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PS 232 Final Exam Chapter 9

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A phenomenological approach to personality states that
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people’s perceptions and subjective realities are important and should be studied.
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Which of the following statements best describes the central idea behind Rogers perspective on human development.
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Humans develop in a positive direction
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If you were to enter a school organized by Rousseau, you would likely see
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children doing all sorts of activities, each learning in his/her own way.
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Carl Rogers
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grew up on a farm in a religious family environment.
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All of the following are suggestions discussed in the text for finding happiness EXCEPT
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avoid situations that may lead to failure.
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Which of the following would be an outgrowth of the human potential movement?
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Hippie Communes
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Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a peak experience?
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There is a heightened sense of anxiety.
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Fromm would argue that
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love requires knowledge, effort, and experience.
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Which approach is non-deterministic?
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existential
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Existentialists sometimes focus on
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being-in-the-world.
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The idea that people’s perceptions or subjective realities are considered to be valid data for investigation is termed
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phenomenology.
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Which of the following interventions to help people with life-threatening illnesses has its roots in existential-humanistic psychology?
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support groups
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According to your textbook, in the debate between Skinner and May, who was proved right?
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They were both right.
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Humanism emphasizes
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all of the above
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According to Carl Rogers, a psychologically healthy person is one who
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has a broad self-concept that can understand and accept many feelings and experiences.
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For therapy to be successful, Rogers argues that the therapist must
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all of the above
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Rogers believed that people have an inherent tendency
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toward growth.
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The Personal Orientation Inventory was designed to assess
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self-actualization.
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According to Fromm, the most mature and healthy personality is one that
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transcends everyday life and is productive, respectful, and loving of others.
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Many humanistic psychologists have deep roots in
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religion.
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Which of the following instances shows support for Fromm’s idea of existential alienation?
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An increase in anxiety and depression as our society becomes more individualistic and consumerist.
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Maslow stated that psychoanalysis and behaviorism were the first two “forces” and that __________ was the “third force.”
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humanism
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Which of the following statements BEST describes the term ‘experiencing person?’
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Important issues are defined by the person based on what other people around them are experiencing
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John was offered a million-dollar contract to continue working with his company, but he turned it down saying that he needed to find happiness another way. John said he had been feeling discontented lately and “needed to figure some things out.” It is possible that John is experiencing
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an existential crisis.
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According to Rogers, a healthy person
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has a broad self-concept and is open to many feelings and experiences.
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In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, what must happen so that higher needs (such as the need for self-actualization) can be met?
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The lower needs must be satisfied, so that the higher needs can become important
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Which of the below characterize an existentialist’s view of human perception?
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It’s more important to understand what a person experiences than the specific neural mechanisms involved in perception.
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Which of the following illustrates one major weakness with Maslow’s perspective.
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It is hard, if not impossible to study objectively
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A new subdiscipline in psychology that focuses on creativity, hope, wisdom, and spirituality is called __________.
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positive psychology
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Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism are similar in that they are both __________, while Humanism is __________.
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deterministic; nondeterministic
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Rollo May sees __________ as being a fundamental aspect of human existence.
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anxiety
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The purpose of many of the encounter groups, hippie communes, and meditation seminars in the 1960s and 1970s was to
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help people realize their inner potentials.
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What two things are required for a constructive personality change to occur during psychotherapy, according to Rogers.
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The therapist must demonstrate unconditional positive regard as well as experience and communicate an empathetic understanding of the person’s internal frame of reference.
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Maslow called basic biological necessities such as food, water, sex, and shelter, and the need for safety
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D-needs.
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Which of the following best applies to the existentialist view
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Existentialists are nondeterministic, we are not cogs in some vast machine.
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Positivists advocate __________ while non-positivists argue __________.
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the governing laws of behavior; the subjective nature of existence
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Individuals who are happy are
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trusting and have good relations with others.
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In basic terms, existentialism is an area of philosophy concerned with __________.
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the meaning of human existence
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An influential existentialist work on the nature of love is,
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Love and Will by Rollo May.
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Self-actualization, an important component of an existentialist/humanistic approach to personality, was first proposed by
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Jung.
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Philosopher Martin Buber called the dialogue in which each human confirms the other person as being of unique value:
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I-Thou.
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According to an existentialist like Viktor Frankl, an existential struggle can lead to
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a triumph of the human spirit.
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The existentialist/humanistic approach to personality is most similar to which of the following?
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psychoanalytic approaches
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In the 1990s, which approach to personality is associated with protecting humans’ relations with an unsullied, unpolluted natural eco-sphere, concern with the individual worker’s self-development, and concern with the feelings and ideas of small groups of workers?
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existential/humanistic
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Maslow based his theories on the study of
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well-adjusted people.
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The process by which one tends to grow spiritually and realize one’s potential is called
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self-actualization
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The dialogue in which each person confirms the other as being unique and important is called the
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“I-Thou” dialogue.
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Abraham Maslow called humanistic psychology the
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third force.
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The American Paradox refers to the discrepancy between
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Americans’ material wealth and moral decline.
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Maslow views “higher needs” as
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arising from within the individual.
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According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which must be satisfied first?
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physiological needs
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During __________, time may seem to stop and the immediate environment may recede.
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a peak experience
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Love, according to Fromm,
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Needs to be developed over time with humility and discipline.
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Frankl’s approach, called __________, focuses on the search for meaning in existence.
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logotherapy
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Which of the following is a weakness in the existential-humanistic approach?
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Not always concerned with logic and reason
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According to Maslow, the push for self-actualization comes from what source?
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The self, internally
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Fromm’s view of love and society is that
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none of the above
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When we are immature and alienated, the world is seen as one big breast, and we are the sucklers. This is the view of
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Erich Fromm.