Principles of Management CLEP

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Directive Leadership Style
Tells employees exactly what to do and the process necessary to do the task.
Supportive leadership style
relates to the employees, asks them questions, and gives them encouragement.
Participative leadership style
when a manager involves employees in decision-making and values their input.
Universality of managerial functions
states that managerial functions are the same no matter what level of manager you are.
acceptance theory of authority
states that managers do not possess authority unless employees accept it.
Autocratic supervision
uses pressure, control, and disciplinary threats to get people to work.
programmed decisions
Decisions that are made when problems are repetitive and routine.
nonprogrammed decisions
Decisions that require creative solutions to new, unfamiliar problems.
formal channels of communication
channels of communication that are established by the company, and follow the chain of command.
informal channels of communication
channels of communication that form natural between employees and groups.
when a company takes back delegated authority because it feels as if it has lost control over departments and functions.
dividing various functions and tasks into distinct groups known as departments
functional departmentation
dividing departments based upon the function that they perform there is also time departmentation
production departmentation
dividing departments on the basis of what they produce
there’s also customer departmentation, geographic departmentation and equipment departmentation
line authority
authority that follows a chain of command and is the right to require people to conform to policies, procedures and goals.
staff authority
authority that gives the right to provide advice or counsel with regards to policies and directives, but does not give the authority to issue orders.
functional authority
authority that is given by higher management to certain staff members based upon their knowledge, skill, or experience and allows them the right to issue orders to other members of the organization.
primary objectives
objectives that provide the general framework for the organization’s operations, and allow for more specific departmental objectives. These are followed by secondary objectives.
external stressors
stress for a person that comes from outside themselves
internal stressors
stress for a person that comes from people’s expectations of themselves
regular duties
management tasks that are required to achieve departmental success
line relationships
relationships that represent direct relationships between the superior and the subordinate.
functional relationships
refer to the relationships between specialists and other areas.
lateral relationships
relationships that are between departments on the same hierarchical level.
matrix organizational chart
a chart that pools people with similar skills together for work assignments
classical management
a type of management that began around 1900 and focused on efficiency
a position created to coordinate between given units
scientific school of mangement
applies scientific principles in order to enhance managerial practice
functional structures
structures that group people according to the functions that they perform.
involves observing and adopting effective and efficient practices from other companies
single-use plans
plans that are used only once
standing plans
plans that are used over and over
task forces
teams created to coordinate a specific problem or event
self-directed teams
teams that are responsible for a finished product or service
vertical team
a team that has a supervisor, because there are layers of leadership
process loss
loss of team output due to group dynamics or other factors
task-oriented roles
Team roles that are divided according to the teams tasks and goals
socio-emotional roles
team roles that are aimed at maintaining team health and cohesiveness
the tasks that the group is working on
Behaviors that a team member engages in at the expense of the team
forming stage
A stage of a team’s life cycle involves initial questions about members’ roles and their ability to perform given tasks
storming stage
a stage of a team’s life cycle that involves greater interaction among group members, and this interaction often leads to greater amounts of conflict.
adjourning stage
a stage of a team’s life cycle that involves the completion of the team’s task.
team input
the knowledge and skills that each team member possesses.
technical skills
a manager’s application of learned knowledge to specific situations.
results in a team believing that every decision that they make is inherently good and that every team member must naturally agree on the same things.
humanisitic school of management theory
a management theory that focused largely on worker and group attitudes and feelings.
legitimate power
power that comes from an employee’s assumption that he or she should obey his or her manager.
coercive power
power that uses ultimatums and discipline to achieve results
expert power
power that comes from a manager’s superior knowledge and experience.
referent power
a manager’s ability to make people want to be like them.
closed system theory
a theory concerned with only how processes inside a company affect its success
different means get you to the same end
impoverished manager
a manager that does just enough to get by, as described by Blake and Mouton
country-club manager
a manager that is convinced that by merely taking care of people’s needs, work will somehow get done, as described by Blake and Mouton
task manager
a manager that is completely concerned with getting the job done, as described by Blake and Mouton
“organization man” manager
a manager taht balances production and people
team manager
a manager that is highly concerned with production and with developing people to their full potential
the “X” manager
According to McGregor’s theory, this manager believes people naturally dislike work, and, therefore, must be coerced or threatened to fulfill organizational goals.
demand planning software
software that forecasts demand by using mathematical equations and statistical equations.
supply chain execution software
software that automates parts of a supply chain to allow smoother, less costly function
customer relationship management
a theory that states that organizations with the best possible competitive advantage are those that understand the needs and desires of individual customers.
