Project Management Exam #2

analogy approach
creating a WBS by using a *similar project’s WBS* as a starting point
benchmarking
generating ideas by *comparing specific project practices or product characteristics* to those other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization
bottom-up approach
creating a WBS by having team members identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then grouping them into higher-level categories
decomposition
*subdividing* project deliverables into small
*pieces*
deliverable
a product, such as a report or segment of software code, produced as part of a project
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Using highly *organized and intensive workshops* to bring together project stakeholders-the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on-to jointly define and design information systems
project scope management
the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not *included* in the project
project scope statement
a document that includes at least a *description* of the project, including its overall objectives and justification, detailed descriptions of all project deliverables and the characteristics and requirements of products and services produced as part of the project
prototyping
developing a *working replica* of the system or some aspect of it to help define user requirements
requirement
a *condition or capability that must be met* by the project or that must be present in the product, service, or result, to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification
requirements management plan
a plan that describes how project requirements will be analyzed, documented and managed
requirements traceability matrix (RTM)
A table that list requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed
scope
*all the work involved* in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them
scope baseline
the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary
scope creep
the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger
scope validation
formal *acceptance* of the completed project *deliverables*
top-down approach
Creating a WBS by starting with the largest items of the project and breaking them into subordinate items
use case modeling
a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them
variance
the difference between planned and actual performance
WBS dictionary
a document that includes detailed information about each WBS item
work breakdown structure (WBS)
a *deliverable-oriented grouping of the work* involved in a project that defines its total scope
work package
a task at the lowest level of the WBS
activity attributes
info about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to the activity
activity list
a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule
arrow-on-arrow (AOA)
a networking diagram technique in which activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence of activities; also called ADM
backward pass
a project network diagramming technique that determines the late start and late finish dates for each activity
baseline dates
the planned schedule dates for activities in a Tracking Gantt chart
buffer
additional time to complete a task ; a buffer is added to an estimate to account for various factors
burst
a single node followed by two or more activities on a network diagram
crashing
a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the *greatest amount of schedule compression* for the *least incremental cost* ex: employee works 1 full time week instead of 2 weeks part time
critical chain scheduling
a method of scheduling that takes *limited resources* into account when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date
critical path
the series of activities in a network diagram that determines the *earliest completion* of the project; it is the *longest path* through the ND and has the least amount of slack or float
critical path method (CPM) or critical path analysis
a project network diagramming technique used to predict *total project duration*
dependency
the sequencing of project activities or tasks; also called a relationship
discretionary dependencies
the sequencing of project activities or tasks *defined by the project team* and used with care because they may limit later scheduling options
dummy activities
activities with *no duration and no resources* used to *show a logical relationship* between two activities in the arrow diagramming method of project network diagrams
duration
the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time.
early finish date
the *earliest possible time an activity can finish* based on the project network logic
early start date
the *earliest possible time an activity can start* based on the project network logic
effort
the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task
external dependencies
the sequencing of project activities or tasks that involve relationships between *project and non-project activities*
fast tracking
a schedule compression technique in which you *do activities in parallel* that you would normally do in sequence
feeding buffers
time added before tasks on the critical chain if they are preceded by other tasks that are not on the critical path
finish to finish dependency
a relationship on a project network diagram in which the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be finished
finish to start dependency
a relationship on a project network diagram in which the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be started
forward pass
a network diagramming technique that determines the early start date and early finish dates for each activity
free slack (free float)
the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the *early start date* of any immediately following activities
Gantt chart
a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a *calendar format*; bar charts
late finish date
the latest possible time an activity can be completed without delaying the project finish date
late start date
the latest possible time an activity may begin without delaying the project finish date
mandatory dependencies
the sequencing of project activities or tasks that are inherent in the nature of the work being done on the project; considers unpredictive possibilties
merge
two or more nodes that precede a single node on a network diagram
