Practice Exam 6, Practice Exam 5, Practice Exam 7

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Who of the following represented the American notion that through hard work, even a poor immigrant could become tremendously successful?
a. John D. Rockefeller
b. Andrew Carnegie
c. Thomas Edison
d. Jay Cooke
b
Why was the strike by steelworkers at Homestead, Pennsylvania, significant?
a. The strike was the culmination of a long history of poor labor relations at Homestead.
b. It ended when the strike leaders were held in contempt of court and jailed.
c. The steelworkers were led by immigrant German Marxists.
d. The lockout represented Carnegie’s effort to break the plant’s union.
d
Which of the following resulted from industrialization in the decades after the Civil War?
a. A shortage of agricultural products
b. Slowing immigration
c. A higher standard of living
d. Rapid price inflation
c
Which of the following arguments did Andrew Carnegie make in his famous 1889 essay “Wealth” (later called “The Gospel of Wealth”)?
a. Industrialization only led to a decrease in the standard of living, especially for the working classes.
b. Though industrialization increased the gap between rich and poor, everyone’s standard of living rose.
c. Industrialization would bring economic decline in the United States as it did in England, a mature industrial power.
d. Industrialization had allowed the poor to raise themselves to nearly same level as the wealthy.
b
After the Civil War, Republican economic policies led to
a. huge budget deficits.
b. the dominance of large corporations.
c. significant tax increases.
d. sustained inflation.
b
As American industry expanded in the late nineteenth century, its energy source shifted from
a. coal to iron.
b. water to coal.
c. electricity to steam.
d. steam to water.
b
New corporate managers pioneered which system to track expenses and revenues in the late nineteenth century?
a. The management revolution
b. Cost accounting
c. Line-by-line bookkeeping
d. Balanced spending
b
Gustavus Swift boosted productivity in his Chicago slaughterhouses in the 1860s by using
a. the foreman system.
b. the closed shop.
c. horizontal integration.
d. assembly lines.
d
What did Andrew Carnegie, Gustavus Swift, and John D. Rockefeller have in common?
a. All these men were immigrants into the United States.
b. They succeeded through horizontal integration.
c. Each one began his career as an industrial mechanic.
d. They succeeded through vertical integration.
d
Which of the following describes vertically integrated corporations?
a. These corporations concentrated on one function in the production process.
b. Such corporations controlled all aspects of their operations’ businesses.
c. These corporations operated using predatory pricing.
d. They made it difficult for a few corporations to monopolize an industry.
b
Which of the following technological innovations made it possible for Gustavus F. Swift to undercut the prices of local butchers?
a. Automatic coupler
b. Friction gear
c. Refrigerated car
d. Air brake
c
Which business strategy did John D. Rockefeller pioneer in the late nineteenth century?
a. Horizontal integration
b. Middle management
c. The corporation
d. Vertical integration
a
he United States had become the leading steel producer in the world by 1900 because of
a. incorporation.
b. the transportation revolution.
c. the Bessemer process.
d. government subsidies.
c
How did John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Corporation come to control 95 percent of the nation’s oil refining capacity by the 1880s?
a. Through predatory pricing and the creation of the trust
b. Through expanded sales and production overseas
c. By inventing the process that extracted kerosene from crude oil
d. By implementing the process of vertical integration
a
What late-nineteenth-century development made it possible for rural Americans to participate in the national consumer culture?
a. Catalogs
b. Store chains
c. Billboards
d. Automobiles
a
The development of print advertising illustrates the significance of which late-nineteenth-century phenomenon?
a. Businesses creating demand for brand names
b. The importance of proper labeling on food packages
c. Government intervention to ensure pure food and drugs
d. Consumers’ desire for information about the products they consumed
a
Which magazine was the first to take advantage of advertising revenue to build mass readership, with over one million subscribers?
a. The Saturday Evening Post
b. Ladies’ Home Journal
c. Time Magazine
d. The Atlantic Monthly
b
Which of the following statements characterizes the employment of women in the American labor force during the late nineteenth century?
a. More than 75 percent of all stenographers and typists were female.
b. By the 1920s, the two-career marriage was the middle-class norm.
c. Young women were not encouraged to enter the workforce until they married.
d. In 1890, almost half of all married white women worked outside the home.
a
Why was clerical and office work appealing to white working-class women in the late nineteenth century?
a. There was a decrease in demand for domestic servants.
b. Factory work was too difficult to obtain because it paid higher wages.
c. Women were often promoted to better-paying positions in the company.
d. Office work was cleaner and better paid than domestic service or factory work.
d
Which of the following describes the traveling salesmen of the late nineteenth century?
a. Many men sought these jobs because they appreciated independence and autonomy.
b. Nineteenth-century salesmen were little different from their eighteenth-century predecessors.
c. Salesmen, like workers, organized to improve their wages and working conditions.
d. They helped build nationwide distribution networks for a multitude of products.
d
Which of the following were skilled workers with a relatively high degree of autonomy in the 1870s?
a. Labor gangs
b. Machinists
c. Assembly-line workers
d. Domestic servants
b
Which of the following was a consequence of mass production?
a. Workers became masters of their craft.
b. Craft workers became more valuable to industry.
c. Skilled workers gradually lost their autonomy.
d. Workers’ wages increased as they grew more productive.
c
The introduction of mass production in the late-nineteenth-century American economy had which of the following advantages?
a. Mass production increased workers’ output.
b. Mass production made work more interesting.
c. It gave workers greater control over the pace of their work.
d. It gave workers a greater sense of accomplishment.
a
“It looks to me like slavery to have a man stand over you with a stop watch.” This statement by an iron molder refers to
a. industrial unionism.
b. yellow-dog contracts.
c. working conditions for breaker boys.
d. scientific management.
d
The outcome of the implementation of scientific management was
a. that workers found unions less appealing.
b. resistance from workers
c. decreasing production efficiency.
d. resistance from managers.
b
Which of the following statements characterizes the economics of working-class family life in late-nineteenth-century America?
a. Women’s household work was crucial in maintaining the family, and this work was commonly done by older daughters because wives were employed outside the home.
b. Due to their dire economic circumstances, working-class families frequently sent their children out to work in mills, factories, or mines.
c. As children grew older, their material needs increased, which strained family budgets and made supporting the children’s adolescent years hardest on families.
d. Except for the lowest-paid factory workers, most male heads of household were able to support their families through their own labor.
b
Why did so few African American men hold factory jobs in the United States in 1890?
a. White-dominated labor unions generally refused to allow blacks to join and seek industrial employment.
b. There were almost no factories in the South, where the majority of African Americans lived at that time.
c. Factory owners found that they could satisfy most of their labor needs with immigrant workers, so they rejected most black applicants.
d. Black workers intensely disliked factory work and preferred agricultural or casual urban labor.
c
New immigration patterns in the early twentieth century reflected growing emigration from
a. the British Isles.
b. north and central Europe.
c. southern and Eastern Europe.
d. eastern Africa.
c
During the late 1800s, an adult male immigrant from which of the following locations would most likely be a skilled worker?
a. Greece
b. Poland
c. Italy
d. Wales
d
Which of the following statements describes the experiences of the new immigrants who entered the United States between 1880 and 1920?
a. They often planned on working and saving money for a few years before returning home
b. The new immigrants were welcomed much more graciously than were the Irish in 1840.
c. These groups found adjustment to the new country easier than earlier groups had.
d. They quickly assimilated into American culture and gave up their customs and languages.
a
Why did Chinese immigrants come to the United States in the nineteenth century?
a. Chinese men sought jobs as indentured servants in the houses of rich Californians.
b. They were motivated by poverty and upheaval in southern China.
c. Chinese immigrants came to open laundry businesses in American cities.
d. The burgeoning population of China created widespread famine and shortages.
b
Which of the following statements describes the Chinese immigrants to the United States in the nineteenth century?
a. Most were unemployed and depended on government assistance to survive.
b. They faced more severe discrimination than European immigrants.
c. They came in greatest numbers prior to 1850.
d. Chinese immigrants were mostly women escaping sexual slavery.
b
The federal government responded to the problem of discrimination against the Chinese in nineteenth-century California by
a. passing a civil rights law that protected them from anti-immigrant violence.
b. paying white workers higher wages to do agricultural work.
c. establishing a quota limiting Chinese immigration to 10,000 per year.
d. barring Chinese immigration to the United States in 1882.
d
Which of these factors were the critical determinants of workers’ occupational opportunities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
a. Age and ethnicity
b. Gender and race
c. Skills and race
d. Ethnicity and skills
b
Which of the following was a nineteenth-century example of a trade union?
a. The American Federation of Labor
b. The Greenback-Labor Party
c. The Farmer’s Alliance
d. The Grange
a
Why has the labor movement always been relatively weak in American politics?
a. Historically, labor unions have not been interested in engaging in the political process.
b. Industrial workers put other concerns ahead of labor issues, making it difficult for labor to present a cohesive platform.
c. Most industrial workers live in urban areas and cities, which are underrepresented in Congress.
d. Poor leadership has often hindered the political effectiveness of the labor movement.
c
The Great Strike of 1877 involved workers in which industry?
a. Copper
b. Steel
c. Coal
d. Railroads
d
What did the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Homestead Strike of 1892 have in common?
a. The American public supported the strikers.
b. The leaders of both strikes were jailed.
c. Government troops helped put down both strikes.
d. The American Railway Union led both strikes.
c
Founded in 1867, the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
a. worked with state and national banks to reduce inflation.
b. agitated for laws to exclude immigrants from the Homestead Act.
c. built railroad networks to lower farmers’ transportation costs.
d. sponsored events to improve the social life of farm families.
d
Which of the following policies did the Greenback-Labor Party support in the 1870s?
a. Ending Reconstruction
b. Inflation
c. The graduated income tax
d. The gold standard
b
State Granger laws were designed primarily to
a. regulate prices.
b. regulate big business.
c. require banks to be more generous in granting loans.
d. decrease wholesale commodity prices.
b
In terms of membership, the Knights of Labor discriminated
a. against unskilled laborers.
b. against women.
c. by excluding the Chinese.
d. by ethnicity.
c
The Knights of Labor advocated which of the following reforms in their 1878 platform?
a. Workplace safety laws
b. Workers’ revolution
c. The family wage
d. The right to bear arms
a
Why was the Haymarket incident of 1886 significant?
a. It created greater public respect for unions.
b. It demonstrated the professionalization of Chicago’s police force.
c. The incident led to the downfall of the Knights of Labor.
d. It led to an eight-hour day for McCormick workers.
c
In 1891, the Texas Alliance proposed cooperative enterprise to
a. provide a safe place for farmers’ savings.
b. fight inflation.
c. reduce the influence of government in agriculture.
d. give farmers access to cheap credit.
d
The Supreme Court decision to overturn Granger laws in Wabash v. Illinois (1886) led to
a. the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
b. passage of the McKinley Tariff.
c. the implementation of the Specie Resumption Act.
d. passage of the Gold Standard Act.
a
What was the purpose of the Hatch Act, passed by Congress and President Grover Cleveland in 1887?
a. To fund large corporate farms, encouraging the growth of the farming industry
b. To establish state-regulated farms to sell produce at a cheaper rate
c. To provide funds to farmers struggling to pay debts
d. To provide federal funding for agricultural research and education
d
Established in 1887, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
a. investigated in-state shipping.
b. encouraged companies to cooperate in setting prices.
c. sued in court to force companies to reduce high rates.
d. helped to transition companies into public ownership.
c
Why was the American Federation of Labor more successful than the Knights of Labor in the late nineteenth century?
a. The AFL was open to all workers.
b. The AFL focused on goals such as better wages, hours, and working conditions.
c. The Knights’ push for practical job interests was not idealistic enough.
d. The Knights were too restrictive.
b
Which of the following pairs is properly matched?
a. Yellow-dog contract—workers in one industry organized into a single organization, regardless of skill
b. Trade union—all jobs reserved for union members
c. Collective bargaining—union negotiates with the employer for all the employees
d. Closed shop—force applied on a comparable industry to bring pressure on the primary target
c

“Throughout the . . . nineteenth century, the number of policemen in American cities grew more rapidly than the population. . . . Drink and disorder continued to dominate the arrest lists. Nevertheless, some important changes lay ahead. The discipline . . . demonstrated by New York’s police in the draft riots of 1863 persuaded businesses and professional leaders . . . of the value of uniformed, professional officers. . . . The uniformed police took over tasks . . . that had formerly been done by watchmen and magistrates. They also began to institute their own surveillance of workers’ political activities. . . . The capacity of the state to govern had been greatly increased where it mattered most: in the suppression of popular behavior that disrupted the mastery of society by capitalist markets.”

— David Montgomery, historian, Citizen Worker: The Experience of Workers in the United States with Democracy and the Free Market During the Nineteenth Century,
1993

Which of the following historical developments was the most direct cause of the phenomena Montgomery describes in the excerpt?
a. Growing levels of urban disorder caused by poverty and excessive alcohol consumption
b. The growth of big business and its power to influence local and national governments
c. The influx of 25 million immigrants into the United States between 1860 and World War I
d. The emergence of organizations intended to win reforms for industrial workers

b

“Throughout the . . . nineteenth century, the number of policemen in American cities grew more rapidly than the population. . . . Drink and disorder continued to dominate the arrest lists. Nevertheless, some important changes lay ahead. The discipline . . . demonstrated by New York’s police in the draft riots of 1863 persuaded businesses and professional leaders . . . of the value of uniformed, professional officers. . . . The uniformed police took over tasks . . . that had formerly been done by watchmen and magistrates. They also began to institute their own surveillance of workers’ political activities. . . . The capacity of the state to govern had been greatly increased where it mattered most: in the suppression of popular behavior that disrupted the mastery of society by capitalist markets.”

— David Montgomery, historian, Citizen Worker: The Experience of Workers in the United States with Democracy and the Free Market During the Nineteenth Century,
1993

Which of the following events most directly supports the ideas expressed in the excerpt?
a. Mob violence directed against Chinese workers in the 1880s
b. Violent labor protests such as the one at Haymarket Square in 1886
c. Use of the Social Gospel to challenge the dominance of the corporate ethic
d. The consolidation of corporations into trusts

