Prologue (The Story of Psychology) – Fill in the Terms

Psychological science seeks to answer questions about how people ____, _____, and ____, as they do.
think, feel, act

The Greek philosopher _____, developed early theories about _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
Aristotle, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception and personality

The first psychological laboratory was founded in 1879 by Wilhelm _____. His student, _____, introduced the school of _____, which explored the basic elements of mind using the method of _____. This method proved _____.
Wundt, Tichener, structuralism, introspection, unreliable

Under the influence of evolutionary theorist Charles Darwin, psychologist ______ assumed that thinking developed because it was _____.
William James, adaptive

The first female president of the American Psychological Association was _____. The first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology was _____.
Mary Calkins, Margaret Washburn

The historical roots of psychology include the fields of _____ and ______.
philosophy, biology

Some early psychologists included Ivan Pavlov, who pioneered the study of _____; the personality theorist ______, and Jean Piaget, who studied ______.
learning, Sigmund Freud, children

In its earliest years, psychology was defined as the science of _______ life. From the 1920s into the 1960s, psychological in America was redefined as the science of _____ behavior.
mental, observable

As a response to Freudian psychology and to ______, which they considered too mechanistic, pioneers ______ and ______ forged ______ psychology. This new perspective emphasized the ______ potential of ______ people.
behaviorists, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, humanistic, growth, healthy

During the 1960s, psychology underwent a _____ revolution as it began to recapture interest in how our _____ processes and retains information. The study of brain activity linked with mental activity is called ______ ______.
cognitive, mind, cognitive neuroscience

The text author defines psychology as the scientific study of ______ and ______ processes.
behavior, mental

In this definition, “behavior” refers to any action that we can _____, and ______, and “mental processes” refers to the internal, ______ we ______ from behavior.
observe, record, subjunctive experiences, infer

As a science, psychology is less a set of findings than a way of __________.
asking and answering questions

Worldwide, the number of psychologists is _____. Thanks to international publication and meetings, psychological science is also _____.
increasing, globalizing

The nature-nurture issue is the controversy over the relative contributions of _____ and _____.
biology, experience

The Greek philosopher who assumed that character and intelligence are inherited is _____. The Greek philosopher who argued that all knowledge comes from sensory experience is _____.
Plato, Aristotle

In the 1600s, the views of the Greek philosophers were revived by _____, who believed that most knowledge comes in through the senses, and _____, who believed that some ideas are innate.
John Locke, Rene Descartes

In 1859, naturalist _____ explained species variation by proposing the process of _____, which works through the principle of _____.
Charles Darwin, evolution, natural selection

Although the debate continues, we will see that _____ works on what _____ endows and that every _____ event is simultaneously a _____ event.
nurture, nature, psychological, biological

Each person is a complex _____ that is part of a larger _____ and at the same time composed of smaller systems. For this reason, psychologists work from three main _____ of _____-biological, _____, and _____-_____ which together form an integrated ______ approach to the study of behavior and mental processes.
system, social system, levels, analysis, psychological, social-cultural, biopsychosocial

Psychologists who study how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences are working from the _____ perspective.

Psychologists who study how natural selection influences behavior tendencies are working from the _____ perspective, whereas those concerned with the relative influences of genes and environment on individual differences are working form the _____ perspective.
evolutionary, behavior genetics

Psychologists who believe that behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts are working from the _____ perspective.

Psychologists who study mechanisms by which observable responses are acquired and changed are working form the _____ perspective.

The _____ perspective explores how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

Psychologists who study how thinking behavior vary in different situations are working form the _____-_____ perspective.

The different perspectives on the big issues _____ one another.

Psychologists may be involved in conduction _____ _____, which builds psychology’s knowledge base, or _____ _____, which seeks solutions to practical problems.
basic research, applied research

Psychologists who help people cope with problems in living are called _____ psychologists. Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called _____ psychologists.
counseling, clinical

Medical doctors who provide psychotherapy and treat physical causes of psychological disorders are called _____.

(Close-up) To master any subject, you must _____ process it.

The _____ study method incorporates five steps: a. _____, b. ______, c. _____, d. _____, and e. _____.
SQ3R, survey, question, read, rehearse, review

List five additional study tips identified in the text.
a. distribute study time
b. learn to think critically
c. listen actively in class
d. overlearn
e. be a smart test-taker