milstone
a *significant event* that normally has no duration on a project; serves as a marker to help in identifying necessary activities, setting schedule goals and monitoring progress
multitasking
working on more than one task at a time
Murphy’s law
the principle that if something can go wrong, it will
network diagram
a schematic display of the logical relationships or sequencing of project activities
node
the starting and ending point of an activity on an activity-on-arrow diagram
Parkinson’s Law
the principle that work expands to fill the time allowed
PERT weighted average
(optimistic time + 4 * most likely time + pessimistic time)/6
precedence diagramming method (PDM)
a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities
probabilistic time estimates
duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations instead of using one specific or discrete estimate
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
a project network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a *high degree of uncertainty* about the individual activity duration estimates
project buffer
time added before the project’s due date
project time management
the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project
resource breakdown structure
a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type
resources
people, equipment and materials
schedule baseline
the approved planned schedule for the project
slack
the amount of time a project activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date; float
slipped milstone
a milestone activity that is completed later than planned
SMART criteria
guidelines to help define milestones that are specific, measurable, assignable, realistic and time-framed
start-to-finish dependency
a relationship on a project network diagram in which the “from” activity cannot start before the “to” activity is finished
start to start dependency
a relationship on a project network diagram in which the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity starts
task/activity
an element of work normally found on the WBS that has an expected *duration, cost and resource requirements*
Theory of Constraints (TOC)
a management philosophy that any complex system at any point in time often has only one aspect or constraint that limits the ability to achieve more of the system’s goal
three-point estimate
an estimate that includes an optimistic, most likely and pessimistic estimate
total slack (total float)
the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date
Tracking Gantt chart
a Gantt chart that compares *planned and actual project schedule* information
actual cost (AC)
the total of direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period
analogous estimates
a cost-estimating technique that uses the actual cost of a previous similar project as the basis for estimating the cost of the current project; top-down estimates
baseline
the original project plan plus approved changes
bottom-up estimates
a cost-estimating technique based on estimating individual work items and summing them to get a project total
budget at completion (BAC)
the original total budget for a project
budgetary estimate
a cost estimate used to allocate money into an organization’s budget
cash flow analysis
a method for determining the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project
contingency reserves
dollar amounts included in a cost estimate to allow for future situations that may be *partially planned for* (sometimes called known unknowns) and that are included in the project cost baseline
cost baseline
a time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance
cost performance index (CPI)
the ratio of earned value to actual cost; can be used to estimate the projected cost to complete the project
cost variance (CV)
the earned value minus the actual cost
definitive estimate
a cost estimate that provides an accurate estimate of a projects cost
direct costs
costs that can be directly related to creating the products and services of the project
earned value (EV)
an estimate of the value of the physical work actually completed
earned value management (EVM)
a project performance measurement technique that *integrates scope, time and cost data*
estimate at completion (EAC)
an estimate of what it will cost to complete the project based on performance to date
indirect costs
costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project
intangible costs or benefits
costs or benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms
learning curve theory
a theory that when *many items are produced repetitively, the unit cost of those items normally decreases* in a regular pattern as more units are produced
life cycle costing
the *total cost* of ownership, or development *plus support costs*, for a project
management reserves
dollar amounts included in a cost estimate to allow for future situations that are *unpredictable* (sometimes called unknown knowns)
overrun
the additional percentage or dollar amount by which actual *costs exceed estimates*
parametric estimating
a cost-estimating technique that uses project characteristics (parameters) in a mathematical model to estimate project costs
planned value (PV)
the portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period
profit margin
the ratio between revenues and profits
profits
revenues minus expenses
project cost management
the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the *approved budget*
rate of performance (RP)
the ratio of actual work completed to the percentage of work planned to have been completed at any given time during the life of the project or activity
reserves
dollar amounts included in a cost estimate to mitigate cost risk by allowing for future situations that are difficult to predict
rough order of magnitude (ROM) estimate
a cost estimate prepared very early in the life of a project to provide a rough idea of what a project will cost
schedule performance index (SPI)
the ratio of earned value to planned value; can be used to estimate the projected time to complete a project
schedule variance (SV)
the earned value minus the planned value
sunk cost
money that has been spent in the past
tangible costs or benefits
costs or benefits that can be easily measured in dollars
5 whys