b
Which of the following figures was a major proponent of commercial domesticity in the nineteenth century?
a. Thomas Edison
b. P. T. Barnum
c. Horatio Alger
d. Rutherford B. Hayes
b
How did the large department stores of the nineteenth century attract middle-class women patrons?
a. The stores posted burly security guards at all the doors.
b. They offered tearooms and attentive service.
c. They proclaimed that children and women were their primary audience.
d. The stores banned men from entering without their mothers or wives.
b
How did working-class women gain access to the fine department stores in the United States in the late nineteenth century?
a. Working-class women gained access as clerks, cashiers, and store messengers.
b. Working-class domestics accompanied their female employers into the stores.
c. They could enter the stores only if they dressed and acted like middle-class women.
d. Vagrancy laws made it impossible for non-elite people to enter the stores.
a
Which of these late-nineteenth-century U.S. Supreme Court rulings settled the question of African Americans’ access to regular first-class seats on American railroad cars until the 1950s?
a. Montana Railway Co. v. Warren
b. Allen v. Hanks
c. Plessy v. Ferguson
d. Wabash v. Illinois
c
Which of the following describes the consumer culture that emerged in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century United States?
a. Modern and innovative
b. Separate but equal
c. Feminist and egalitarian
d. Politically progressive
a
Which of the following phenomena spurred changes in Americans’ understanding of masculinity in the late nineteenth century?
a. Exclusive male city clubs
b. Baseball
c. Urban life and work
d. The “new woman”
c
The growth of the YMCA in late-nineteenth-century American cities resulted from which of the following factors?
a. There was a greater need to train athletes for professional sports careers.
b. People newly arrived in cities needed an outlet for entertainment.
c. The YMCA prompted “muscular Christianity” for white-collar workers.
d. There was an epidemic of obesity across the United States in the nineteenth century.
c
By the early 1900s, many business leaders encouraged their male workers to participate in sports to
a. maintain their contacts with working-class culture.
b. exhaust workers’ competitive instincts.
c. adjust to the demands of the industrial clock.
d. counter the influences of domesticity.
c
Which of the following sports was invented by YMCA instructors in the 1890s?
a. Basketball
b. Baseball
c. Lacrosse
d. Football
a
How did baseball become America’s most popular game?
a. Professional teams were started in dozens of cities as part of the National League.
b. It was the only distinctively American game before the 1860s.
c. The game had been popular with Americans soldiers since the Revolutionary War.
d. Baseball teams often allowed women to play.
a
Which of the following was a reason American businesses embraced baseball in the late nineteenth century?
a. The game taught a new generation about the bloody days of the Civil War.
b. The game was a wholesome way to promote discipline and teamwork.
c. It reminded urban Americans of their rural past.
d. It provided urbanites with a respected symbol of authority–the umpire.
b
Which sport was the most controversial in the late 1800s?
a. Professional baseball
b. Women’s field hockey
c. Basketball
d. College football
d
The Gibson Girl of the 1890s personified which of the following female images?
a. College-educated career women who preferred to remain single
b. The middle-class “new woman”–public spirited and athletic
c. Young working-class women who worked as servants for the middle-class
d. Prostitutes in urban brothels who were patronized by middle-class men
b
In which of the following athletic activities were elite women in their twenties likely to participate?
a. Lacrosse
b. Baseball
c. Football
d. Tennis
d
As the United States industrialized, the outdoors lost its association with danger and hard work and became newly associated with
a. pollution.
b. sexuality.
c. renewal.
d. religion.
c
Which of the following is correctly matched?
a. Sierra Club—founded by John Muir to preserve the environment
b. Lacey Act—celebrated the austere beauty of the California desert
c. Audubon Society—oversaw many of the nation’s national parks
d. U.S. Forest Service—advocated broader protection for wild birds
a
Which of the following statements characterizes urban leisure in post-Civil War America?
a. Most urban Americans worked such long hours that they had little time for leisure activities.
b. Few urban Americans had any extra money to spend on leisure activities.
c. Families and churches were still the settings of most leisure activities.
d. Leisure became a commercial commodity enjoyed outside the home.
d
Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s speech to Congress in 1892 on the “solitude of self” referred to the
a. Christian practice of extended prayer and fasting to grow closer to God.
b. importance of women’s autonomy in modern society.
c. loneliness many experienced when they moved to large urban cities.
d. growing practice of meditation and relaxation.
b
Which of the following statements characterizes family life in the late 1800s?
a. Family sizes actually increased as urban prosperity allowed parents to support more children comfortably.
b. Farm daughters did more traditionally male work as young male farmers moved to large cities.
c. Family size continued its steady decline because middle-class children in cities were not needed for work.
d. The birthrate remained stable because of the different cultural values held by many immigrants.
c
The typical American middle-class household in 1900 consisted of husband, wife, and how many additional family members?
a. Three children
b. Five children
c. Two children
d. Several children and extended family members
a
Which of the following was true for middle-class families in the late nineteenth century?
a. Remaining unmarried by age twenty was very infrequent and widely stigmatized.
b. Smaller family sizes allowed parents to focus their resources and increase their social mobility.
c. Husbands and wives both worked in the home, thereby strengthening family ties.
d. Legal abortion and birth control aided in the move toward smaller families.
b
The Comstock Act took effect in 1873 and
a. prohibited the circulation of any information about sex and birth control.
b. reversed the earlier law that banned obscene materials from the U.S. mail.
c. legalized the use of contraceptive devices made of vulcanized rubber.
d. criminalized any activity that resulted in the creation of pornographic material.
a
Which of the following statements characterizes changes in the lives of middle-class American children in the last decades of the nineteenth century?
a. Parents placed increasing emphasis on discipline.
b. Children became economic assets on whom the family relied for income.
c. Most moved directly from childhood into adult urban life.
d. A high school education became more common.
d
Why did the rate of college attendance quadruple between the 1880s and the 1920s?
a. The public university system expanded.
b. Private colleges began to emphasize practical pursuits.
c. State universities began to adopt classical curricula.
d. Increasing numbers of women attended college.
a
Which of the following statements summarizes Booker T. Washington’s approach to racial change in the United States?
a. Washington advocated education for African Americans to end poverty and segregation.
b. He advocated political organizing to challenge the structures and attitudes of racism.
c. Washington promoted black boarding schools to assimilate students into white culture.
d. He promoted industrial education for blacks as a strategy for lessening white prejudice.
d
Between 1880 and 1920, higher education for women was
a. banned in most of the South.
b. mostly at single-sex institutions in the Northeast and South.
c. unheard of in most parts of the country.
d. almost universal among the middle class.
b
Which of the following describes the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) in the late nineteenth century?
a. The group used temperance as a front for its real feminist agenda and platform.
b. It supported woman suffrage as a tool that could challenge the liquor interest.
c. The organization confined itself exclusively to work on the liquor question.
d. Led by Susan B. Anthony, the group protested outside saloons with babies in arm.
b
The Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU) was the first national movement to
a. demand a constitutional amendment to ban alcohol.
b. identify and fight against domestic violence.
c. be led by a woman.
d. call for woman suffrage.
b
Which of the following groups would have been unlikely to support prohibition in the late nineteenth century?
a. Baptists and Methodists
b. Urban, elite women
c. German immigrants
d. Rural farmers
c
In 1880s, the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU) controversially threw its support behind the
a. Greenback Labor Party.
b. Prohibition Party.
c. Republican Party.
d. Democratic Party.
b
Which region of the United States had responded to the women’s voting rights movement by 1900?
a. Northeast
b. West
c. Midwest
d. Lower South
b
The National Association of Colored Women was effective in its efforts to improve the life of African Americans because it
a. enabled African Americans to be educated in white schools.
b. gave lectures throughout the country.
c. rejected the traditional role of women in domesticity.
d. focused its attention on community issues such as public health.
d
Why was the United Daughters of the Confederacy founded in 1894?
a. To fight for the liberties of all people in the United States, regardless of race or gender
b. To study the historical factors that lead to the Civil War in the South
c. To change the beliefs and customs of the South
d. To promote the “Lost Cause” of the South in the Civil War
d
What did the term petticoat rule mean when it was used by antisuffragists in the early twentieth century?
a. Women were often controlling in running households.
b. Women would become hungry for political office if given the right to vote.
c. If granted the right to vote, women might cancel husband’s votes.
d. Women should always put their womanliness before any other ambitions.
c
The Heterodoxy Club, founded in Greenwich Village in 1912, was open to any woman who pledged
a. work assiduously for women’s rights.
b. her belief in the centrality of heterosexuality.
c. support for domesticity and separate spheres.
d. not to be orthodox in her opinions.
d
In the late nineteenth century, Social Darwinists, such as William Graham Sumner, believed that
a. “inferior” people should be discouraged from reproducing.
b. businesses should be regulated.
c. government should guide social processes.
d. millionaires were the fittest Americans.
d
Which of these concepts followed directly from the philosophy of Social Darwinism?
a. Domesticity
b. The Social Gospel
c. Modernism
d. Eugenics laws
d
Which of the following statements describes Charles Darwin’s theories as presented in his book, On the Origin of Species?
a. Animals and plants adapt to better suit their environment through natural selection.
b. Plants’ and animals’ adaptations were inevitably beneficial to the species.
c. Animals and plants can acquire transmissible traits within a single lifetime.
d. Human society should function on the basis of competition and survival of the fittest.
a
Which of the following authors rejected romanticism and Victorian sentimentality in their works?
a. George Bellows
b. Harriet Beecher Stowe
c. Andrew Carnegie
d. Stephen Crane
d
Which of the following authors is correctly matched with one of his works?
a. Mark Twain—A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
b. Stephen Crane—”To Build a Fire”
c. Theodore Dreiser—Letters from the Earth
d. Jack London—Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
a
Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the literary movements in the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s?
a. Naturalism, romanticism, realism, modernism
b. Romanticism, realism, naturalism, modernism
c. Modernism, realism, romanticism, naturalism
d. Realism, romanticism, modernism, naturalism
b
Realism and modernism had which of the following characteristics in common?
a. Both forms emphasized virility and masculinity.
b. Both were religiously and spiritually expressive.
c. They were closely allied with reform movements.
d. They embraced feminism and women artists.
a
In the late nineteenth century, the American Catholic hierarchy was dominated by
a. Hispanic Americans.
b. Irish Americans.
c. German Americans.
d. Polish Americans.
b
Which of the following is true of religion in the city at the turn of the twentieth century?
a. Protestantism was easily accepted by city dwellers.
b. Protestant churches eschewed evangelism.
c. The Catholic Church incorporated ethnic differences in urban areas.
d. Immigrant Catholics abandoned ethnic customs for the sake of religious unity.
c
In the late nineteenth century, many native-born, prosperous American Jews embraced
a. Reform Judaism.
b. Orthodox Judaism.
c. atheism.
d. nativism.
a
By 1916, which of the following religious groups had increased immensely in the United States because of immigration?
a. Baptists
b. Methodists
c. Catholics
d. Protestants
c
Of the nine thousand overseas Protestant missionaries in 1915, the largest percentage of them served in
a. Russia.
b. Africa.
c. Asia.
d. Central America.
c
Iowans created the American Protective Organization in 1887 to
a. protect Midwestern women from urban sex trafficking.
b. prevent African Americans from moving into their state.
c. protect black Iowans from the revived Ku Klux Klan.
d. oppose the influence of Catholics in the United States.
d
Protestant churches that espoused the Social Gospel
a. urged congregations to focus on each other’s personal salvation as “Social Christians.”
b. warned that society outside the church was contrary to God’s plan.
c. extended the principles of the Gospel of Wealth to religion.
d. taught that Christians should fight for social justice and the public welfare.
d
The urban revivalism of Billy Sunday represented
a. a strong example of the Social Gospel.
b. the continuing appeal of Calvinist theology in American culture.
c. a Catholic challenge to Protestantism.
d. the fundamentalism movement.
d

“All his adult life [John] Muir had been warning about cities and preaching the outdoors. . . . Finally, in his sixties, he found the public more receptive to his message, even forcing him to write, ‘Though I never intended to write or lecture or seek fame in any way . . . I now write a great deal and am well known.’ . . . [H]is belated prominence derived more from the surging nature cults of the day than from any personal zeal to publish and be famous. No one else combined such a direct knowledge of the wilderness with such an agreeable literary style. Thus Muir functioned as a powerful symbol of widespread cultural yearnings.”

— Stephen R. Fox, historian, The American Conservation Movement:
John Muir and His Legacy, 1985

The idea conveyed in the excerpt serves as evidence of which of the following occurring in the United States at the time?
a. The growth of a conservation movement
b. The emergence of the Social Gospel
c. The surging growth of American industrial cities
d. Americans’ attraction to consumer culture and commercial amusements

a

“All his adult life [John] Muir had been warning about cities and preaching the outdoors. . . . Finally, in his sixties, he found the public more receptive to his message, even forcing him to write, ‘Though I never intended to write or lecture or seek fame in any way . . . I now write a great deal and am well known.’ . . . [H]is belated prominence derived more from the surging nature cults of the day than from any personal zeal to publish and be famous. No one else combined such a direct knowledge of the wilderness with such an agreeable literary style. Thus Muir functioned as a powerful symbol of widespread cultural yearnings.”

— Stephen R. Fox, historian, The American Conservation Movement:
John Muir and His Legacy, 1985

Which of the following was a direct and important consequence of the development described in the excerpt?
a. Nineteenth-century intellectuals’ attraction to the ideas of Social Darwinism
b. A flourishing of higher education
c. Woodrow Wilson’s creation of the National Park Service
d. American authors’ rejection of romanticism in favor of literary realism

c

“All his adult life [John] Muir had been warning about cities and preaching the outdoors. . . . Finally, in his sixties, he found the public more receptive to his message, even forcing him to write, ‘Though I never intended to write or lecture or seek fame in any way . . . I now write a great deal and am well known.’ . . . [H]is belated prominence derived more from the surging nature cults of the day than from any personal zeal to publish and be famous. No one else combined such a direct knowledge of the wilderness with such an agreeable literary style. Thus Muir functioned as a powerful symbol of widespread cultural yearnings.”

— Stephen R. Fox, historian, The American Conservation Movement:
John Muir and His Legacy, 1985

Americans who were attracted to the ideas described in the excerpt would have been most likely to participate in which of the following activities?
a. Joining the YMCA to participate in basketball and volleyball games
b. Shopping in department stores for less restrictive women’s clothing
c. Taking the train to California to see and experience the Yosemite Valley
d. Partaking in new cultural events such as New York City’s 1913 Armory Show

