Principles of Learning~ Review Sheet

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What is conditioning?
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learning
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What were Ivan Pavlov’s original research intentions? What did he observe that caused him to change his intentions?
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Original–> nervous system vs. digestion (mouth watering) Changed–> receive stimulus 1st
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In classical conditioning, what causes some type of reaction or response?
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Stimulus
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What automatically and involuntarily produces an unconditioned response?
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unconditioned stimulus?
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After learning has taken place, what automatically and involuntarily produces a conditioned response?
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conditioned stimulus
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What did John B. Watson teach Little Albert? What conclusions did Watson draw from these experiments with Little Albert?
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Teach–> fear of white as a whole conclusion–> fear can be associated with classical conditioning
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What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning?
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Classical is learning with a key beginning and operant is all about the aftermath.
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According to B.F. Skinner, why do we perform certain behaviors?
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organisms learn to do something because of its effects or consequences (rewarded)
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How do reinforcements affect behavior?
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increases chances of behavior happening again
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What is the difference between a primary and secondary reinforcer?
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Primary: natural, reinforcing in and of itself (water, warmth, food) DO NOT TEACH Secondary: learned, associated with exchange for primary reinforcement (money)
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What is the different between positive and negative reinforcement?
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Positive: adding something you want Negative: removal of something unpleasant (BOTH STRENGTHENS LIKELIHOOD IT WILL HAPPEN AGAIN)
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How does punishment affect behavior?
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process of weakening a response with something unpleasant (Positive and Negative)
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How is generalization different than discrimination in learning?
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OPPOSITES generalization- act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar, even if there identical discrimination- act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
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In what ways is reinforcement used in shaping?
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break apart reinforcements to create one thing (ride a bike)
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What is chaining?
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method of teaching complex behaviors in separate steps and then links each individual behavior
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What happens when spontaneous recovery occurs?
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organisms sometimes display responses that were extinguished earlier (fav song)
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How is continuous reinforcement different than partial reinforcement?
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continuous is when you get rewarded every time, but partial is when it is not reinforced every time
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When is reinforcement given for each of the schedules of reinforcement we discussed?
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partial- (longer), intervals continuous- (shorter), programmed \”prize\”
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How does Albert Bandura’s theory of social learning differ from classical and operant conditioning?
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learning by watching is Bandura’s observational learning, classical and operant are more like a cause and effect (in depth)
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How does the cognitive approach different from classical and operant conditioning?
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Cognitive is the learning which emphasizes abstract mental processes and previous knowledge -thinking -memory formation -problem solving

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