Principles of Chemistry II: Fluids

Flashcard maker : Daniel Thompson
The body needs a
continuous supply of the
gas ___ (not cut off for more
than minutes) and it is
simultaneously trying to rid
itself of excess amounts of
the gas ___.
O2 (Oxygen), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
Pressure =
Force/Area (Force divided by Area)
One unit of measure for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), which is defined as:
1 Newton (N) of pressure acting on one square meter
Which unit is blood pressure measured in?
mm Hg; millimeters of mercury
Gas cylinders and Car tire pressure is typically measured in:
psi – pounds per square inch
The earth has pressure from
all of the air above it that is
referred to as the ___________ ________ and is equal to about
760mm of Hg lifted up a
atmospheric pressure
The greater the area over which
a force acts, the greater/less pressure it
In a clinical setting, we use ___
pressure (vacuum) and ____
pressure (pushing) to fill and
empty a hypodermic syringe.
low, high
Since liquids flow to fill their containers,
pressure on them is equally exerted in all
directions and pressure is transmitted
equally to every part of the liquid. What is this principle called?
Pascal’s Principle
The pressure exerted by a column of
liquid is proportional to:
– the height of a column
– the liquid density (toothpaste vs. water)
If a blood vessel has a weak spot in it, Pascal’s principle
would suggest that this is where pressure would be relieved
with a burst. Fluids flow down a pressure gradient-FROM
high pressure TOWARDS low pressure. If the blood vessel doesn’t burst, but instead balloons, this balloon is known as:
an aneurysm
The pressure in the aorta is around __ – ___mmHg
90 – 100 mmHg
The pressure in the right atrium is about ___ mmHg
0 mmHg
The difference in pressure between the higher pressure in the aorta and the lower pressure in the right atrium is due to:
The viscosity of blood is about ___x – ___x that of water
3x-4x the viscosity of water
If one were to extract all of the blood vessels int he body and lay them end to end, how long would they stretch?
60,000 miles
We know that the diameter of the blood vessel plays a part in how fast the fluid flows through it. Given equal relative pressures, would you expect the blood to flow faster in a blood vessel with a larger or smaller diameter?
The blood would flow faster in a smaller diameter blood vessel.
What is considered normal blood pressure?
120/80 mmHg
What is the name of the tool used to measure blood pressure?
Would you expect blood pressure to be higher at the top of the body (the head) or at the bottom of the body (the feet)?
Due to hydrostatic effects, the blood pressure in the feet is much higher than that in the head. Typically, when the pressure at heart level is at 90 mmHg, the pressure in the head is around 53 mmHg, and the pressure in the feet is around 202 mmHg.
These blood vessels have the highest blood pressure outside of the heart:
These blood vessels move blood away from the heart.
These blood vessels have one of the lowest percent
volumes of liquid flow per unit area.
These blood vessels move blood towards the heart.
These blood vessels have the highest surface area.
When using an IV delivery system, what two factors affect the rate of flow?
Height of the IV bag, and viscosity of the IV fluid. For most IVs, however, the viscosity is similar. In these cases, only height matters for determining rate of flow.
What is systolic blood pressure?
Pressure when the heart is contracting
What is diastolic blood pressure?
Pressure when the heart is relaxed
Clinically, high blood pressure is defined as blood pressure higher than __/__.
Nervousness in the doctors office is a common occurrence, often referred to as “Whitecoat Syndrome.” This can _______ blood pressure, leading to false readings.
Blood Pressure is a complex function of the balance of sodium,
potassium, magnesium, calcium, water, etc. in ones blood.

Increasing Water, Magnesium, and Potassium tend to ________ blood pressure.

Blood pressure, especially systolic blood pressure, tends to ________ with age.
Someone dies from heart disease every __ seconds.
More people die from _____ _______ than any other cause.
Heart Disease
What is Angina
Decreased oxygen getting to the heart
Angina, High Blood Pressure, Thromboses, Strokes, and Heart attacks are all versions of _____ _______
Heart Disease
There are four types of drugs to lower blood pressure. What are they?
1. Diuretics
2. beta-blockers,
3. calcium channel blockers,
4. nitro-vasodilators
What are some side effects of drugs used to treat high blood pressure?
kidney damage, fatigue, muscle cramping, faintness,
increase in gallstones, dry persistent cough, headache, diarrhea, loss of taste,
nausea, dizziness, skin rashes, irregular heartbeats, nervousness, numbness,
fever and chills, stomach pain, cold extremities, constipation, etc.
What are some natural alternatives to blood pressure-lowering drugs?
Reduction in alcohol intake, regular exercise, eating foods, nutrients, and spices that are known to reduce blood pressure, etc
What is Boyle’s Law?
Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas; the two are inversely related. Therefore, when volume is increased, pressure is decreased. When volume is decreased, pressure is increased.
How does air enter the lungs?
The lungs expand, causing a partial vacuum within the lungs (increased volume = decreased pressure). This partial vacuum causes air to flow into the lungs.