c
Before the Civil War, most manufacturing operations sprang up in
a. northeastern cities.
b. seaports.
c. railroad hubs.
d. countryside locations.
d
What accounted for the relocation of manufacturing operations into urban areas after the Civil War?
a. Steam power
b. Electricity
c. Tax incentives
d. Railroad expansion
a
By 1900, which of the following was the primary means of urban mass transit in the United States?
a. Cable car
b. Elevated railroad
c. Trolley car
d. Subway
c
What was the primary complaint against trolleys in American cities in the late 1800s?
a. Their frequent accidents
b. The expensive ticket prices
c. They served only elite neighborhoods
d. Their high construction costs
a
Suburbs for the well-to-do first began to emerge on the outskirts of major American cities in which of these periods?
a. During the Reconstruction era
b. Before the Civil War
c. After 1900
d. In the late 1800s
b
Which of these statements describes the newly rising American middle class around 1900?
a. They preferred to live in luxurious high-rise apartments in the city.
b. They remained near the ethnic neighborhoods where they had grown up.
c. They imitated the rich by constructing scaled-down villas in the country.
d. Many preferred to live in the suburbs because of the safety and space it afforded them.
d
Which invention transformed urban and suburban communications in the United States after 1876?
a. Telegraph
b. Telephone
c. Walkie-talkie
d. Elevator
b
Which of the following made the growth of skyscrapers possible?
a. The development of steel girders, plate glass, and elevators
b. Architects competing for the Form Follows Function award
c. Government subsidies to contractors who would build them
d. The newly built system of canals that connected cities to sources for building materials
a
The first skyscraper in the United States was built in 1885 in which city?
a. Chicago
b. Cleveland
c. Boston
d. New York
a
Which of these inventions made residents feel safer in urban areas in the late nineteenth century?
a. Electric light
b. Telegraph
c. Radio
d. Subway
a
Which of the following statements most characterizes residential patterns in the typical American city around 1900?
a. Most immigrants were required by zoning laws to live in downtown ghettos.
b. Immigrants from a particular region of a country tended to settle by ethnic group.
c. Members of various ethnic groups mingled throughout the city.
d. Most immigrants had to settle far from the factories where they worked.
b
Which of the following statements describes immigrants’ accommodation to city life in the United States around 1900?
a. Irish and German immigrants frequently joined temperance societies to become sober American workers.
b. Many relied on native-language newspapers, the conviviality of saloons, and the assistance of mutual-aid societies.
c. They discarded their ethnic customs and traditional holidays as quickly as possible to blend in with native-born Americans.
d. Each family looked out solely for its own interests, abandoning older community-oriented patterns.
b
Around the turn of the century, African Americans moving to cities in the North experienced which of the following?
a. Plentiful job opportunities and access to integrated housing.
b. Substantially less racism than did African Americans in the South
c. More opportunities to become skilled workers than they had two decades earlier
d. More discrimination than even the most downtrodden European immigrants
d
Where did almost 90 percent of African Americans live in 1900?
a. Mississippi and Alabama
b. The South
c. Northern cities
d. The western states
b
Which of the following statements describes the anti-black race riots that occurred in cities in the early twentieth century?
a. Race riots occurred almost exclusively in the South.
b. The violent events often caused much damage but few, if any, deaths.
c. Black on white crimes were the primary trigger of race riots.
d. Race riots foreshadowed a worsening of urban racial tensions.
d
Which of the following describes the tenements that were typical of many urban areas in the early twentieth century?
a. Government-subsidized housing for the poor
b. Light-manufacturing factories prevalent in many urban warehouse districts
c. Buildings that housed many families in cramped, airless apartments
d. Modern and sleek no-frills apartments that housed poor families
c
Which of the following phenomena emerged as an important new influence on urban entertainment in the early twentieth century?
a. Middle-class reformers’ priorities
b. Saloons
c. Opera houses
d. Black music
d
The rise of nickelodeons, amusement parks, dance halls, vaudeville, and other “cheap amusements” in the late nineteenth-century cities had which of the following effects?
a. Reinforcing Victorian values
b. Undermining businesses efforts to instill workplace discipline
c. Increasing tax revenues so the government could build more libraries and parks
d. Challenging traditional courtship rituals
d
What made young women vulnerable in the new system of dating and “treating” that emerged in early twentieth-century cities?
a. Their low marriage prospects
b. A high percentage of bachelors
c. Women’s low wages
d. Sexualized dancing and music
c
Which of the following statements characterizes gay culture in early twentieth-century New York?
a. New York’s gay underground was dangerous due to the frequency of police raids and arrests.
b. The city’s exuberant gay subculture provoked harassment but officials tolerated its existence.
c. New York’s gay subculture was quiet, invisible, and careful not to challenge Victorian ideals.
d. Due to high levels of stigma and discrimination, there were too few gay people to form a culture.
b
Who of the following was the greatest benefactor of public libraries in nineteenth-century America, who in 1881 announced that he would build a library in any city that was prepared to maintain it?
a. George W. Vanderbilt
b. J. P. Morgan
c. John D. Rockefeller
d. Andrew Carnegie
d
Who was Joseph Pulitzer and what made him significant?
a. An investigative reporter who exposed the unhealthy conditions of the meatpacking industry
b. The artist whose comic strip, “The Yellow Kid,” gave its name to yellow journalism
c. A St. Louis newspaper publisher who built his sales base with sensational investigations
d. A circus showman who claimed that “He who is without a newspaper is cut off from his species”
c
Which of the following describes metropolitan newspapers in the period after the Civil War?
a. Influenced by the increasing efficiency of communication, they covered more national and international news than local events.
b. Newspapers lost urban readership as the influx of poor immigrants led to declining literacy rates.
c. Building a reputation for factual, objective news coverage, newspapers ignored national scandals.
d. They expanded to include human-interest stories and society and sports sections.
d
William Randolph Hearst’s and Joseph Pulitzer’s sensationalist style of reporting was known as which of the following?
a. Human interest writing
b. Paparazzi coverage
c. Scandal sheet copy
d. Yellow journalism
d
David Graham Phillips established his credentials as a muckraker when he wrote a scathing analysis on which subject?
a. The U.S. Senate
b. Child labor
c. Tammany Hall
d. Standard Oil Company
a
Which of the following statements characterizes Theodore Roosevelt’s attitude toward the muckrakers?
a. Admiring them, Roosevelt urged the muckrakers on by exclaiming, “Bully!”
b. Appalled, he dismissed them as muckrakers who overemphasized America’s negative aspects.
c. Inspired, he declared that their stories “gripped my heart until I felt I must tell of them, or burst, or turn anarchist.”
d. Impressed, Roosevelt commended the muckrakers for being good followers of his own progressive principles.
b
To what phenomenon did the book title The Shame of the Cities specifically refer?
a. Conspicuous consumption among the rich
b. Urban political corruption
c. Prostitution in big cities
d. Racial violence in urban slums
b
Which of the following muckrakers is correctly matched with his or her reform area?
a. David Graham Phillips—an exposé of Standard Oil
b. Lincoln Steffens—the corruption of America’s urban governments
c. Jacob Riis—the meatpacking industry
d. Ida Tarbell—the plight of the poor
b
To what late nineteenth-century phenomenon does the term “private city” refer?
a. The federal government’s lack of influence over urban administration
b. Businesses’ role in the creation of urban environments
c. The notion that urban family life functioned like a small city
d. The existence of an underground gay urban subculture
b
Which of the following describes the urban political machines of the late nineteenth century?
a. Political machines were an obstacle to the creation of urban infrastructure.
b. Machines acted as social service agencies, providing assistance in times of trouble.
c. They protected American city-dwellers from powerful economic interests.
d. They mediated between municipal governments and state and federal governments.
b
In the late nineteenth century, George Washington Plunkitt was
a. a humorous character created by a newspaper columnist to satirize ward politics.
b. a major political boss who operated in the city of Chicago.
c. the first important African American politician elected in the city of Baltimore.
d. the Tammany ward boss who courted all ethnic groups to win their support.
d
Which level of government generally saw the most corruption in the late 1800s?
a. Federal
b. Urban
c. Rural
d. State
b
To what did the Tammany ward boss George Washington Plunkitt refer when he talked about “honest graft”?
a. Paying taxes on briberies
b. Profiting from insider status
c. Confessing past bribes
d. Bribing politicians for good purposes
b
Around 1900, if an ordinary American city dweller, whether immigrant or native-born, needed a favor done by a person with authority, he or she would have most likely turned to whom?
a. A newspaper columnist
b. A member of Congress
c. An alderman or ward boss
d. An ombudsman
b
During the 1890s, what caused voters to start turning away from urban political machines and start embracing urban political reformers?
a. The economic depression
b. The rampant spread of urban organized crime
c. A series of political assassinations
d. A decrease in the number of immigrants
a
Why did Galveston, Texas adopt a commission system in 1900, that later became a nationwide model for efficient government?
a. To end the rampant homelessness and hunger
b. To encourage industrial development in the city
c. To rebuild after a hurricane killed roughly 6,000 people
d. To curb the influence of corporate interests in the government
c
Which of the following statements characterizes urban political reform efforts in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
a. Many large American cities adopted the professional city manager system in an attempt to run more like a business.
b. Some reform mayors modeled their reform efforts on cutting-edge European efforts in cities such as Glasgow and Dusseldorf.
c. Urban reform politicians rejected municipally owned utilities in favor of private sector ownership.
d. The efforts of urban reform politicians could not compete with those sponsored by the political machines they targeted.
b
What spurred many big cities’ pursuit of state-of-the-art sewage and drainage systems at the end of the nineteenth century?
a. Cities smelled so bad they were nearly uninhabitable.
b. They sought to improve public health.
c. Urban land became too valuable to use for privies.
d. The federal government offered tax incentives.
b
The City Beautiful movement is associated with which of the following activities?
a. Attempts to clean up the tremendous air pollution that hung in the air of many cities
b. Efforts to clean up the mud rivers created by spring rains in many cities
c. Attempts to build more and better urban park spaces, including playgrounds and gardens
d. Efforts by municipal commissioners to preserve green space in rapidly expanding industrial cities
c
How did the early twentieth century campaign against urban prostitution affect women working as prostitutes at that time?
a. By closing brothels, new laws worsened many prostitutes’ working conditions.
b. New laws made it easier for prostitutes to find more respectable work.
c. New obstacles to interstate transport limited most prostitutes’ mobility.
d. The campaign reduced the number of men seeking prostitutes’ services in cities.
a
What did women like Jane Addams seek to provide to the working-class people they served through settlement houses in early twentieth century cities?
a. A stronger sense of “civic enterprise and moral conviction”
b. The resources and political voice they needed to improve their lives
c. Art classes and other cultural programs to expand their minds
d. Lessons on American history to help recent immigrants assimilate
b
Florence Kelley became a famous advocate for
a. housewives and professional working women.
b. migrant farm workers.
c. prostitutes and orphans.
d. female and child laborers.
d
The settlement houses that emerged in early twentieth-century cities established which new occupational field?
a. Early Childhood Education
b. Midwifery
c. Social Work
d. Political bureaucrat
c
Which of the following describes the emerging profession of social work at the turn of the nineteenth century?
a. Social work was one profession women could pursue without a college degree.
b. Social workers were motivated by their strong religious beliefs.
c. Most social workers at this time viewed themselves as advocates of social justice.
d. Until the mid-twentieth century, most American social workers were male.
c
Why was Margaret Sanger’s newspaper column “What Every Girl Should Know” significant?
a. The column educated girls and women about the dangers of prostitution.
b. Sanger linked the practice of “treating” with sexually transmitted diseases.
c. It contributed to launching a national birth control movement.
d. It publicized the notion that women as well as men could attend college.
c
Why was Margaret Sanger indicted for her newspaper column “What Every Girl Should Know” in the 1910s?
a. Her discussion of birth control violated obscenity laws.
b. The column discussed white slavery and prostitution openly.
c. Sanger advocated mixed-race marriages.
d. It suggested that New York’s homosexual community was not immoral.
a
What spurred the U.S. Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906?
a. The publication of Leona Prall Groetzinger’s expose titled “The City’s Perils”
b. A horrific yellow fever epidemic in Memphis, Tennessee, that killed 12 percent of its people
c. High infant mortality rates that resulted from the widespread problem of adulterated milk
d. A public uproar caused by Upton Sinclair’s realist novel The Jungle
d
The Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire of 1911 led to which of the following outcomes?
a. New York State’s passage of the most advanced labor code in the country at that time
b. The jailing of the company’s owner for arson after seeking to collect on his insurance
c. The New York State Factory Commission to blame worker negligence for producing unsafe working conditions
d. A final break between progressive reformers and New York City’s Tammany Hall political machine
a
Why was the New York legislation dealing with safety in factories and wages-and-hour laws for women and children was enacted?
a. Danbury Hatters Boycott
b. Triangle Shirtwaist fire
c. Anthracite Coal Strike
d. Niagara Movement
b
Which of the following Hull House volunteers became the first American woman to hold a U.S. cabinet post?
a. Frances Perkins
b. Ellen Gates Starr
c. Jane Addams
d. Florence Kelley
a

“In the nineteenth century, the emergent [middle] class found ways to distinguish itself culturally from working-class immigrants, Afro-Americans, and the idle rich. The bourgeois world view counterposed such values as sobriety and domesticity against the dissipation and promiscuity of those higher and lower in social rank. By the early twentieth century however, these groups—by virtue of their very ‘otherness’—offered sensuality, colorful adventure, and expressiveness to segments of the urban middle class. While some New Yorkers looked on with disapproval, others found working women who ‘put on style’ an amusing, fashionable, and admirable part of the cultural landscape. What had been seen as rowdy girls’ deviant behavior in the mid-nineteenth century was evaluated more ambiguously by the early 1900s.”

— Kathy Peiss, historian, Cheap Amusements, 1986

The excerpt best reflects which of the following historical patterns associated with late-nineteenth-century American cities?
a. Middle-class women’s creation of the social settlement movement
b. Young adults’ creation of “dating” and its increasing visibility and popularity
c. Corrupt political machines that ignored urban crime in exchange for bribes
d. Mass market newspapers’ sensational coverage of local and national developments

b

“In the nineteenth century, the emergent [middle] class found ways to distinguish itself culturally from working-class immigrants, Afro-Americans, and the idle rich. The bourgeois world view counterposed such values as sobriety and domesticity against the dissipation and promiscuity of those higher and lower in social rank. By the early twentieth century however, these groups—by virtue of their very ‘otherness’—offered sensuality, colorful adventure, and expressiveness to segments of the urban middle class. While some New Yorkers looked on with disapproval, others found working women who ‘put on style’ an amusing, fashionable, and admirable part of the cultural landscape. What had been seen as rowdy girls’ deviant behavior in the mid-nineteenth century was evaluated more ambiguously by the early 1900s.”

— Kathy Peiss, historian, Cheap Amusements, 1986

Which of the following types of evidence would most directly support the argument Peiss makes in the excerpt?
a. Photographs of working-class women on the streets of New York between the 1860s and 1900
b. Sermons by evangelical ministers in greater New York City during the last half of the 1800s
c. New York laws relating to the issues of drunkenness and prostitution between 1860 and 1900
d. Writers’ commentary about urban life in newspapers and magazines from the 1860s to 1900

d

“In the nineteenth century, the emergent [middle] class found ways to distinguish itself culturally from working-class immigrants, Afro-Americans, and the idle rich. The bourgeois world view counterposed such values as sobriety and domesticity against the dissipation and promiscuity of those higher and lower in social rank. By the early twentieth century however, these groups—by virtue of their very ‘otherness’—offered sensuality, colorful adventure, and expressiveness to segments of the urban middle class. While some New Yorkers looked on with disapproval, others found working women who ‘put on style’ an amusing, fashionable, and admirable part of the cultural landscape. What had been seen as rowdy girls’ deviant behavior in the mid-nineteenth century was evaluated more ambiguously by the early 1900s.”

— Kathy Peiss, historian, Cheap Amusements, 1986

The development described in the excerpt most strongly suggests which of the following about that time?
a. Reformers were distressed by the commercialization of sex and campaigned to close red light districts.
b. Young urban men embraced new cultural attitudes and forms, but women were held to old Victorian standards.
c. Urban amusements such as Coney Island spurred young women to abandon restrictive clothing and hairstyles.
d. The presence of large numbers of young working people in cities fostered new attitudes about sexuality.