E commerce
buying and selling goods over the internet
E business
not only buying and selling but also serving customers and business partners through the internet.
information technology
any computer-based tool that people use to work with technology and manage it
power distance
a person’s view towards unequal power as legitimate or illegitimate
place a high value on competitiveness, assertiveness and ambition
place a high value on quality of life
long-term oriented societies
place a high value on perseverance and sense of shame, Asian countries tend to be long-term oriented.
short term oriented socieites
place high value on greetings, gifts, and traditions.
utilitarian ethical framework
looks at what achieves the greatest good for the largest amount of people
the range of activities that transform inputs to outputs.
Operations Managers
managers that are concerned with efficiency, cost, quality, time, and flexibility.
operational strategy
when the operations area implements the organization’s corporate strategy
premade product that is ordered
product that is assembled upon being ordered
product that is made to a specific customer request
standardized services
services that are uniform
services that are put together when ordered
customized services
services that are highly specialized to the customer’s order.
supply chain management
examines the process of production and looks at ways to improve everything from obtaining raw goods to delivering the finished product to the consumer
inventory management
management concerned with raw materials and products and their movement through the value process
the process of getting finished products to consumers
analyzing business processes to eliminate nonessential components
management of technology
looks for ways to decrease cost while increasing quality and quantity through the use of new technologies
flexible manufacturing
allows for low cost, high variety items through the use of specialized, adaptable machinery.
SWOT analysis
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
differentiation strategy
where an organization emphasizes either product difference or internal, organizational differences.
bullwhip effect
when distorted product demand passes from one part of the supply chain to another
informational meetings, discussional meetings (brainstorming type), decisional meeting (delegating authority)
ad hoc committee
meets for a limited time about a specific purpose
the formally or informally appointed leader of a conference or committee
preliminary controls
controls placed in anticipation of deviation due to manufacturing or undesired outcomes.
concurrent controls
controls that occur during operation and that can spot problems as they happen.
feedback controls
controls that are implemented to assess the finished process, and ensure future deviations do not occur.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Orientation programs
help to acquaint new employees with procedures and policies in order to ease the transition into their new jobs.
360 feedback
feedback that comes from superiors as well as subordinates
satisfaction progression
the principle that before a higer need can motivate, a lower need must be met
frustration regression
Clayton Alderfer simplified Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, and added this principle, which states that when people are constantly frustrated and need to meet a need, they eventually stop trying.
institutional power
comes from influence within a company and is effective in getting employees to perform.
expectancy theory of motivation
the theory of motivation that proposes that confidence, the potentiality of a reward, and the perceived level of reward motivates performance.
reinforcement theory of motivation
the theory of motivation that focuses on positive and negative reinforcement and the motvational repercussions of the reinforcement.
position power
power that comes with formal, defined authority and the ability to hire, discipline, and terminate.
directive interview
when the interviewer guides the discussion with an outline or objectives
nondirect interview
an interview where the interviewer allows the interviewee to freely talk by asking open-ended questions.
halo effect
basing the overall impression of an applicant on a part of the information given and using that impression to influence all of the relevant information
refers to an employee’s past job performance
external wage alignment
means that wages outside the company are similar to those inside
internal wage alignment
looks at whether wages earned in various departments are comparable to each other.
Job enrichment
seeks to meet the higher level needs of employees, and involves greater responsibili9ty and authority being given by the manager.
line type organizational structure
allows managers to know exactly who they report to and give directives to.
Protected group employees
employees who are protected due to their race, age, gender, sex, handicap, religion, and military record.
norming stage
the stage of a team’s life cycle when norms are established that enable the team to function effectively and efficiently.
performing stage
the stage of a team’s life cycle when they are most productive and members begin to perform for the team.

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