a few notes while in the field, but sit down immediately after he leaves the field and write down all his memories using whatever format is most comfortable for him.
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Being in the field is the last stage in doing a field research study.
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False
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In getting organized for a field study a researcher begins the process with a narrow question or specific hypothesis.
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False
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What three types of questions do field researchers ask when interviewing?
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descriptive, structural, and contrast questions
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A researcher may need to negotiate for access to new areas as his research focus develops.
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True
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Cultural knowledge has two parts, explicit and
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tacit
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Structural questions
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are asked after a researcher has organized specific field events into preliminary conceptual categories.
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Building relationships through doing small favors, appearing interested, and avoiding conflicts are all strategies for success in field research.
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True
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A specialized qualitative research technique that involves informal group interviews about a topic is a(n)
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Focus Group
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Questions that focus on similarities or differences among categories, processes, or aspect are called
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contrast questions.
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As a researcher learns how to fit in by learning rules, customs, etc., he does what?
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normalizes
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Tacit knowledge includes
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unspoken cultural norms.
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Mr. Marsh writes the following in his notes: the cashier had a bad hairdo. What would be a better way to describe the cashier’s ______hair for field notes?
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The cashier had combed his jet-black hair straight-forward over his eyes.
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Three major issues to consider when entering the field include: presentation of self, social role, and what other issue?
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disclosure
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The research process is finite – requiring no additional studies or results.
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False
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Empirical evidence involves moral, religious or ideological reasoning.
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false
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Critical thinking
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leads us to uncover hidden assumptions.
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When a researcher informs an external source of a serious ethical issue that is not being resolved within the organization, this is called
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whistle blowing
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Practical limitations on study design include
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ethical concerns
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What question will help identify the independent variable?
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Does it come earlier in time?
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In the cause-effect statement the cause variable is
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the independent variable.
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Which of the following is NOT a basic principle of ethical research?
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question

Micro level and macro level are terms used in
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level of analysis.
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A proper sample allows researchers to study features of the population from which it came.
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True
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If a researcher wants to sample a very small target population, he might as well
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include everyone.
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When a researcher uses excessive detail in expressing a number or statistics report to give the impression of scientific rigor, he may be adding information that is not accurate. For example, using 1,899,312 to express population in a city instead of using 1.9 million people. This data quality limitation is known as
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fallacy of misplaced concreteness.
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Content analysis cannot
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determine the truthfulness of an assertion.
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Tacit knowledge is what remains unseen or unstated in field research.
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True
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An informant in field research
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is a member in the field site which whom a researcher develops a relationship and who tells the researcher details about life in
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Hawthorne Effect is
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awareness of being in a study.
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When a researcher says that her experiment suffers from experimental mortality, it means that at least one of the participants died while participating in the experiment.
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False
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Quasi-experimental design should always be used instead of experimental design when the researcher does not know how to conduct preexperimental designs.
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false
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A placebo is
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all of the above (is sometimes called a sugar pill, is a noneffective or inactive independent variable and is used in double-blind experiments)
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The greatest confidence in what is learned comes from studying the same issue using only one method.
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false
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The lowest cost format for surveys is
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web-based
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Dr. Mottle asks respondents if they have a n opinion about gas prices, and if they answer yes, she asks them to give their opinion in the second part of the question. What is the name used for this type of question?
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Accidental sampling occurs when a researcher selects cases that are easy and convenient. It lacks depth and is also called
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convenience sampling.
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Cluster sampling has advantages and is less expensive than simple random sampling, but is slightly less accurate.
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true
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Field researchers have strategies that they tailor to the field site and their background. Which of those strategies is listed below?
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false
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Which of the following is NOT a factor affecting a researcher’s choice of a field site?
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substitution – using another similar site
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Dr. Mottle has been developing relationships within the community where she is conducting her field research. To gain trust she has been helping out with some of the chores in the local store. This is an example of possible strategies that build success in the field.
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true
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The first stage of a person-to-person interview is to
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introduction and entry.
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What two items complicate index construction?
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weighting and missing data
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Writing good answer choices in a survey is not as important as writing a good question.
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false
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A researcher faces three survey question sequence issues: how to organize, how to reduce question order effects, and how to control researcher bias.
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true
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When creating this measure, two or more items are combined into a single numerical score. What is this called?
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index
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Interviewers use probes to clarify respondents’ responses. What does this mean?
answer

question

Quantitative Research experiments
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A researcher faces three survey question sequence issues: how to organize, how to reduce question order effects, and how to control researcher bias.
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false

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