d
In the aftermath of Lincoln’s election to the presidency in 1860, southerners feared that following?
a. Republicans would force industrialization on the South.
b. racial mixture between white men and black women would occur.
c. the federal government would send the military to invade the South.
d. Lincoln would break his promise and interfere with slavery where it existed.
d
The movement toward secession in the winter of 1860-1861 proceeded the most rapidly in the
a. Upper South.
b. Deep South.
c. Middle South.
d. border states.
b
At which of the following points did the states of the Lower South secede and organize a provisional government of the Confederate States of America headed by Jefferson Davis?
a. Before the popular votes were counted and Lincoln’s election became apparent
b. After Lincoln rejected the proposed Crittenden Compromise
c. Before Buchanan left the White House and Lincoln was inaugurated
d. Before the presidential election of 1860
c
President Buchanan responded to the secession crisis by
a. ordering a naval assault on Charleston, which the Confederates repelled.
b. declaring secession illegal but claiming that the federal government had no power to reverse it.
c. supporting the secessionists and helping the Confederacy to secure diplomatic recognition.
d. ignoring the situation and leaving it for Lincoln to resolve.
b
The Crittenden Compromise of 1861 included a proposal to
a. repeal the Kansas-Nebraska Act and eliminate the practice of popular sovereignty.
b. make Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln co-presidents of the United States.
c. amend the Constitution to protect slavery where it already existed.
d. prohibit slavery in any future territories acquired by the United States.
c
Which of the following describes the Crittenden Compromise?
a. It was eliminated due to President Buchanan’s veto.
b. It was a compromise Lincoln supported.
c. The plan outlined the Confederate constitution.
d. The plan was a failed attempt to prevent secession.
d
After his inauguration in March 1861, Lincoln
a. declared his belief that slavery was evil and that he would oversee its elimination from the United States.
b. stated that secession was illegal and declared that he would enforce federal law.
c. reaffirmed his support for the Crittenden Compromise as the only practical approach to slavery.
d. promised to stop collecting taxes and providing benefits in states that had seceded from the Union.
b
Why was the battle of Fort Sumter in April 1861 significant?
a. It marked a turning point of the war in the Confederates’ favor.
b. It was the first battle of the Civil War.
c. It was a major victory for the Union army and rallied the soldiers.
d. Lincoln called for 200,000 militiamen to enlist after the defeat.
b
Which of the following statements describes Virginia’s secession after the outbreak of the war?
a. One of Virginia’s military heroes, Robert E. Lee, led the movement for secession.
b. The ordinance of secession passed at the convention by only one vote.
c. Due to its strong patriotic history, Virginia was the last southern state to join the Confederacy.
d. Many Virginia whites voted against secession but lost to those in favor of secession 88 to 55.
d
Which of the following border states quickly joined the Confederacy in 1861?
a. Kentucky
b. Tennessee
c. Maryland
d. Missouri
b
What was the Confederacy seeking to achieve with the war in 1861?
a. Permanent independence and “to be let alone”
b. Expansion into the Caribbean, Central America, and northern Mexico
c. The annexation of all the border states and of the Southwest as far as the Pacific
d. Reestablishment of the Union with ironclad guarantees for slavery
a
On July 4, 1861, in a statement to a special session of Congress, President Lincoln
a. warned that the North was prepared to fight a total war against the South.
b. announced that one of the goals of the war was to end slavery in the South.
c. promised a swift defeat of the Confederacy, provided that Congress cooperated with the administration.
d. declared that the war was a noble crusade that would determine the fate of democracy throughout the world.
d
Which of the following describes Lincoln’s military strategy at the beginning of the Civil War?
a. Attack cautiously to minimize casualties on both sides
b. Strike immediately against the Confederate capitol in Richmond, Virginia
c. Use federal troops only for the purpose of defending Washington, D.C.
d. Adopt General Scott’s plan of naval blockades and economic sanctions
b
Which of the following describes the outcome of the first Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861?
a. Union troops panicked during a Confederate counterattack and retreated to Washington.
b. Both armies fell into total confusion, and the fighting ended in chaos with many casualties.
c. Union troops under General McDowell swept the Confederates, led by General Beauregard, from the field.
d. Confederate troops captured many sightseers who had come from Washington to view the battle.
a
How did the battles that book place in Virginia from June 25 to July 1, 1862, unfold?
a. Jackson outmaneuvered Union troops under McClellan as they were approaching Richmond, allowing him to rout Banks’s federal army protecting Washington.
b. Lee ferociously attacked Union troops under McClellan as they were approaching Richmond.
c. Jackson routed Union troops in the Shenandoah Valley, allowing Lee to deflect a Union army under McClellan from its objective, which was the capture of Richmond.
d. Union troops under McClellan defeated Lee’s Confederate army, but at a high cost in lives.
b
Why did Robert E. Lee invade Maryland in August and September 1862?
a. He hoped that a victory over Union forces would humiliate Lincoln’s government.
b. Lee was driven northward by McClellan, who had finally taken the offensive.
c. His orders to Jackson had fallen into Union hands, and he needed to improvise a new strategy to confuse the enemy.
d. Lee planned to seize Baltimore and then strike at Washington, D.C., from the north.
a
Which of the following statements describes the significance of the Battle of Antietam?
a. Lincoln removed McClellan from command after the battle for his timidity.
b. McClellan’s battle plans fell into Confederate hands before the battle took place.
c. It was the first definitive Union victory in the eastern theater of the war.
d. More Confederate troops died in this battle than in the rest of the entire war.
a
The Civil War has been described as the first total war in modern times. A total war is defined as
a. one fought by people of the same country; no other nations are involved.
b. one in which all the resources, including civilians, are mobilized for war.
c. a war that requires that every available man participate in the fighting.
d. a war that involves land, sea, and air forces.
b
Why did President Lincoln decide to suspend habeas corpus during the Civil War?
a. He needed to assure Americans that civil liberties would be protected.
b. He hoped to encourage voluntary enlistment in the Union army for the duration of the war.
c. He believed it would stop disloyal activities, such as protests against the draft.
d. He was aiming to demoralize the South.
c
The Enrollment Act of 1863
a. led to riots in New York City.
b. allowed blacks to volunteer in the Union army.
c. allowed southerners to avoid the draft if they owned twenty or more slaves.
d. created a draft system that was more fair in the South than in the North.
a
Which of the following describes the purpose of the U.S. Sanitary Commission?
a. The group was the first federal military medical evacuation system with emergency transportation and mobile field hospitals.
b. It was a voluntary organization in the North that provided medical services, distributed supplies and medicines, and recruited physicians and nurses.
c. The office was established to enforce minimum standards of cleanliness in army camps and to supervise the burial of war dead.
d. Northern evangelicals created the committee to supervise the morals of Union soldiers and to combat gambling, drinking, and consorting with prostitutes.
b
Which of the following was the major cause of death for Civil War soldiers?
a. Renegade attacks from Indians
b. Wounds received in battle
c. Sniper attacks
d. Disease and infection
d
How did the Confederacy, with its agricultural economy, acquire the products and equipment it needed to supply its army?
a. The confederates industrialized at a rapid pace in order to produce goods domestically.
b. The Confederacy made black-market arrangements with northern manufacturers.
c. It relied on soldiers’ families to supply them with the equipment they needed.
d. Profits from cotton exports provided funds to purchase imported products.
d
The Republican-dominated U.S. Congress took advantage of southerners’ absence to institute which of the following reforms during the Civil War?
a. A prohibition on slavery in all the states of the Union
b. A neomercantilist program of government assisted economic development
c. A prohibition on the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages
d. The chartering for the Third Bank of the United States
b
How did the Union raise money to pay for most of its Civil War costs?
a. By levying excise taxes on goods such as tobacco and alcohol
b. By raising taxes on the wealthy and businesses
c. By increasing tariffs on imports
d. By issuing interest-paying treasury bonds
d
Which of the following constituted a critical problem for the Confederacy during the Civil War?
a. High levels of inflation
b. The lack of trained soldiers
c. Its citizens’ lack of conviction
d. A lack of experienced military leaders
a
The Confederacy financed the Civil War primarily by
a. borrowing heavily from Britain.
b. issuing paper currency that was not backed by gold or silver.
c. selling bonds to wealthy planters.
d. imposing a modest property tax and an export tax on cotton.
b
Which of the following characterizes government economic and political decisions during the Civil War?
a. Both governments utilized their national power to make decisions.
b. Lincoln ruled with a keen eye on constitutional correctness.
c. The North left most decisions in the hands of the voters.
d. The South left all major decisions in the hands of the state governments.
a
Which of the following statements describes the place of emancipation in the Union’s war aims in 1861 and 1862?
a. Radical Republicans argued that slaves would starve if they were emancipated in wartime and that freedom would have to wait.
b. Moderate Republican leaders began to redefine the war as a struggle, not only against Confederate armies, but also against the institution of slavery.
c. Most abolitionists rejected the idea of emancipation in wartime, fearing that a backlash would place slaves in even greater danger.
d. Most abolitionists welcomed the South’s secession because it removed the stain of slavery from the Union.
b
During the early years of the Civil War, the term contraband came into use to describe
a. slaves who were pressed into service.
b. freedom-seeking slaves who fled from Confederate masters to Union armies.
c. slaves drafted by the Confederate government for noncombatant duty.
d. northern free blacks who volunteered to serve in the Union army.
b
Which of the following statements describes the movement toward emancipation within the Republican Party in 1862?
a. Republicans were afraid that if they did not strongly support emancipation, northern Democrats would use their hesitancy against them in the upcoming elections.
b. Mounting Union casualties diminished popular support for emancipation, forcing Lincoln to slow his schedule for freeing slaves.
c. Lincoln led the Radical Republicans, who wanted to speed up the process of emancipation by abolishing slavery throughout the South.
d. Radical Republicans in Congress pushed moderates toward embracing their agenda of total abolition.
d
The second Confiscation Act, passed in July 1862, declared that
a. slaves who joined the Union army as soldiers would earn their emancipation.
b. all the slaves in the Confederacy were officially the property of the United States.
c. any slave who came to Union lines, through either flight or capture, would be forever free.
d. the Union army had permission to confiscate any Confederate property, including slaves.
c
The Emancipation Proclamation stated that
a. slaves in the border states would be freed.
b. slaves in the rebel states would be freed.
c. all slaves in the United States would be freed.
d. all fugitive slaves and all slaves captured by the Union army were free.
b
Which general is properly paired with a battle he led?
a. Confederate general Stonewall Jackson—Fredericksburg
b. Confederate general P. G. T. Beauregard—Gettysburg
c. Union general George B. McClellan—Shiloh
d. Confederate general Robert E. Lee—Antietam
d
Which pair of battles marked the turning point in the Civil War?
a. Vicksburg and Gettysburg
b. Fredericksburg and the Battle of the Wilderness
c. Chancellorsville and the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse
d. First and Second Bull Run
a
Which of the following scenarios unfolded at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863?
a. Confederate troops flooded in from the west and, within a day, vastly outnumbered Union troops.
b. Picket’s charge at the heart of the Union line was a costly blunder that forced a Confederate retreat.
c. Confederate forces refused to engage the Union army directly, resulting in a stalemate that ultimately led both sides to withdraw.
d. Lee’s army initially drove the Union troops from the battlefield but could not pursue Meade’s army without reinforcements.
b
Which of the following resulted from the Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg in 1863?
a. Republicans swept the 1863 elections in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York
b. The unburied bodies of dead Confederate soldiers caused a typhoid epidemic that killed hundreds of civilians.
c. The Confederate armies began to draft slaves into military service.
d. President Lincoln restored George McClellan as head of the Union army.
a
Why was the ship Alabama instrumental to the Confederate war effort?
a. It was a Confederate merchant ship that managed to break through the blockade.
b. The warship, built in Boston, was captured by the Confederates and used in many victories.
c. Its armor plating made it almost impervious to cannon fire in battle.
d. The warship captured or sank more than one hundred Union merchant ships.
d
Why was the South unable to convince England to provide it with more support during the Civil war?
a. The English public was indifferent to the war.
b. England’s agriculture was self-sufficient.
c. England needed Union wheat more than the South’s cotton.
d. The British thought the South were likely to win and withdrew.
c
Why was the enlistment of African Americans in the Union army and their deployment in battle delayed until 1863?
a. Abolitionists feared that the white officers would treat the black troops as disposable.
b. The Union did not have enough funds to equip and pay destitute black soldiers.
c. Most Union generals doubted that they would make good soldiers.
d. Lincoln feared that free blacks from the North would be captured and enslaved.
c
Which of the following statements characterizes the role played by African Americans in the Civil War?
a. By 1865, many slaves had fought for the Confederacy in return for a promise of freedom.
b. African Americans served in segregated regiments and fought courageously.
c. Blacks were only allowed to take noncombat positions in the Union army.
d. Black men refused to fight in the “white man’s war,” even after the Emancipation Proclamation.
b
After being placed in charge of all Union armies in 1864, General Grant and Abraham Lincoln crafted which of the following new military strategies?
a. The targeting of the Confederacy’s industrial centers
b. An avoidance of Union casualties to maintain northerners’ support for the war
c. An attack of every major Confederate army simultaneously
d. The destruction of the Confederacy’s infrastructure
c
Which of the following describes the 1864 Shenandoah Valley campaign?
a. Union troops led a scorched-earth campaign to punish farmers who had aided the South.
b. Both sides suffered their highest casualty rates of the entire war.
c. Union troops were ordered not to attack Confederate troops so near Washington, D.C., during an election year.
d. The Confederate troops triumphed by using guerrilla tactics.
a
Which of these statements describes events that took place during the 1864 presidential campaign?
a. Republicans split into two factions, with Radicals determined to abolish slavery and National Unionists willing to abandon emancipation if the South would lay down its arms.
b. Republicans urged Union generals to avoid major battles and large numbers of casualties until after the voting to maintain public support for the war.
c. Democrats rushed through the admission of Nevada to the Union, believing that its electoral votes might tip the election in their favor.
d. The Republicans temporarily changed their name to the National Union Party in order to attract the border states and Democratic votes.
d
In his attack on Atlanta in the summer of 1864, Sherman’s Union forces
a. waged a campaign that began in July and succeeded in early September.
b. brutally executed more than 700 white women and children.
c. fought until they reached a stalemate with Confederates later that year.
d. retreated to fight Confederate forces in Alabama and Tennessee.
a
Which issue caused a split in the Democratic Party during the election of 1864?
a. Lincoln’s policy toward dissenters
b. Continuing the war
c. Freedom for blacks
d. George B. McClellan’s candidacy
b
How did Abraham Lincoln fare in the 1864 presidential election?
a. He was swept to victory in the wake of Sherman’s capture of Atlanta.
b. He won despite the fact that three out of every four Union soldiers voted against him.
c. Lincoln won by a slim margin, thanks to the votes of Union soldiers.
d. Abraham Lincoln lost the popular vote to McClellan, but he won the electoral vote.
a
Approved by Congress in January 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment
a. protected citizens through habeas corpus.
b. balanced the power between the North and the South in the Senate.
c. prohibited slavery throughout the United States.
d. granted citizenship to slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.
c
Why did so many Confederate soldiers flee their units by 1865?
a. Poor white soldiers resented fighting for the benefit of wealthy slave owners.
b. Many soldiers were sympathetic to abolitionism and enlisted in the Union army.
c. White soldiers refused to fight alongside blacks, who had served since the beginning of the war.
d. The soldiers felt that the war had already been won by the Confederate army.
a
Which of the following describes the South after the conclusion of the Civil War in 1865?
a. Many slaves had fled, but slavery still remained as an institution.
b. The South remained largely unaffected by the battles that had taken place.
c. The South lost only 26,000 soldiers in the war, compared to the 300,000 lost by the North.
d. Many of the South’s factories, railroads, and cities lay in ruins.
d

“The establishment of the Gettysburg cemetery marked the beginning of significant shifts in attitude and policy produced by the nation’s confrontation with Civil War slaughter. . . . Out of the horror of Civil War burials, there grew . . . a variety of efforts to . . . change death in ways that ranged from transforming . . . the dead through embalming to altering the . . . conditions of internment. . . . The engagement of the Union government in these matters . . . acknowledged a new public importance for the dead. No longer simply the responsibility of their families, they, and their loss now belonged to the nation. These men had given their lives that the nation might live; their bodies, repositories of their ‘selfhood’. . . deserved the nation’s recognition and care.”

— Drew Gilpin Faust, historian, This Republic of Suffering:
Death and the American Civil War, 2008

The development described in the excerpt serves as evidence of which of the following occurrences in the United States at that time?
a. The Confederacy’s successful mobilization of its economic and military resources against the Union.
b. The wartime movement of white middle-class women in the North into the wage-earning workforce.
c. The passage of the Enrollment Act of 1863, which initiated conscription of American men into the military.
d. The tremendous expansion of the U.S. federal government’s reach and power in response to wartime needs.

d

“The establishment of the Gettysburg cemetery marked the beginning of significant shifts in attitude and policy produced by the nation’s confrontation with Civil War slaughter. . . . Out of the horror of Civil War burials, there grew . . . a variety of efforts to . . . change death in ways that ranged from transforming . . . the dead through embalming to altering the . . . conditions of internment. . . . The engagement of the Union government in these matters . . . acknowledged a new public importance for the dead. No longer simply the responsibility of their families, they, and their loss now belonged to the nation. These men had given their lives that the nation might live; their bodies, repositories of their ‘selfhood’. . . deserved the nation’s recognition and care.”

— Drew Gilpin Faust, historian, This Republic of Suffering:
Death and the American Civil War, 2008

Which of the following evidence would most directly support Faust’s argument in the excerpt?
a. The text of Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Gettysburg Address, given at the cemetery’s dedication
b. Newspaper articles that listed casualty numbers for major Civil War battles
c. U.S. Sanitary Commission reports on conditions in Civil War battlefields and camps
d. U.S. census records from 1860 and 1870 illustrating the high mortality rate among young men

c

“The establishment of the Gettysburg cemetery marked the beginning of significant shifts in attitude and policy produced by the nation’s confrontation with Civil War slaughter. . . . Out of the horror of Civil War burials, there grew . . . a variety of efforts to . . . change death in ways that ranged from transforming . . . the dead through embalming to altering the . . . conditions of internment. . . . The engagement of the Union government in these matters . . . acknowledged a new public importance for the dead. No longer simply the responsibility of their families, they, and their loss now belonged to the nation. These men had given their lives that the nation might live; their bodies, repositories of their ‘selfhood’. . . deserved the nation’s recognition and care.”

— Drew Gilpin Faust, historian, This Republic of Suffering:
Death and the American Civil War, 2008

The development Faust describes in the excerpt is most similar to which of the following from the same period?
a. The Republican Congress’s passage of legislation to create a modern fiscal system
b. The Confederacy’s need to commandeer food from farmers to feed its soldiers
c. Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation to change the war’s purpose
d. Middle-class women’s purchase of “mourning” dresses to signify their state of grief

