PS Final Exam

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
“Retail politics” refers to
campaigns where candidates meet citizens face-to-face to discuss politics.
A frequent cause of measurement error in polls is due to ________.
poorly worded questions
A liberal would most likely support
an expansion in governmental social services.
A wealthy businessperson who is very liberal is an example of
the fact that group memberships never fully explain all of an individual’s political views.
In public opinion surveys, a sample of the total population
must be representative in that the views of those in the sample must accurately and proportionately reflect the views of the whole population.
In recent years, partisan realignment in the South and congressional redistricting have
reduced the number of conservative Democrats and all but eliminated liberal Republicans from the Congress.
People’s political party preferences are primarily acquired through the influence of
their families.
Pollsters use random digit dialing to gather national samples for surveys because
there is not a complete list of all Americans that can be used to identify the population.
The fact that Democratic Party leaders have become more liberal and Republican Party leaders more conservative is important because
partisans in the public tend to rely on party leaders for cues on the appropriate positions to take on major political issues.
The fact that survey respondents overreport voting in elections and the frequency of their church attendance is an example of ________.
the social desirability effect
About ________ percent of eligible voters turn out for midterm congressional elections.
It is likely that eliminating state-level voter registration laws would
increase voter turnout among younger people.
Social capital refers to
community networks that motivate political participation.
Studies have discovered ________ to be the key element of successful mobilization efforts.
personal contact
Under the Constitution, ________ has/have the power to regulate elections.
state legislatures
What bloc of voters has recently been called “the sleeping giant”?
Latino Americans
When did African Americans truly gain voting rights in the United States without fear of reprisal?
Which of the following is NOT a reform that has attempted to make voting easier?
voter ID laws
Which of the following statements about the digital divide is NOT true?
All racial and ethnic groups in the United States are equally likely to have online access.
________ is the single most important factor in predicting whether an individual votes.
Education level
A party activist is an individual who
not only votes but also contributes time, energy, effort, and financial resources to party affairs.
In 1994,
the Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the 1950s.
In 2012, ________ U.S. House seats were considered highly contested.
One important cause of the United States’ two-party system is
single-member electoral districts.
State ballot access laws, such as registration fees and petition requirements, have the effect of
reducing the number of third-party and independent candidates who can run for office.
What is the ultimate goal of a political party?
winning elections
What were the most common favors political bosses distributed to loyal party members during the era of political machines?
Which of the following groups is most likely to support the Republican Party?
the wealthy
Which of the following is the best definition of soft money?
money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations at the state and local levels for political activities that are not regulated by federal campaign spending laws
Which of the following occurs when one party becomes dominant after replacing another party that has dominated national politics for a lengthy period of time?
an electoral realignment
A benefit that is sought by an interest group and that once achieved cannot be denied to nonmembers is called a ________.
collective good
A criticism of interest group pluralism is
its class bias in favor of those with greater financial resources
Grandparents, tall people, and undergraduates are all examples of ________.
potential interest groups
If citizens were motivated to join an environmental organization because they strongly believed in protecting the environment and supported the goals of the group, then we can conclude that they were motivated by ________.
purposive benefits
Individuals and organizations can give an unlimited amount to ________.
super PACs
Interest groups are concerned with the ________ of government, while political parties are concerned with the ________ of government.
policies; personnel
It is difficult for political scientists to categorize unrepresented interests because
there are no organizations that can present their identities and demands
What is the primary function of a political action committee (PAC)?
to raise and distribute money to election campaigns
Which of the following is a main theoretical assumption of pluralism?
Competition among interests will produce balance with all interests regulating each other.
________ occurs when interest groups generate phony letters and phone calls in order to resemble a grassroots movement.
Astroturf lobbying

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