Note: The lungs themselves contain no muscles. In order for the lungs to expand, the diaphragm contracts, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity. This causes the lungs to expand (once again, increase in volume = decrease in pressure). The expansion of the lungs causes a partial vacuum within the lungs, as described above, causing air to flow into the lungs.

How does air leave the lungs?
The lungs contract, causing higher pressure inside the lungs than outside the body. This forces excess air out until the pressures inside the lungs and outside the body are equalized.

Note: Once again, this is mostly driven by the diaphragm. However, in the case of normal breathing, no effort is needed because in order to force air out, the diaphragm simply relaxes. This causes an excess in pressure in the thoracic cavity, forcing air out of the lungs.

What is tidal volume? How much air is moved?
Tidal volume is the normal amount of air typically breathed in and out. This is around 450 mL.
What is the Inspiratory reserve volume?
Extra amount of air taken in with deep breathing, ~3600mL
What is Expiratory reserve volume?
Extra amount of air forced out, ~1200mL
What is the Vital Capacity?
The vital capacity is the sum of the tidal volume, the inspiratory reserve volume, and the expiratory reserve volume.
What is the Residual Volume?
Extra volume of air left in lungs after forced strongest possible expiration
What is the total lung capacity?
Sum of vital capacity and residual volume, ~6000-6500mL
What is Henry’s Law?
Henry’s Lay states that the Solubility of a gas in a liquid depends on the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient (SC). A higher SC means it would be more soluble.
Carbon Dioxide, CO2, is how many more times soluble in water than Oxygen, O2?
What is the carrier protein used to transport Oxygen in the blood?
Which term is used to indicate the Hemoglobin has as many oxygens bound to it as it can carry?
Saturated. When Hemoglobin is saturated, it has the maximum of 4 oxygen molecules bound to it.
Arterial blood is normally __% to ___% saturated
98% to 100& saturated
Which device is used to determine the percent saturation of blood?
A Pulse Oximeter
How do partial pressures work?
All of the pressures of each individual gas are summed to give the total pressure of a system.
The partial pressures of nitrogen and oxygen are 0.8 and 0.2 atm, respectively, summing to 1 atm total. At 99 feet below the sea level, these partial pressures have increased to 3.2 and 0.8 atm, respectively, summing to what total pressure exerted on the body?
4 atmospheres.
As a diver dives deeper beneath the sea, the partial pressure of nitrogen increases to levels that are no longer safe in the body. ________ ________ results when the increased levels of nitrogen dilute the oxygen levels in the body.
Nitrogen Narcosis
What is nitrogen narcosis?
Nitrogen narcosis occurs when nitrogen dilutes the amount of oxygen in the body, as can happen with divers. Nitrogen narcosis affects the nervous system.
What are symptoms of Nitrogen Narcosis?
Impaired judgment, loss of
short-term memory, slowed response time, and
sometimes euphoria
What are “the bends”?
The bends come from too rapid of a depressurization. For example, when a diver surfaces too quickly after diving, the gases, specifically the nitrogen in the blood, expands too rapidly within the blood vessels, causing what is known as “the bends.”
What are symptoms of “the bends”?
fatigue, mild to
severe pain in the joints, rashes or itchy
patches, dizziness, nausea,
disorientation, numbness, mild to severe
paralysis, loss of vision or hearing,
unconsciousness, and even death.
What is a Venturi Mask? What is it used for?
A Venturi Mask contains a valve that only allows oxygen in and carbon dioxide out. It provides an oxygen rich atmosphere for oxygen therapy.
What is the purpose of a nebulizer?
A nebulizer is a device that breaks up large liquid drops into smaller ones and disperses
them in gas (air). It is used to carry liquids directly into the lungs.

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