a
According to the Constitution, which branch of government is responsible for readmitting states that have seceded from the Union?
a. The judicial branch
b. The Constitution does not address this question.
c. The legislative branch
d. The executive branch
b
Which of the following describes Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan, which he announced in December 1863?
a. The plan declared that a state could reorganize its government when 50 percent of its voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union.
b. Lincoln created the plan to appeal to southern Democrats, many of whom had served with Lincoln in Congress.
c. The plan offered general amnesty to all Confederate citizens who agreed to comply with federal laws.
d. It specified that a state could return to the Union when 10 percent of its voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union.
d
How was the Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 different from Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan?
a. It stipulated that new southern governments could be formed only by those who had not fought against the North in the Civil War.
b. This proposal created an amnesty plan that was more lenient than Lincoln’s earlier plan.
c. It required loyalty oaths from 90 percent of a southern state’s adult white men before that state could hold a constitutional convention.
d. This more generous plan specified that former slaveholders would receive compensation for their property losses.
a
How did Abraham Lincoln respond to the Wade Davis Bill in 1864?
a. Lincoln publicly refused to sign it and announced in a major speech that he sought a lenient approach to Reconstruction.
b. Lincoln reluctantly agreed to accept it, but the Senate failed to pass it and it never came before him.
c. He did not sign it and he opened talks with key congressional representatives to find a compromise solution.
d. He vetoed it, but his veto was overridden by Congress, which insisted that Confederates be punished.
c
Southern whites responded to the end of slavery by enacting
a. the Ordinance of Nullification.
b. the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
c. the Freedmen’s Bureau.
d. Black Codes.
d
Under President Johnson’s restoration plan, high-ranking Confederate leaders and wealthy southerners
a. were generally imprisoned for a period of time ranging from one month to three years.
b. could request and expect to receive presidential pardons that exempted them from punishment.
c. could avoid punishment by taking a special oath of allegiance to the Union and the president.
d. could serve as delegates to conventions that were called to consider ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
d
Which of the following statements describes the Freedmen’s Bureau, which originated in 1865?
a. Created by Congress, it helped ex-slaves adjust to freedom and secure their basic civil rights.
b. It was originally proposed in Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan, which Congress defeated.
c. Created by private citizens, the agency provided aid to former slaves.
d. Founded by ex-Confederate states, the organization helped rebuild the South.
a
The Civil Rights Act of 1866
a. asserted that all former slaves would receive equal protection under the law.
b. guaranteed suffrage for all adult freedmen.
c. required freedmen, like immigrants, to wait five years for U.S. citizenship.
d. declared freedmen to be citizens and gave them full access to the courts.
a
Why did President Johnson veto the Freedmen’s Bureau law and Civil Rights Act in 1866?
a. These two pieces of legislation posed too great a challenge to his deeply racist views.
b. Johnson did not get along with the Radical Republicans.
c. He sought revenge against the Radical Republicans for opposing his Reconstruction plan.
d. He believed they violated the core tenets of the Republican Party.
a
Which of these events spurred Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act in April 1866?
a. The emergence of the Ku Klux Klan
b. Johnson’s threat to impose Reconstruction through military force
c. The eruption of antiblack violence in various parts of the South
d. A precipitous decline in Johnson’s political support
c
Which of the following scenarios took place in the federal government immediately after Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in April 1866?
a. Congressional Republicans enacted the Freedmen’s Bureau law over Johnson’s veto.
b. Republicans introduced an amendment declaring that “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” were citizens.
c. Republican leaders decided that they had accomplished all they could before the midterm election.
d. Radical Republicans formulated a plan to seek Johnson’s impeachment.
b
Which of the following statements describes Radical Reconstruction?
a. It aimed to reform the South and increase federal power.
b. It demonstrated that even Radical Republicans would sacrifice the rights of freed slaves.
c. The program gave each freed slave forty acres of land and a mule.
d. There was no way the South could have avoided the institution of Radical Reconstruction.
a
Which of the following was the final outcome of the congressional campaigns and elections of 1866?
a. Conservative Republicans and Democrats united to form the National Union Party and won 105 seats in the House.
b. Johnson suffered a humiliating defeat as Republicans gained a three-to-one margin in Congress.
c. Voters expressed their disapproval of the Freedmen’s Bureau law and the Fourteenth Amendment.
d. Johnson’s personal campaigning from Washington to St. Louis and Chicago won back supporters to the Republican Party.
b
Which of the following pairs identified with the Radical Republicans?
a. Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens
b. President Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
c. Lyman Trumbell and Nathan Bedford Forrest
d. James M. Pike and Hiram Revels
a
Which of the following was the official reason Congress cited for impeaching Andrew Johnson?
a. He refused to support any of the Civil War amendments.
b. He infringed on the powers of Congress.
c. Johnson dismissed Secretary of State William Seward.
d. He attempted to undermine Radical Reconstruction.
b
Which of the following statements characterizes the congressional impeachment of Andrew Johnson?
a. Moderate Republicans joined with the Radicals to impeach Johnson, but the Supreme Court overturned his impeachment on appeal.
b. In return for Johnson’s promise not to oppose the Radical Republicans’ plans, the Senate acquitted him.
c. Radical Republicans failed to remove Johnson from office, but they damaged his power and authority.
d. Johnson was the only president ever to be impeached and removed from office in American history.
c
What was the outcome of the 1868 election?
a. Republicans won the presidency and retained their two-thirds majority in both houses.
b. Democrats gained a Senate majority but were unable to capture the presidency or the House.
c. Republicans lost their two-thirds majority in the Senate due to the readmission of rebel states.
d. Democrats swept the South, promising that southern states could reorganize their own governments.
a
Ratified in 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment
a. forbade states from denying any citizen the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition as a slave.
b. prohibited state governments from using property requirements to disqualify blacks from voting.
c. granted voting rights to all adult African Americans in every state.
d. prohibited state governments from using literacy tests to prevent blacks from voting.
a
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?
a. Fifteenth Amendment—gave African American males the right to vote
b. Fourteenth Amendment—abolished slavery
c. Civil Rights Act of 1866—allowed formerly enslaved people full access to the courts
d. Thirteenth Amendment—citizenship for African Americans
c
Through which of the following practices did southerners avoid giving former slaves the right to vote?
a. Driving African American men out of the state
b. Collecting poll taxes
c. Ending right-to-work laws
d. Waving the bloody shirt
b
Why was it necessary to add the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution following the Civil War?
a. It wasn’t necessary; they were passed merely for emphasis and propaganda.
b. The Bill of Rights gave state laws precedence over federal laws.
c. The Constitution had condoned slavery and allowed states to set voting requirements.
d. The Constitution outlawed the federal government’s interference with state laws.
c
Which of these reforms originated with the Grant administration?
a. Granting equal property rights for women
b. Providing for the direct election of U.S. senators
c. Securing the right to vote for all male U.S. citizens regardless of race
d. Enacting compulsory school attendance laws for all states
c
Which of the following was Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s response to the denial of women’s suffrage while freedmen and immigrant men were being enfranchised?
a. She felt that men were better suited to vote than women and supported the Republic Party.
b. She urged women to be patient and remain loyal to the Republican Party.
c. She made a racist attack on the uneducated black men who could vote while educated white women could not.
d. She understood the value of granting the right to vote to all men but still remained a supporter of women’s suffrage.
c
Granting suffrage to African American males caused
a. a split in the women’s movement.
b. antiblack rioting in New York City.
c. hundreds of women’s protests in the Northeast.
d. joyful celebrations throughout the North.
a
Which of the following statements characterizes the women’s suffrage movement after the Civil War?
a. Most suffragists agreed that they should concentrate on securing voting rights for African American men as a means to press for the same rights for all women.
b. Disappointed with the Republican Party’s failure to win voting rights for women, most suffragists aligned with the Democratic Party after 1869.
c. Many feminists who had been abolitionists were disappointed that the Fifteenth Amendment made no reference to gender and permitted states to continue to deny suffrage to women.
d. Most feminists opposed the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment because it did not give equal protection to women.
a
Expecting freedom from slavery near the end of the Civil War, most African Americans were eager to
a. form charities to help former slaves establish independence from their masters.
b. elect African American politicians in order to secure their political rights.
c. find the means to move to the North and seek employment.
d. vote and secure land for economic independence.
d
Which of the following statements describes the resettlement of former slaves in the South?
a. The Freedmen’s Bureau permanently resettled 10,000 African American families on “Sherman lands.”
b. Bands of ex-Confederate soldiers and plantation owners drove African Americans from the confiscated land that they were occupying.
c. Under Johnson’s amnesty plan, ex-Confederates were allowed to recover their land, and freedmen were forced to work for them or leave.
d. Every former slave was given forty acres and a mule in compensation for their years of forced labor.
c
Why were many congressional leaders unwilling to consider breaking up plantations and distributing plots for independent farms to freed slaves?
a. The leaders did not think slaves were capable of farming their own land.
b. They hoped to restore cotton cultivation and the export of American cotton.
c. Freed slaves had expressed their desire to work in occupations other than farming.
d. Most congressional representatives wanted to see the Industrial Revolution transform the South.
b
Which of these statements describes the status of African American women in the Reconstruction-era South?
a. In the Reconstruction-era South, freedwomen had the same rights and status as freedmen.
b. Freedwomen valued their new right to marry legally and their opportunity to create a stable family life.
c. Most freedmen refused to allow their wives to work alongside them in the fields.
d. Emancipation may have increased the subordination of African American women in the black household.
b
Many African American sharecroppers became trapped in a vicious cycle of debt after the Civil War mainly because
a. southern banks charged blacks much higher interest rates than they charged whites.
b. federal banking laws included “usury” regulations that in fact allowed southern banks to cheat freedmen.
c. they could not pay the high prices and interest that whites charged as the price of cotton declined in the 1870s.
d. state laws required blacks to pay for purchases by establishing credit lines that they could pay off only once annually.
c
Which statement describes the sharecropping system that emerged to replace slavery in the South after the Civil War?
a. It created an equal partnership between tenant farmer and owner.
b. Sharecroppers were often worse off than slaves had been.
c. Through sharecropping, freed slaves were able to advance very well economically.
d. Most sharecroppers believed it was preferable to a wage labor system.
d
Which of the following groups composed the largest percentage of registered voters in Alabama and Mississippi in the late 1860s?
a. White Republicans
b. White Unionists
c. Former Confederates
d. Black Republicans
d
Some southerners used the term scalawags to describe
a. Freedmen’s Bureau officials and teachers.
b. northerners in the South during Reconstruction.
c. freed slaves who were demanding equality.
d. southerners who supported the process of Reconstruction.
d
During Reconstruction, why was southern Democrats’ dismissal of black politicians as ignorant field hands misguided?
a. Many had been free artisans or tradesmen.
b. Those elected to public office had served in the Union army.
c. The majority of politicians were free blacks from the North.
d. While all had been slaves, some had been house servants.
a
Those who participated in the creation and implementation of Radical Reconstruction intended to
a. rebuild the South’s shattered infrastructure.
b. create a new South with full equality and without racism.
c. bring the South back into the Union with minimal bitterness.
d. achieve a new southern society in the North’s image .
b
Southern Republican state Reconstruction governments pursued which of the following goals?
a. Strengthening cotton agriculture
b. Expanding the legal rights of married women.
c. Ending the sharecropping system
d. Giving ex-slaves a mule and forty acres of land
b
A secret organization that functioned as the grassroots wing of Radical Republicanism in the South was called the
a. Carpetbaggers Club.
b. Republican Brotherhood.
c. Populist Party.
d. Union League.
d
The Republican state Reconstruction governments in the South made significant and long-lasting achievements in
a. public education.
b. labor organizing.
c. black leadership development.
d. African American civil rights.
a
One critical flaw of southern Reconstruction governments was their
a. emphasis on promoting public education for black but not white children.
b. failure to address the issue of women’s rights.
c. failure to exclude religious institutions from government.
d. support of the convict leasing system.
d
Which of the following became critical community institutions for African Americans throughout the South during Reconstruction?
a. Local boards of health
b. New black colleges
c. City parks
d. Churches
d
Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1875 significant?
a. It failed to address the issue of women’s suffrage and add the word sex to the Constitution.
b. It failed to achieve ratification and broke Charles Sumner’s heart and health.
c. The act required the desegregation of both churches and schools throughout the South.
d. The legislation was the last congressional effort to address civil rights until the 1960s.
d
Which politician’s death marked the waning of Radical Reconstruction?
a. Charles Sumner
b. Andrew Johnson
c. William Seward
d. Abraham Lincoln
a
In the 1872 presidential election, the still disorganized Democratic Party
a. supported Samuel Tilden for president.
b. demanded civil rights for African Americans.
c. exposed the Whiskey Ring scandals.
d. allied with the reform-minded Liberal Republicans.
d
Ex-Confederates who sought to return political and economic control of the South to white southerners after the Civil War were known as
a. Redeemers.
b. carpetbaggers.
c. secessionists.
d. nullifiers.
a
What was the goal of the Ku Klux Klan under the leadership of former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest in 1866?
a. To use any means to damage the Republican government of Tennessee
b. To fight against the advancement of all blacks in the South
c. To renew the Confederate cause and fight for independence from the Union
d. To persuade the Republic government in Tennessee to repeal some Reconstruction legislation
a
In the Reconstruction South, the Ku Klux Klan was
a. never the object of federal legislation to suppress it.
b. careful to avoid arousing congressional ire.
c. often indistinguishable from the Democratic Party.
d. organized in Texas in 1868 and spread quickly throughout the South.
c
Reconstruction ended in 1877 because
a. the Democratic Party lost its political base in the South.
b. the northern government had achieved all it had planned.
c. African American government leaders in the South were incompetent.
d. the North lost interest in the cause.
d
Why did Republicans nominate Rutherford B. Hayes for president in 1876?
a. He promised to end Reconstruction, which had become a Republican liability.
b. His state, New York, was crucial to winning the election.
c. He had won a reputation for honesty and appeared to be safe from charges of corruption.
d. His relationship with Grant would protect prominent but corrupt Republicans.
c
Which of the following statements describes the election of 1876?
a. The Democratic candidate won the popular vote but not the electoral vote.
b. The Democratic candidate won the popular vote, but Republican officials in three southern states certified Republican victories, sending two sets of electoral votes to Congress.
c. The Republican candidate won the popular vote, but several minor parties siphoned off enough electoral votes to force the election into the House of Representatives.
d. President Grant ran for, but failed to win, an unprecedented third term.
b
Why was the election of 1876 significant?
a. The outcome was determined by an electoral commission established by Congress.
b. The election was proof that most voters wanted to continue military Reconstruction in the South.
c. It served as proof that southern Republican leaders were incompetent.
d. It was disrupted by the third-party candidacy of Horace Greeley.
a

“There are no better markers of African-American political struggle and advance in the post-emancipation period than the vigilantism of the Ku Klux Klan. Like previous paramilitary outfits, Klans sought to enforce the general subordination of former slaves and to punish whites and blacks who challenged or threatened a variety of racially defined hierarchies. But Klans were particularly involved in combating the social and political repercussions of Radical Reconstruction, and their targets make up a roster of the individuals, institutions, and developments that made those repercussions tangible.”

— Steven Hahn, historian, A Nation Under Our Feet:
Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration, 2003

The idea in the excerpt most strongly suggests which of the following about the South in the 1860s and 1870s?
a. President Andrew Johnson betrayed Lincoln’s goals for the Civil War with his minimal program for Reconstruction.
b. Radical Reconstruction made concrete changes for African Americans but had little impact on southern whites’ attitudes and actions.
c. The successes of radical Reconstruction catalyzed the Redeemers’ campaign to terrorize the South’s Republicans.
d. Although the Civil War ended slavery, the Klan ensured that Reconstruction had little impact on African Americans’ lives in the South.

c

“There are no better markers of African-American political struggle and advance in the post-emancipation period than the vigilantism of the Ku Klux Klan. Like previous paramilitary outfits, Klans sought to enforce the general subordination of former slaves and to punish whites and blacks who challenged or threatened a variety of racially defined hierarchies. But Klans were particularly involved in combating the social and political repercussions of Radical Reconstruction, and their targets make up a roster of the individuals, institutions, and developments that made those repercussions tangible.”

— Steven Hahn, historian, A Nation Under Our Feet:
Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration, 2003

The developments described in the excerpt contributed to which of the following events?
a. The opening up of political opportunities for former slaves
b. The passage of the Fifteenth Amendment
c. A change in the balance of power between Congress and the presidency
d. The failure of radical Republicans’ efforts to transform racial attitudes and culture in the South

d

“There are no better markers of African-American political struggle and advance in the post-emancipation period than the vigilantism of the Ku Klux Klan. Like previous paramilitary outfits, Klans sought to enforce the general subordination of former slaves and to punish whites and blacks who challenged or threatened a variety of racially defined hierarchies. But Klans were particularly involved in combating the social and political repercussions of Radical Reconstruction, and their targets make up a roster of the individuals, institutions, and developments that made those repercussions tangible.”

— Steven Hahn, historian, A Nation Under Our Feet:
Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration, 2003

Which of the following events would most directly support the argument Hahn makes in the excerpt?
a. The passage of the Fourteenth Amendment
b. Tennessee Democrats’ attacks on supporters of the state’s Republican governor
c. White Southerners’ construction of a Confederate monument in the late 1800s
d. Southern legislators’ enactment of Black Codes