a technique in which you repeatedly ask the question “Why?” to help peel away the layers of symptoms that can *lead to the root cause of a problem*
acceptance decisions
decisions that determine if the products or services produced as part of the project will be accepted or rejected
appraisal cost
the cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure that a project is error-free or within an acceptable error range
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes
cause and effect diagram
a diagram that traces complaints about quality programs back to the responsible production operations to help find the root cause; fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram
checksheet
a technique used to collect and analyze data; tally sheet or checklist
conformance
delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for all
conformance to requirements
project processes and products that *meet written specifications*
control chart
a graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time
cost of nonconformance
taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations
cost of quality
the cost of conformance plus the cost of nonconformance
defect
any instance in which the the product or service *fails to meet customer requirements*
design of experiments
a quality technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process
DMAIC
Define, measure, analyze, improve, control

a systematic, closed-loop process for continued improvement that is scientific and fact based

external failure cost
a cost related to all errors that are not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer
features
the special characteristics that appeal to users
fitness for use
a product that can be used as it was *intended*
flowchart
a graphic display of the logic and flow of processes that helps you analyze how problems occur and how processes can be improved
functionality
the degree to which a system performs its *intended function*
histogram
a bar graph of a distribution of variables
integration testing
testing that occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally *grouped components* and ensure that a subset or subsets of the entire system work together
internal failure cost
a cost incurred to correct an identified defect *before* the customer receives the product
ISO 9000
A quality system standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that includes a three-part, continuous cycle of planning, controlling and documenting quality in an org
kaizen
the Japanese word for *improvement* or change for the better; an approach used for continuously improving quality in orgs
lean
an approach for improving quality that involves evaluating processes to *maximize customer value* while *minimizing waste*
maintainability
the ease of performing maintenance on a product
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
an award started in 1987 to recognize companies that have achieved a level of word-class competition through quality management
maturity model
a framework for helping organizations improve their processes and systems
mean
average value of the population
measurement and test equipment costs
the capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities
metric
a standard of measurement
normal distribution
bell-shaped curve that is symmetrical about the mean of the population
Pareto analysis
identifying the vital few contributors that account for most quality problems in a system
Pareto chart
histogram that helps identify and prioritize problem areas
performance
how well a product or service *performs the customer’s intended use*
prevention cost
the cost of planning and executing a project so that it is error-free or within an acceptable error range
process adjustments
adjustments made to correct or prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements
project quality management
ensuring that a project will satisfy the *needs for which it was undertaken*
quality
the totality of characteristic of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs or the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements
quality assurance
periodic evaluation of overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards
quality audit
a *structured review* of specific quality management activities that helps identify lessons learned and that can improve performance on current or future projects
quality circles
groups of nonsupervisors and work leaders in a single company department who volunteer to conduct group studies on how to improve the effectiveness of work in their department
quality control
monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards and identifying ways to improve overall quality
reliability
the ability of a product or service to *perform as expected under normal conditions*
rework
action taken to *bring rejected items into compliance* with product requirements, specifications or other stakeholder expectations
Robust Design Methods
methods that focus on eliminating defects by substituting scientific inquiry for trial and error methods.
run chart
a chart that displays the history and pattern of variation of a process over time
scatter diagram
a diagram that helps to show if their is a relationship between two variables; XY charts
seven run rule
if seven data points in a row on a quality control chart are all below the mean, above the mean or all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for *nonrandom problems*
six 9s of quality
a measure of quality control equal to 1 fault in 1 million opportunities
Six Sigma
a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success that is uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, improving and reinventing business processes
standard deviation
measure of how much variation exists in a distribution of data
statistical sampling
choosing part of a population of interest for inspection
system outputs
the screens and reports the system generates
system testing
testing the entire system as one entity to ensure that it is working properly
unit test
a test of each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect free as possible
user acceptance testing
an independent test performed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system
yield
the number of units handled correctly through the development process
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