b
During and after the Civil War, the Republican Congress implemented its economic vision for the United States by
a. subsidizing the transcontinental railroad.
b. weakening the national banking system.
c. enacting a national minimum wage.
d. lowering tariffs on foreign goods.
a
Which Reconstruction-era politician created the blueprint for American economic expansion and later imperialism?
a. Thaddeus Stevens
b. Edwin Stanton
c. William Seward
d. Ulysses Grant
c
The 1868 Burlingame Treaty achieved the American goal of
a. annexing Hawaii.
b. purchasing Alaska.
c. setting the terms of emigration for Chinese laborers.
d. reopening international access to Japanese ports.
c
Which of the following events demonstrated the newfound international power of the United States in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War?
a. Monroe Doctrine
b. Annexation of Panama and the Philippines
c. Annexation of Hawaii
d. Britain’s damage payments to the United States
d
How did the federal and state governments encourage railroad building in the nineteenth century?
a. They secured privately owned land through eminent domain.
b. They bailed out failing railroad companies with federal funds.
c. They operated the American Railroad Corporation.
d. Both granted public lands to private companies.
d
The federal government’s Civil War debt was paid off primarily through
a. income taxes.
b. corporate taxes.
c. tariff revenues.
d. inflation.
c
Republicans used which of the following arguments to justify high tariffs?
a. Benefits for low-wage workers in England and Germany are needed.
b. Low prices of imported goods are beneficial for consumers.
c. American debts must be reduced.
d. Protection against European-style industrial poverty is necessary.
d
Which constitutional amendment did the Supreme Court use in the 1870s to the 1890s to protect the rights of corporations—even though it had been written to protect individual rights?
a. First
b. Tenth
c. Fourteenth
d. Thirteenth
c
Which of the following countries was the first to convert to the gold standard?
a. Britain
b. United States
c. Germany
d. France
a
The United States adopted the gold standard in the 1870s for its currency because
a. it hoped to encourage European investment in the United States.
b. it sought economic development through a larger money supply.
c. gold was a more durable form of currency than greenbacks.
d. geologists predicted huge gold strikes out west.
a
In 1867, the United States bought Alaska from
a. China.
b. Britain.
c. Russia.
d. France.
c
Which of the following was one of the reasons that the United States encouraged Chinese immigration after the Civil War?
a. The United States needed additional laborers to mine gold deposits in the West.
b. The United States needed to populate lands in the American West.
c. It was intended as a gesture of American egalitarianism.
d. Many Chinese were useful railroad workers and farm laborers in the West.
d
Which of the following describes the Homestead Act of 1862?
a. Land speculators accumulated most of the available homesteads.
b. Republican leaders hoped it would bring white settlers to the Pacific coastal regions.
c. Homesteaders were required to occupy and improve the land.
d. It provided 160 acres of free land to qualifying white men.
c
In the 1860s and 1870s, Nevada’s Comstock Lode, Colorado’s Rocky Mountains, and South Dakota’s Black Hills were all known for
a. mining.
b. sheep raising.
c. cattle grazing.
d. frontier farming.
a
Who benefitted most from the General Mining Act of 1872, which allowed individuals who discovered minerals on federally owned land to work the claim and keep the proceeds?
a. Powerful investors
b. Small independent mining prospectors
c. Mexican miners
d. Homesteaders
a
Which of the following developments made open ranching feasible on the Great Plains between the 1860s and the 1880s?
a. The cultivation of new feed crops
b. The introduction of barbed-wire fencing
c. The Homestead Act of 1862
d. The availability of free land
d
Which of the following statements accurately characterizes the post-Civil War western cattle boom?
a. The ranchers demonstrated unusual foresight in protecting the environment.
b. It attracted both investors seeking large profits and romantics drawn by the allure of the West.
c. It required the extensive introduction of new feed crops.
d. The boom aided the later development of agriculture by providing a good source of fertilizer.
b
Why was it necessary for railroads and land speculators to promote settlement of the Great Plains in the late nineteenth century?
a. The region was heavily forested and hard to cultivate
b. Without economic incentives, few people could afford homesteads.
c. The U.S. government had not publicized the Homestead Act.
d. Americans thought of the area as the Great American Desert.
d
Which of the following technological advances played an important role in opening up the Great Plains to farming?
a. Steel plows and other farm machinery
b. Corporate development of drought-resistant grains
c. Scientific development of synthetic pesticides
d. Advanced irrigation techniques
a
Which of the following groups called themselves the Exodusters in 1879?
a. Chinese who were forced to leave California
b. Blacks who migrated to Kansas
c. Mexicans who immigrated to the United States
d. Scandinavian settlers in Minnesota
b
What distinguished farming on the plains in the 1880s from frontier farming in America fifty or one hundred years earlier?
a. Plains farmers used immigrant laborers rather than slaves.
b. Farmers on the plains received federal crop subsidies.
c. Plains farmers raised cash crops that sold on the global market.
d. Farms on the plains focused on livestock rather than crops.
c
Which of the following statements describes women’s experience in the West in the late nineteenth century?
a. Single women made up between 5 and 20 percent of homesteaders in North Dakota.
b. Most women living in the West rejected the eastern ideal of domesticity.
c. The Homestead Act reflected the attitudes of the day by excluding women as homesteaders.
d. Women made up only a small percentage of the American population in the West.
a
Which of the following was a consequence of widespread settlement on the Great Plains after the Civil War?
a. Improved Indian relationships
b. The explosive growth of the mining industry
c. A decline in railroad building
d. New rights and opportunities for many women
d
Farmers on the Great Plains in the late nineteenth century often faced which of the following natural challenges that could easily destroy crops?
a. Earthquakes
b. Hailstorms
c. Hurricanes
d. Dust storms
b
Which of the following statements describes the agricultural technique known as dry farming?
a. Dry farming was developed by Mormons in the area near the Great Salt Lake.
b. It involved deep planting and quick harrowing after rainfalls.
c. Its chief benefit was that it did not require new machinery.
d. Dry farming was feasible only on small farms of three hundred acres or less.
b
Why were late-nineteenth-century farms on the Great Plains much larger than eastern farms?
a. Dry-farming techniques required about three hundred acres to support a family.
b. The land was so fertile that farmers could grow more with less work.
c. European immigrant farmers were accustomed to caring for large farms.
d. Homesteaders were usually able to purchase more than the minimum allotment of land.
a
The phrase “The largest, longest-run agricultural and environmental miscalculation in American history” refers to
a. the cattle kingdom.
b. the plantation system.
c. cotton’s reign as king in the South.
d. farming the Great Plains.
d
The majority of white settlers on the Great Plains in the late nineteenth century viewed themselves as
a. conquerors over the wilds of nature.
b. responsible for preserving the environment for future generations.
c. simple subsistence farmers with modest wants and needs.
d. warriors who had to defeat the natives.
a
John Wesley Powell, in his Report on the Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States (1878), famously stated that
a. 160-acre homesteads would serve as the best way to settle and cultivate the Great Plains.
b. massive cooperation under government control was the only way farming would succeed on the Great Plains.
c. the Mormon experiment in Utah was doomed to fail because the land in that territory was totally dry.
d. individual farmers, not the federal government, should be responsible for their own water needs.
b
In 1872, which of the following was established by Congress as the first national park?
a. Yosemite
b. The Grand Canyon
c. Yellowstone
d. The Black Hills
c
Which Indian tribe was pursued 1,100 miles and forced to surrender just south of the Canadian border in 1877?
a. Cheyenne
b. Nez Perce
c. Dakota
d. Sioux
b
What was the result of the first wildlife protection bill passed by Congress in 1874?
a. Bison and other protected species, although still hunted and threatened, began to thrive in America’s new national parks.
b. Its passage helped save the bison, which were dwindling rapidly and faced almost certain extinction.
c. Even though President Grant signed the bill, it was widely ignored by hunters and western settlers.
d. President Grant vetoed the bill because he knew that killing the bison would cripple Indian resistance.
d
Which of the following was a reason the U.S. government elected to define small preserves of “uninhabited wilderness” in the 1860s and 1870s?
a. To promote the development of privately owned hotels within national parks
b. To contribute to the conquest of Native Americans in the West
c. To ensure its permanent right to exploit the regions’ natural resources
d. To promote more business for the faltering railroad industry
b
Which of the following was the dominant northern Plains Indian tribe?
a. Sioux
b. Comanches
c. Kiowas
d. Iroquois
a
The largest mass execution in American history took place as a result of
a. the Dakota uprising.
b. an Indian uprising against the Dawes Severalty Act.
c. Custer’s last stand.
d. the Battle of Bozeman Trail.
a
Which of the following is true of the Sand Creek Massacre?
a. It was the last event in the Indian Wars.
b. John Chivington believed it was necessary because the Cheyenne were so hostile.
c. It killed most Cheyenne men, leaving women and children without support.
d. A Cheyenne camp under federal protection was brutally attacked by a state militia.
d
Which president refashioned U.S. Indian policy in the latter half of the nineteenth century?
a. Johnson
b. Lincoln
c. Buchanan
d. Grant
d
White reformers, such as those who founded the Indian Rights Association, advocated for
a. a reservation system as a means of saving Indian lives.
b. the preservation of Indian culture.
c. a continuation of tribal authority.
d. the idea that Indians had the innate capacity to become equal with whites.
d
Reformers believed that the best way to save the Indians was through
a. reservations.
b. accommodation.
c. colonization.
d. education.
d
What was the purpose of Indian boarding schools in the late nineteenth century?
a. To teach Native American children the ways of their ancient peoples
b. To teach the children how to speak their native languages more fluently
c. To assimilate Native American children more easily into white culture
d. Only to provide the children with an education in English, mathematics, and other disciplines
c
Which of the following factors contributed to the failure of the Indian peace policy in the late nineteenth century?
a. The extermination of the bison
b. The federal government’s unwillingness to allocate funds
c. Indians’ desire to assimilate into white society
d. Rivalries among different Christian missionary groups.
d
Why did Indians view reformers as just another white interest group?
a. Indians did not understand the goals and the efforts of the white reform groups.
b. They suspected that white reform organizations were deceitful.
c. Reform groups sent mixed messages and made promises that were not kept.
d. Indians did not really believe that white reformers cared about them.
c
In Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903), the Supreme Court
a. ruled that Congress could ignore all existing Indian treaties.
b. granted all male Indians the right to vote.
c. upheld the constitutionality of the Dawes Severalty Act.
d. extended citizenship rights to Indians.
a
The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 was intended to
a. exclude Japanese immigration into California.
b. encourage ethnic diversity within large industries.
c. place Indians on reservations in Arizona and New Mexico.
d. promote Indian assimilation by dividing their lands.
d
As a result of the Dawes Severalty Act, Indian tribes
a. adjusted to an agricultural lifestyle.
b. remained united against the federal government.
c. migrated farther west.
d. lost almost two-thirds of their land.
d
Which of the following phenomena led the U.S. government to dismantle the Indian reservation system it had previously established?
a. White land hunger
b. The Office of Indian Affairs
c. Indian resistance
d. Indian schools
a
Which Sioux leader led the forces that annihilated Colonel George A. Custer and his men on June 25, 1876?
a. Sitting Bull
b. Red Cloud
c. Geronimo
d. Chief Joseph
a
Following the Sioux victory at Little Big Horn, the U.S. government
a. pursued the various bands of Sioux until they surrendered.
b. demonstrated a new respect for the Sioux and other tribes.
c. withdrew from the area and left the Sioux alone.
d. negotiated a treaty in which it made concessions to the Sioux.
a
Why did the Ghost Dance movement spread so quickly in Native American reservations in the late 1880s and early 1890s?
a. The dance served as a pleasant distraction from the ills of life on the reservation.
b. The dance fostered native peoples’ hope that they could drive away white settlers.
c. It was a purely Native American dance that represented their culture.
d. Native American people thought the dance might end the long drought.
b
Which of the following statements describes the historical significance of the Battle of Wounded Knee?
a. It illustrated the U.S. government’s faulty approach to Native Americans and led it to abandon the Dawes Plan immediately.
b. Indians remained a large minority in South Dakota and Oklahoma, averaging 25 percent of the population.
c. The massacre of the Lakotas there stands as an indictment of U.S. Indian policy and western expansionism.
d. The Plains Indians continued a grim guerrilla struggle against white domination, mounting many small attacks.
c

“By 1880, something approaching a consensus was emerging on the Indian question. Public discussions of the issue now increasingly concluded with the judgment that the government’s treatment of its Indian wards had been unnecessarily shortsighted, harsh, and even cruel. It was time for a change. And not surprisingly, as discussion turned to the future, an old and familiar theme reasserted itself: Indians not only needed to be saved from the white man, they needed to be saved from themselves. . . . Indian land, for the most part, was now white land. Indians on the other hand, were still largely savages. It was time to redeem an old promise.”

— David Wallace Adams, historian, Education for Extinction:
American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928, published in 1995

The ideas Adams describes in this excerpt most closely resemble those promoted by which of the following?
a. Temperance reformers
b. Radical Republicans
c. Abolitionists
d. Catholic missionaries in New France

d

“By 1880, something approaching a consensus was emerging on the Indian question. Public discussions of the issue now increasingly concluded with the judgment that the government’s treatment of its Indian wards had been unnecessarily shortsighted, harsh, and even cruel. It was time for a change. And not surprisingly, as discussion turned to the future, an old and familiar theme reasserted itself: Indians not only needed to be saved from the white man, they needed to be saved from themselves. . . . Indian land, for the most part, was now white land. Indians on the other hand, were still largely savages. It was time to redeem an old promise.”

— David Wallace Adams, historian, Education for Extinction:
American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928, published in 1995

The ideas expressed in the excerpt stemmed most directly from which of the following major historical processes taking place during the late nineteenth century?
a. The U.S. government’s efforts to build a fully integrated and modern national economy
b. Americans’ creation of a national culture that romanticized the transformation of the wilderness
c. The federal government’s retreat from efforts to erode white supremacy during Reconstruction
d. The growing importance of the United States as an international political power

a

“By 1880, something approaching a consensus was emerging on the Indian question. Public discussions of the issue now increasingly concluded with the judgment that the government’s treatment of its Indian wards had been unnecessarily shortsighted, harsh, and even cruel. It was time for a change. And not surprisingly, as discussion turned to the future, an old and familiar theme reasserted itself: Indians not only needed to be saved from the white man, they needed to be saved from themselves. . . . Indian land, for the most part, was now white land. Indians on the other hand, were still largely savages. It was time to redeem an old promise.”

— David Wallace Adams, historian, Education for Extinction:
American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928, published in 1995

The ideas Adams describes in the excerpt were used as the foundation for which of the following policies?
a. The Supreme Court’s ruling that Congress could make whatever Indian policies it chose
b. Intensification of military campaigns against Native Americans
c. The establishment of Indian boarding schools aimed at assimilating Native Americans
d. Government policies encouraging western expansion for Anglo-Americans

c
Who benefitted most from the General Mining Act of 1872, which allowed individuals who discovered minerals on federally owned land to work the claim and keep the proceeds?
a. Powerful investors
b. Small independent mining prospectors
c. Mexican miners
d. Homesteaders
a
The prominent political movements between the end of Reconstruction and World War I ignored which of the following goals?
a. Promoting social justice
b. Bringing full equality to blacks
c. Limiting the power of big business
d. Ameliorating poverty
b
In general, progressives differed from labor and farm advocates because the progressives
a. generally had less success on the national level.
b. were mostly middle-class urban reformers.
c. were often more radical.
d. were part of a much more unified and cohesive movement.
b
Why were the presidents in office during the period from 1877 to 1895 generally undistinguished and ineffectual?
a. Exhausted by the Civil War and Reconstruction, politicians allowed the people and themselves to relax.
b. Extremely close elections limited their ability to maneuver and take tough political stands.
c. The primary system of nominating presidents chose the candidates by their salability rather than their qualifications.
d. Extraordinary times create extraordinary leaders and this period was not an extraordinary time.
b
The national political stalemate of the 1880s and early 1890s originated in part because of
a. northerners’ tenacious commitment to Reconstruction.
b. the passing of the southern Confederate generation.
c. the incredible population growth resulting from immigration.
d. labor unions’ and trusts’ large political donations.
c
Between 1876 and 1892, Americans could be described as
a. apathetic about politics.
b. reluctant to join parties.
c. independent-minded voters.
d. highly partisan and politically active.
d
The Pendleton Act of 1883
a. gave financial assistance to elderly Americans living in poverty.
b. created the Civil Service Commission, which filled some government jobs by examination.
c. created pensions for the families of disabled workers.
d. provided temporary benefits for families left without their breadwinner.
b
Mugwumps were reformers who
a. supported welfare reform.
b. advocated legislation to protect working men.
c. opposed the Australian-style secret ballot.
d. supported smaller government.
d
Which of the following was the first federal law ever passed to regulate trusts?
a. Interstate Commerce Act
b. Pendleton Act
c. Clayton Antitrust Act
d. Sherman Antitrust Act
d
Which president advocated measures to protect black voting rights in the South after the end of Reconstruction?
a. James Garfield
b. William McKinley
c. Grover Cleveland
d. Benjamin Harrison
d
Why did Congress abandon efforts to enforce black voting rights and fair elections in the South after 1892?
a. The Supreme Court had ruled that such efforts were unconstitutional.
b. Race riots in several urban cities greatly decreased public support for civil rights action among northern voters.
c. Voters largely rejected Republicans and their policies in 1890, giving control of Congress and the presidency to the Democrats.
d. Continued southern resistance persuaded Congress that such efforts were futile.
c
Why did Senator Henry Cabot Lodge’s bill to create a bipartisan federal election board fail to pass in the Senate in 1890?
a. Urban bosses objected to its assumptions about immigrants.
b. President Benjamin Harrison threatened to veto the legislation.
c. Northern liberals were afraid that it provided for too much democracy.
d. Northern manufacturers feared it would empower urban workers.
c
In their 1892 Omaha Platform, Populists called for
a. public ownership of factories.
b. a federal income tax.
c. a tighter monetary policy.
d. women’s suffrage.
b
Which segment of the American population drove the creation and success of the People’s Party in the early 1890s?
a. Middle-class managers
b. Urban workers
c. Immigrants
d. Farmers
d
How did the federal government respond when jobless men marched on Washington in 1894?
a. The president appointed a commission to study their grievances.
b. Congress passed a measure to provide temporary relief to the unemployed.
c. Their leader Jacob Coxey was arrested and their demands were not met.
d. President Cleveland listened to them sympathetically.
c
Who stepped in to aid the federal government when the U.S. Treasury’s gold supplies dwindled badly in 1895?
a. J. P. Morgan and a syndicate of bankers
b. Steel magnate Andrew Carnegie
c. Theodore Roosevelt
d. The British monarchy
a
Which of the following was President Cleveland’s greatest public relations failure during his presidency?
a. Supporting the strikers in the Pullman strike
b. Conducting secret negotiations with J. P. Morgan to replenish American gold
c. Going off the gold standard
d. Sentencing Jacob Coxey to death
b
Which of the following explains the inability of the Populists to become a major national political party alongside the Republicans and the Democrats in the late 1890s?
a. The economic depression of the 1890s
b. Their disdain for organized labor
c. Their embrace of women’s suffrage
d. Their refusal to reach out to African American voters
a
In which of the following ways did American politics change during the mid-1890s?
a. Populists gained a tremendous influence over northern workers.
b. Democrats became almost the only political party in the South for decades.
c. Southern blacks regained some access to voting and political rights.
d. Democrats dominated national politics for the next forty years.
b
Which of the following was a reason for fanning the fire of racial prejudice in the South?
a. To give white yeomen a step up in the region’s class-stratified society
b. That former slaves, still angry with their masters, refused to intermingle in society
c. To ensure that the South would not develop along the same lines as the North
d. To prevent a Populist coalition between poor whites and African Americans
d
What strategy did southern Democrats employ to counteract the appeal of the Populists in the South in the 1880s?
a. Passing a legal ban on Populist organizing
b. Expanding the convict lease system
c. Building cross-racial alliances
d. Forming coalitions with southern Republicans
b
Which of the following was a result of the laws passed to disenfranchise blacks across the South in the 1890s and early 1900s?
a. Racial violence became less prevalent because whites no longer felt threatened.
b. Voter turnout decreased only slightly after disenfranchisement.
c. Segregation laws barring blacks from public and private places such as hotels, parks, and public drinking fountains were passed.
d. The Republican Party was able to regain near parity with the Democrats once it no longer pursued black southern voters.
c
Advocates of free silver believed it would
a. reduce the price of manufactured goods.
b. encourage borrowing and stimulate industry.
c. benefit wage earners.
d. lower the price of silver.
b
During the mid-1890s, many middle-class and prosperous Americans reformers neglected
a. labor uprisings such as the Pennsylvania coal strike.
b. women’s suffrage.
c. the political strength of the farmer-labor political movement.
d. the economic depression of the 1890s.
b
What did William Jennings Bryan mean when he stated, “You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold” in his famous 1896 speech?
a. The upper classes had become wealthy by the suffering of the working class.
b. The United States should abandon the gold standard to stimulate industry.
c. The upper class should pay income taxes to support relief programs for the poor.
d. Conditions in the western gold mines had become too dangerous for workers.
b
Why was McKinley’s campaign in the 1896 presidential election superior to Bryan’s?
a. Bryan spoke rationally, while McKinley spoke passionately and appealed to voters’ emotions.
b. McKinley traveled extensively to be seen and heard by the public and Bryan did not.
c. McKinley gave more speeches throughout the nation.
d. McKinley raised and spent a great deal of money donated by corporations.
d
While William Jennings Bryan promoted free silver; McKinley
a. supported the passage of national unemployment insurance.
b. supported women’s suffrage and the protection of voting rights for all Americans.
c. called for lower tariffs and an income tax.
d. backed away from moral issues and courted new immigrants.
d
Which of the following presidents most easily won election to the White House and was seen as a powerful presence in the Oval Office?
a. Rutherford B. Hayes
b. Grover Cleveland
c. William McKinley
d. Benjamin Harrison
c
New laws that restricted African Americans’ and northern immigrants’ access to the vote helped to ensure the passage of
a. free coinage of silver.
b. the direct election of U.S. senators.
c. women’s suffrage.
d. the creation of a federal income tax.
b
Which of the following cases is an example of the Supreme Court invalidating state regulatory laws?
a. Lochner v. New York
b. Williams v. Mississippi
c. Plessy v. Ferguson
d. Mueller v. Oregon
a
To bring big coal companies to the negotiating table during the 1902 coal strike, President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to
a. arrest and jail the companies’ workers and owners.
b. promote the use of natural gas nationwide.
c. institute a federal minimum wage.
d. nationalize the coal companies.
d
In a landmark decision regarding the Northern Securities Company, the U.S. Supreme Court
a. ruled that the Justice Department did not have the legal authority to sue to break up trusts.
b. ordered the Northern Securities Company railroad trust dissolved.
c. declared the Sherman Antitrust Act unconstitutional.
d. declared unconstitutional the establishment of the Bureau of Corporations.
b
After Roosevelt won the presidency in his own right in 1904, he did which of the following?
a. Implemented his Square Deal by stepping up his attacks on American trusts
b. Created a new program to transform the country’s approach to corporate law
c. Instituted efforts to change the size and composition of the Supreme Court
d. Began a campaign to nationalize most large corporations
a
What was the outcome of the Supreme Court’s decision in the 1911 Standard Oil case?
a. The Sherman Antitrust Act was declared unconstitutional.
b. The Standard Oil trust remained in place for several more decades.
c. The monopoly was broken up into several competing companies.
d. The longstanding “rule of reason” was declared unconstitutional.
c
Which of the following statements characterizes President Theodore Roosevelt’s approach to the nation’s natural resources?
a. An ardent outdoorsman, he became a convert to conservation after he left office.
b. He was a conservationist who tried to balance commercial and public interests.
c. He was a preservationist who opposed the exploitation of natural resources.
d. He called for the repeal of the Forest Reserve Act of 1891.
b
Which of the following statements characterizes the state of the Republican Party in Congress at the beginning of the Taft administration?
a. Republicans in Congress united solidly behind Taft’s presidency.
b. It was deeply divided between Roosevelt’s admirers and Taft’s followers.
c. Conservatives opposed further reforms while progressives sought more radical change.
d. It had lost its taste for progressive reform and was determined limit Taft’s power as well.
c
Which of the following issues did most middle-class, grassroots progressives ignore in the early 1900s?
a. Protecting public health and safety and cracking down on the vice industry
b. Promoting the welfare of working-class women and children
c. Fighting for the civil and political rights of blacks and new immigrants
d. Cleaning up government and breaking the power of corrupt political machines
c
Which of the following describes both the reform movements in the 1880s and the 1890s and those between 1900 and 1920?
a. The reform movements in both periods resulted from religious revival.
b. The reform movements in neither had any long-term results.
c. Women played an integral part in the reform movements of both periods.
d. They were focused mostly on agrarian and labor issues.
c
Why did the National Child Labor Committee, founded in 1907, hire photographer Lewis Hine?
a. To take photographs that would portray child labor in a flattering light
b. To assist in its campaign supporting child labor
c. To record the brutal conditions in mines and mills where children worked
d. To document the living conditions of child laborers in poor neighborhoods
c
The Supreme Court’s 1908 decision in Muller v. Oregon upheld a law
a. prohibiting child labor.
b. establishing a minimum-wage law for women.
c. limiting the workday for women to ten hours.
d. forcing employers to provide day care for workers’ children.
c
Between 1910 and 1917, all the industrial states enacted laws that
a. banned child labor in factories.
b. limited foreign immigration.
c. provided insurance for on-the-job accidents.
d. gave full voting rights to women.
c
Organized in 1905, the Niagara Movement embraced
a. federal payments to impoverished women and children.
b. environmental protection, including clean water.
c. equal opportunity for African Americans.
d. a ten-hour workday for public utilities workers.
c
Mary White Ovington and W. E. B. Du Bois were both founders of the
a. NAACP.
b. Progressive Party.
c. YMCA.
d. New York Consumers’ League.
a
Which of the following was promoted by Republican governor Robert La Follette (1901-1905) as the Wisconsin Idea?
a. Greater government intervention in the economy
b. Smaller government with less intervention in the economy
c. Government subsidies to encourage the growth of corporations
d. Expanded voting rights for all men and women
a
In the early 1900s, the Industrial Workers of the World were committed to achieving
a. support for the American Federation of Labor.
b. a new society run by and for workers.
c. wage and hour concessions for workers.
d. government regulation of trusts.
b
What prevented Theodore Roosevelt from achieving the Republican presidential nomination in 1912?
a. Taft controlled the party caucuses, whose leaders chose the candidate at the national convention.
b. Taft had superior fundraising ability and, by outspending Roosevelt, he prevailed.
c. Pro-Taft party officials bribed enough convention delegates to deny Roosevelt the nomination.
d. Taft proved to be more popular with grassroots Republican voters in most of the state primaries.
a
What was the outcome of the 1912 presidential election?
a. Wilson won with a minority of the popular vote because Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote.
b. Wilson won a bare majority of the popular vote but an overwhelming majority of the electoral vote.
c. Socialist Party candidate Debs captured 20 percent of the popular vote and carried several western states.
d. Roosevelt’s popular appeal faded by election day, enabling Wilson to beat Taft with a solid majority.
a
Which of the following is correctly matched?
a. Adamson Act—eight-hour workday for railroad workers
b. Newlands Reclamation Act—enabled the Interstate Commerce Commission to set shipping rates
c. Hepburn Act—prohibited discriminatory railway rates that favored powerful customers
d. Elkins Act—workmen’s compensation for federal employees
a
Which president presided over the largest expansion of federal powers between the Civil War and the Great Depression?
a. William Taft
b. Theodore Roosevelt
c. William McKinley
d. Woodrow Wilson
d
Which of the following Progressive reforms amended the Sherman Act to prevent trusts from curbing competition?
a. Federal Reserve Act
b. Pendleton Act
c. Newlands Reclamation Act
d. Clayton Antitrust Act
c
What was the lasting legacy of the Progressive movement in America?
a. It successfully challenged the institutionalized systems of racism and discrimination in the South.
b. Progressives drew the blueprint for the powerful American state suited to an industrial era.
c. Progressives eliminated the constitutional conflicts between the states and national government.
d. The movement solved the problems of industrial America by expanding voting rights.
b

“The Great Migration of the World War I era was only the beginning of a process with profound demographic, occupational, and political implications for African Americans. A new “southern exodus” began following a sharp but relatively short-lived economic depression after World War I ended, as the demand for labor again intensified. . . . The 1920s migration soon exceeded the level of the wartime migration of southern blacks to the urban North. The new migrants came for the same reasons as their wartime predecessors. . . . White southerners could never again convincingly maintain that African Americans were content with their lot; too many southern blacks had already spoken with their feet.”

— Eric Arnesen, historian, Black Protest and the Great Migration, 2003

The excerpt above best serves as evidence of which of the following?
a. African Americans challenging Jim Crow laws
b. Determined southern resistance to change
c. An opening of economic opportunities to African Americans during World War I
d. The stripping away of rights granted to blacks through segregation, violence, and local political tactics

c

“The Great Migration of the World War I era was only the beginning of a process with profound demographic, occupational, and political implications for African Americans. A new “southern exodus” began following a sharp but relatively short-lived economic depression after World War I ended, as the demand for labor again intensified. . . . The 1920s migration soon exceeded the level of the wartime migration of southern blacks to the urban North. The new migrants came for the same reasons as their wartime predecessors. . . . White southerners could never again convincingly maintain that African Americans were content with their lot; too many southern blacks had already spoken with their feet.”

— Eric Arnesen, historian, Black Protest and the Great Migration, 2003

The ideas described in the passage above most directly led to political debates and protests in the 1950s and 1960s over which of the following?
a. Black nationalism
b. Civil rights
c. U.S. national identity
d. The Great Society

b

“The Great Migration of the World War I era was only the beginning of a process with profound demographic, occupational, and political implications for African Americans. A new “southern exodus” began following a sharp but relatively short-lived economic depression after World War I ended, as the demand for labor again intensified. . . . The 1920s migration soon exceeded the level of the wartime migration of southern blacks to the urban North. The new migrants came for the same reasons as their wartime predecessors. . . . White southerners could never again convincingly maintain that African Americans were content with their lot; too many southern blacks had already spoken with their feet.”

— Eric Arnesen, historian, Black Protest and the Great Migration, 2003

The passage above best serves as evidence of which of the following?
a. Change and modernization leading to cultural conflict
b. The transition of the United States from a rural, agricultural society to an urban, industrial one
c. New opportunities as a result of economic growth
d. The increasing focus in the U.S. economy on consumer goods

c
Which of the following contributed to America expanding its markets into Latin America and Asia in the 1890s?
a. A shortage of agricultural products internationally
b. The need to import manufactured items
c. Europe’s economic inroads into the Western Hemisphere
d. The wide-reaching impact of the Panic of 1893
d
The expansionist foreign policy of the 1890s derived significant inspiration from
a. populism.
b. isolationism.
c. Marxism.
d. Social Darwinism.
d
Which of the following policies did U.S. naval officer Alfred Mahan support in his 1890 book The Influence of Sea Power upon History?
a. An American invasion of Mexico
b. An expansion of the American empire in Asia and Africa
c. Isolationism for the United States
d. Cooperation of the United States with the Asian and African peoples
b
What did the Venezuelan and Cuban crises of the 1890s have in common?
a. They were both U.S. foreign policy challenges to European nations.
b. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine in both crises.
c. They were both settled peacefully.
d. Both crises led the United States into war.
a
How did William McKinley’s response to the 1897 rebellion in Cuba differ from that of his predecessor, Grover Cleveland?
a. McKinley was not held back by the pacifist views that had determined Cleveland’s approach.
b. McKinley took a tougher stance against the Spanish than Cleveland had taken.
c. Whereas Cleveland had been shocked by stories of Spanish atrocities, McKinley was not.
d. McKinley considered the Caribbean less important to U.S. interests than Cleveland had.
b
After the explosion of the battleship Maine, a U.S. naval board of inquiry blamed the sinking on
a. an unfortunate accident.
b. Cuban patriots who were hoping to provoke U.S. intervention.
c. a preemptive strike by the Spanish against U.S. intervention.
d. an underwater mine.
d
Issued in 1898, the Teller Amendment declared that
a. Americans would support Filipino independence.
b. the United States had no intention of annexing Cuba.
c. the United States would grant Cuba statehood immediately if it so wished.
d. the United States would support Puerto Rican independence.
b
Which of the following statements accurately describes the state of American military preparedness in 1898?
a. McKinley’s preparations made troop deployment efficient.
b. The army of 200,000 troops was well trained and ready for combat.
c. The navy was better prepared than the ground forces.
d. Volunteer cavalry units proved to be the most effective fighting forces.
c
Why did President McKinley and the Republicans jump at the chance to hold the Philippine Islands?
a. The victory would soothe an American public angered by an unpopular war.
b. The move would quiet Democratic opponents who had criticized the war effort as being unproductive.
c. It provided the United States with a major foothold in the western Pacific and access to Asian markets.
d. It hoped that control of the Philippines would guarantee the territorial integrity of China.
c
Which of the following statements describes Hawaii in the 1890s?
a. American sugar planters overthrew Hawaii’s Queen Liliuokalani and applied for U.S. annexation.
b. U.S. military planners desperately wanted to annex Hawaii to gain access to Pearl Harbor.
c. Americans had ignored Hawaii for decades but became interested in it in the 1890s.
d. President Grover Cleveland annexed it after Americans overthrew its queen.
a
The American victory at San Juan Hill in Cuba can be credited mostly to
a. the surrender of the Spanish troops after merely token resistance.
b. Cuban guerrilla fighters who diverted the Spanish while the American attack was developing.
c. four African American U.S. regiments that bore the brunt of the fighting.
d. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, whose cavalry charge overwhelmed the Spanish defenders.
c
After considering his options for the disposition of the Philippines, President McKinley
a. approached Germany about a joint protectorate arrangement, which it refused.
b. offered to return the islands to Spain, which said that it was no longer interested.
c. offered Filipinos independence after five years, but they refused his terms.
d. annexed the entire Philippines on the basis that the Filipinos could not govern themselves.
d
As a result of the war with Spain in 1898, the United States gained
a. Guam, Hawaii, and Bermuda.
b. the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.
c. the Philippines, Cuba, and the Virgin Islands.
d. Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Panama.
b
Which of the following Americans spoke out vigorously against annexation of the Philippines in the late 1890s?
a. William Jennings Bryan
b. Theodore Roosevelt
c. William Howard Taft
d. Jane Addams
d
Which of the following describes the guerrilla war that followed the conquest of the Philippines?
a. The fighting was extremely brutal and continued until 1920.
b. More American troops were killed than Filipino rebels.
c. American troops committed many atrocities, but the Filipino rebels did not.
d. The conflict far exceeded in ferocity the war just concluded with Spain.
d
In the Insular Cases (1901), the Supreme Court ruled that
a. the Constitution did not automatically extend citizenship to people in newly acquired territories.
b. inhabitants of newly acquired territories automatically became U.S. citizens.
c. the United States must establish an independent Philippine republic within ten years.
d. McKinley had exceeded his presidential powers in the Philippine settlement.
a
Which of these actions gave the United States the right to intervene in Cuba if its independence was threatened?
a. Root-Takahira Agreement
b. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
c. Platt Amendment
d. Teller Amendment
c
Which of the following assumptions shaped Theodore Roosevelt’s strategic thinking about U.S. foreign policy during his presidency?
a. Germany was the world’s greatest empire and Great Britain was on the decline.
b. The United States, as the leader of the free world, needed to promote global democracy.
c. It was the duty of the “civilized” countries of the world to police “backward” peoples.
d. Major war among the great powers of Europe was no longer possible.
c
The open door note, composed by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay, called for
a. equal access for all countries seeking to trade with China.
b. a repeal of the extraterritoriality agreements with China.
c. an end to all foreign spheres of influence in China.
d. an end to the Chinese taxing system.
a
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, which nation’s growing power in East Asia most surprised Europe and the United States?
a. Russia
b. China
c. Japan
d. Korea
c
Which of the following statements characterizes President Taft’s foreign policy in Asia?
a. He disregarded Asia, believing that Europe and the United States should be dominant.
b. Taft reversed Roosevelt’s approaches to both China and Japan.
c. He supported Japan’s right to fund and supervise railroad construction in China.
d. Unlike Roosevelt, Taft believed that the United States had no place in Asia.
b
Theodore Roosevelt’s big-stick policy was demonstrated
a. through his actions with the Rough Riders in Cuba.
b. when he mediated the Russo-Japanese War.
c. with his actions in the anthracite coal strike.
d. with the strength and effectiveness of the U.S. Navy.
d
How did the United States acquire the land it needed to build the Panama Canal?
a. Roosevelt bribed Columbian officials so that they would agree.
b. The United States lent covert assistance to free Panama from Colombia.
c. It agreed to buy the isthmus from Columbia.
d. John Hay negotiated a peaceful transfer treaty with Columbia.
b
The United States was cleared to begin an American-controlled Central American canal project as a result of
a. the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
b. congressional passage of the Enabling Bill.
c. its purchase of the rights from France.
d. the successful revolution in Nicaragua.
a

“Chronic wrong doing . . . may . . . require intervention by . . . the United States [in adherence to] the Monroe Doctrine . . . , however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrong doing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.”

The philosophy exemplified in this quote reveals that it was taken from
a. the Roosevelt Corollary.
b. a speech by William Jennings Bryan.
c. The Influence of Seapower upon History.
d. the Platt Amendment.

a
When Woodrow Wilson became president in 1913, he
a. argued that practicality should take precedence over morality in dealings with Latin America.
b. promised to continue using American economic leverage in foreign policy.
c. vowed that the United States would not seek further territorial gains by conquest.
d. approved a loan by an international consortium to China for modernizing its infrastructure.
c
Which of the following is correctly matched?
a. Venustiano Carranza—Wilson’s favored leader during the Mexican Revolution who allied with the United States
b. Francisco Madero—Mexican dictator who encouraged private U.S. investment in Mexico in the late 1800s
c. Porfirio Díaz—Mexican leader who was deposed after the United States intervened in the Mexican Revolution
d. Pancho Villa—Mexican general whose forces killed dozens of Americans along the border in 1916
d
Which of the following factors contributed to the rising tensions in Europe in the early 1900s that eventually resulted in World War I?
a. The growing strength and power of the Ottoman Empire
b. American domination of the Western Hemisphere
c. The demilitarization of France and England
d. European competition for African and Asian colonies
d
World War I began as a direct result of the assassination, by a Serbian revolutionary, of the heir to the throne of
a. Austria-Hungary.
b. Germany.
c. Russia.
d. Turkey.
a
What was Woodrow Wilson’s primary reason for wanting to keep the United States neutral at the outbreak of World War I?
a. He wanted to arbitrate among the combatants and to influence the settlement of the war.
b. Wilson admired and hoped to emulate German culture and the German university system.
c. He was a pacifist who believed that the United States should never go to war.
d. The president could not commit to fighting on behalf of a Catholic country such as France.
a
Which of the following statements describes Americans’ views about entering into World War I in 1915 and 1916?
a. Industrialists such as Henry Ford lobbied Wilson to get involved so they could manufacture arms.
b. Eugene V. Debs and other Socialists wanted to enter the war to aid Russia.
c. Millions of German Americans were ashamed of their homeland.
d. Many Irish Americans viewed England as the enemy because of its occupation of Ireland.
d
What changes occurred in American trade with the Allies and the Central Powers between 1914 and 1916?
a. Commerce with the Allies rose nearly fourfold, while it dwindled with the Central Powers.
b. Trade with both sides was severely curtailed by naval attacks on the high seas.
c. Trade with the Allies dropped by half, whereas trade with the Central Powers tripled.
d. Commerce with both sides rose equally because Americans supplied both with food and arms.
a
Which of the following was the immediate cause for American entry into World War I?
a. The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
b. Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
c. Progressives’ zeal to correct social injustices
d. The German’s sinking of the Lusitania
b
In his appearance before Congress to ask for a declaration of war in 1917, Woodrow Wilson
a. emphasized that American involvement would make the world “safe for democracy.”
b. promised that American troops would be deployed to Europe only for a finite period of time.
c. asked the European Allies for material compensation for the sacrifices Americans would make.
d. made it clear that the United States would expect colonial territory in return for its participation.
a
Which of the following was the first woman in Congress and voted against going into World War I?
a. Jeanette Rankin
b. Frances Perkins
c. Carrie Chapman Catt
d. Florence Kelly
a
Which of these actions constituted the United States’ first major contribution to the war effort in World War I?
a. Providing relief to the Allies’ military forces at the Western Front
b. Using armed convoys to secure Allied shipping against submarine attacks
c. Blockading enemy ports and harbors to limit their military strength
d. Sending troops to the Eastern Front to strengthen the fight against Russia
b
Which of the following helped the United States turn the tide and win World War I?
a. Battlefield tactics and strategy
b. Huge numbers of troops and supplies
c. Psychological warfare
d. Technological innovations
b
Which of the following was true of race relations during World War I?
a. Almost 25 percent of the adult male Native American population served in World War I.
b. Native Americans were not allowed into combat during the war in Europe.
c. African Americans were often given hazardous military jobs, such as scouts and snipers.
d. Blacks and whites were kept separate, eliminating racial violence in the army during the war.
a
The War Industries Board was responsible for
a. working with labor unions to ensure their concessions during wartime.
b. ordering factories to convert to wartime production.
c. negotiating military contracts based on below-market rates.
d. recruiting women to take jobs in industry.
b
Herbert Hoover emerged from World War I as one of the nation’s most admired men because of his leadership of the
a. Fuel Administration.
b. Railway War Board.
c. National War Labor Board.
d. Food Administration.
d
During World War I, federal agencies expanded the national government’s role by
a. planting victory gardens in the yards of suburban residents.
b. issuing ration cards to every American family in order to conserve food.
c. establishing an eight-hour day for war workers with generous overtime pay.
d. banning immigration from Germany and Russia.
c
How did the United States curb dissent against World War I on the home front?
a. The “One Hundred Percent Americans” campaign provided cash incentives for immigrants to obtain U.S. citizenship.
b. The Committee on Public Information produced government propaganda to support the war.
c. The Committee on Public Information educated Americans about the war’s necessity for their safety.
d. The American Protective League sponsored short prowar speeches at movie theaters and other public venues.
b
U.S. wartime beliefs about Germany were exemplified by
a. school districts’ strengthening German language programs.
b. the imprisonment of tens of thousands of Germans in internment camps.
c. celebration of German culture by renaming sauerkraut “Liberty cabbage.”
d. the distribution of posters by the U.S. government warning citizens of German spies.
d
In Abrams v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that
a. authorities may prosecute speech when it represents a clear and present danger.
b. restrictions on habeas corpus during wartime are legal.
c. civilians cannot be tried in military courts if a civilian court is available.
d. civilians may not attempt to negotiate with foreign nations.
a
The term Great Migration refers to
a. Mexican Americans leaving farm labor for industrial jobs in southwestern cities.
b. African Americans moving from the South to the North during the war.
c. women moving to the cities to take the jobs vacated by men going off to war.
d. the American Expeditionary Force traveling en masse to Europe to fight.
b
Which of the following statements describes changes in the lives of Mexican Americans during World War I?
a. More than one million Mexicans seeking wartime employment entered the United States between 1917 and 1920.
b. The majority of Mexican American immigrants coming to the United States between 1917 and 1920 did migrant work in rural areas.
c. The Mexican American population diminished because many Mexican Americans returned to their homeland.
d. Political instability in Mexico and the lure of wartime jobs caused many Mexicans to relocate to the United States.
d
Which of the following developments was a lasting legacy of America’s participation in World War I?
a. Women’s suffrage
b. Lessening of racial tensions between black and white Americans
c. The suspension of antitrust laws
d. The Sixteenth Amendment
a
Besides the League of Nations, which of the following goals did Woodrow Wilson achieve in the post-World War I peace settlement?
a. Self-determination for Central Europe’s newly independent nations
b. Self-determination for Germany’s colonies in Africa
c. International free trade
d. Freedom of the seas
a
The battle in the Senate over the Treaty of Versailles centered around Article X, which was
a. the League of Nations’ right to use collective military action.
b. a plan to create a standing international army.
c. a proposal to create new nations in Europe and the Middle East.
d. a plan for German reparation payments to France.
a
Which of the following assesses the impact of World War I on the international balance of power?
a. The United States emerged as a world power ready to fulfill its new international role.
b. Germany emerged from the war stronger than ever, while France and Britain were diminished.
c. World War I weakened France and England while it strengthened the United States.
d. Britain emerged from World War I with a firm hold on its colonial empire and Europe itself.
c

“Afro-American urbanization . . . had started before . . . the Civil War. . . . The Great Migration, however, represents an important shift in direction, with the center of black population moving northward during World War I, rather than . . . south and west. . . . It also marks an important transformation in outlook among a growing minority of black southerners. Since emancipation, both migration and persistence had . . . involved strategies . . . based on land ownership. The Great Migration, by contrast, drew upon black southerners who looked to urban life and the industrial economy for the social and economic foundation of full citizenship and its perquisites. It was . . . a ‘second emancipation,’ and accordingly . . . a similarly transforming event.”

— James Grossman, historian, Land of Hope:
Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration, 1991

Which of the following was a major similarity between the Great Migration and emancipation?
a. Both provided the economic opportunities African Americans needed to overcome the effects of slavery.
b. The events inspired whites’ efforts to reestablish the conditions of slavery for African Americans.
c. Both offered the promise of significant change in African Americans’ social, economic, and political conditions.
d. Neither development brought about any significant change in African Americans’ social and economic status.

c

“Afro-American urbanization . . . had started before . . . the Civil War. . . . The Great Migration, however, represents an important shift in direction, with the center of black population moving northward during World War I, rather than . . . south and west. . . . It also marks an important transformation in outlook among a growing minority of black southerners. Since emancipation, both migration and persistence had . . . involved strategies . . . based on land ownership. The Great Migration, by contrast, drew upon black southerners who looked to urban life and the industrial economy for the social and economic foundation of full citizenship and its perquisites. It was . . . a ‘second emancipation,’ and accordingly . . . a similarly transforming event.”

— James Grossman, historian, Land of Hope:
Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration, 1991

The developments described in the excerpt resulted in which of the following consequences?
a. African Americans found that white northerners were as invested in black disfranchisement as white southerners.
b. African Americans found better opportunities in northern cities, despite racial discrimination in jobs.
c. Northern cities adopted legislation that required the segregation of whites and African Americans.
d. African Americans found jobs in war industries that paid them the same wages earned by whites.

b

“Afro-American urbanization . . . had started before . . . the Civil War. . . . The Great Migration, however, represents an important shift in direction, with the center of black population moving northward during World War I, rather than . . . south and west. . . . It also marks an important transformation in outlook among a growing minority of black southerners. Since emancipation, both migration and persistence had . . . involved strategies . . . based on land ownership. The Great Migration, by contrast, drew upon black southerners who looked to urban life and the industrial economy for the social and economic foundation of full citizenship and its perquisites. It was . . . a ‘second emancipation,’ and accordingly . . . a similarly transforming event.”

— James Grossman, historian, Land of Hope:
Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration, 1991

The development described in the excerpt was most similar to which of the following from earlier periods in American history?
a. Revolutionary War veterans’ migration to the Northwest Territory in the 1790s
b. Native Americans’ relocation to the territory west of the Mississippi in the 1830s
c. Farm girls’ work in the mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1840s
d. Irish immigrants’ migration to American cities in the Northeast in the 1840s

d
Which of the following presented the greatest challenges to the United States after World War I?
a. The war had left the United States deeply in debt.
b. The economy slowed after the war.
c. Women refused to leave the workforce.
d. The war brought to light the differences among Americans.
d
African Americans who served in World War I returned home to find
a. discrimination and race riots.
b. new appreciation for their patriotism.
c. less racism from whites than before the war.
d. greater access to jobs when they showed their discharge papers.
a
Which of the following statements characterizes race relations in the aftermath of World War I?
a. African Americans continued to follow the advice of Booker T. Washington.
b. Racial confrontations did not involve black soldiers, who were lauded in the South.
c. The Great Migration of blacks out of the South was quickly reversed after the war.
d. At least 120 blacks were killed in racial violence in the United States by 1919.
d
In which of the following cities was the prosperous Greenwood district burned down in racial riots in 1921?
a. Boston, Massachusetts
b. Tulsa, Oklahoma
c. Detroit, Michigan
d. Charlotte, North Carolina
b
Which of the following factors contributed to the incredible number of militant strikes that occurred during 1919?
a. American companies fired wartime workers and hired returning soldiers.
b. Employers sought to reinstitute the ten-hour workday.
c. Public support for labor unions made strikes more acceptable.
d. Employers tried to root out labor unions after the war.
d
Which of the following politicians won tremendous political support during the strikes of 1919, when he claimed, “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime”?
a. Warren Harding
b. Woodrow Wilson
c. Herbert Hoover
d. Calvin Coolidge
d
Welfare capitalism emerged in the 1920s in part to
a. improve workers’ productivity.
b. win government pensions for the elderly.
c. stop unionization.
d. ensure workers’ health.
c
Which of the following statements characterizes the Red Scare of 1919-1921?
a. The American public and press blamed labor conflict on the American Federation of Labor.
b. The Socialist Party threatened to foment violent revolution.
c. A series of 1919 bombings led Americans to associate radical political groups with violence
d. The American Communist Party posed a direct threat to the stability of American society.
c
Which prominent politician fanned fears of domestic radicalism after a bomb exploded outside his home in 1919?
a. Henry Cabot Lodge
b. Mitchell Palmer
c. Calvin Coolidge
d. Warren G. Harding
b
Which of the following facts regarding Sacco and Vanzetti clearly biased the jury against them?
a. They were Italian immigrants.
b. Both had criminal histories.
c. They were communists.
d. Both were illegal immigrants.
c
Which of the following statements describes the proceedings against Sacco and Vanzetti?
a. Their quick trial and execution in 1921 exemplified antiradical hysteria.
b. Scholars still debate their guilt, but most agree that they did not receive a fair trial.
c. Their acquittal reflected the waning of the Red Scare hysteria.
d. Despite the high emotions aroused by their case, Sacco and Vanzetti received a fair trial.
b
Which of the following is true regarding the Sheppard-Towner Federal Maternity and Infancy Act of 1921?
a. It prohibited midwives and home births.
b. It was the first federally funded, health-care legislation.
c. The act excluded working-class women.
d. The National Woman’s Party opposed its passage.
b
Why did the newly organized Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) come under attack in the 1920s?
a. The group supported feminist goals.
b. Socialist women were among its members.
c. It articulated an explicitly anticapitalist message.
d. The WILPF proposed social justice measures.
b
Which of the following statements most accurately characterized women’s political participation during the 1920s?
a. Women did not vote as a bloc, as politicians had expected.
b. Women had little success in political lobbying and no formal organizations of their own.
c. Women were most effective as members of political parties’ committees.
d. Due to their political inexperience, few women sought public office.
a
Harding campaigned on the platform of returning to “normalcy,” which meant
a. a strong probusiness stance and conservative cultural values.
b. continuing the Progressive Era reforms.
c. putting Republicans back in office.
d. he would be a common man in government rather than an intellectual.
d
As secretary of commerce under Warren Harding, Herbert Hoover
a. led a renewed campaign of trust-busting to restore competition in the business world.
b. believed that voluntary cooperation between government and business could replace regulation.
c. sought to eliminate any type of government intervention in business.
d. worked to extend the power of the War Industries Board and War Labor Board.
b
Which major scandal in Harding’s administration was named after the national oil reserves it involved?
a. Crédit Mobilier
b. North Shore Oil
c. Teapot Dome
d. Sinclair Oil
c
Which of the following was one of Calvin Coolidge’s political virtues at the time he became president after Harding’s death in 1923?
a. Reticence, which ensured the confidentiality of his administration
b. A reputation for nonpartisanship
c. Austere morality, which contrasted with Harding’s cronyism
d. Imaginative foresight and problem-solving abilities
c
Which of the following occurred at the Democratic Party convention in 1924?
a. Democrats chose a vice presidential candidate to attract rural southern voters.
b. Conflicts showed that the party was deeply split between rural and urban interests.
c. The delegates could not agree on the nomination of a presidential candidate.
d. After 103 ballots, it nominated William G. McAdoo for the presidency.
b
Which of the following statements characterized U.S. foreign policy during the 1920s?
a. The nation ended its use of military intervention in Latin America to protect U.S. investments.
b. The United States actively sought to facilitate American economic expansion abroad.
c. The United States was strongly isolationist, retreating from involvement in world affairs.
d. The newly powerful United States overwhelmed other countries in the League of Nations.
b
During the 1920s, the U.S. military intervened in or occupied
a. El Salvador.
b. Bolivia.
c. Cuba.
d. Nicaragua.
d
The culture wars of the 1920s were due in part to
a. a backlash against big business as many poorer Americans struggled economically.
b. the tremendous growth of cities from immigration and rural migration.
c. the change in foreign policy from isolation to internationalism.
d. political battles between Democrats and Republicans throughout the decade.
b
Which of the following is correct about the Scopes trial?
a. The American Civil Liberties Union challenged the constitutionality of the trial.
b. William Jennings Bryan defended Scopes in the trial.
c. John Scopes was found not guilty.
d. Clarence Darrow defended the right to teach evolution in schools.
d
Which of the following statements characterizes the Scopes “monkey trial” of 1925?
a. The trial quickly became a media circus.
b. The trial resulted in a hung jury unable to decide whether Scopes was innocent or guilty.
c. The jury acquitted John Scopes, and modern science claimed victory over religion.
d. The American Civil Liberties Union supported the Tennessee ban on teaching evolution.
a
The emergency immigration restrictions in 1921 were made more restrictive with the
a. National Origins Act.
b. American Civil Liberties Union.
c. Jones Act.
d. Dillingham Commission.
a
How did the U.S. government change immigration restrictions during the 1920s?
a. The 1921 Emergency Immigration Bill set quotas at 10 percent of each nationality as measured by the 1900 census.
b. The 1929 Immigration Act relaxed quotas for Europeans but tightened those for Latin Americans.
c. To meet the need for cheap labor, the 1929 Immigration Act reversed the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
d. The National Origins Act set immigration quotas at 2 percent of each nationality as measured by the 1890 census.
d
The rise of the Ku Klux Klan and the National Origins Act represented a resurgence of
a. fundamentalism.
b. religious revival.
c. nativism.
d. jingoism.
c
How did the rejuvenated Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s differ from its Reconstruction-era form?
a. The group targeted Catholics and Jews as well as blacks.
b. It abandoned violence in favor of economic boycotts.
c. It was a patriotic group, not a racist one.
d. The new Klan found most of its support in the rural South.
a
Which of the following describes Governor Alfred E. Smith, the Democratic presidential candidate in 1928?
a. He was the first major-party presidential candidate to reflect the aspirations of the urban working class.
b. Smith had a speaking voice ideally suited to the new medium of radio.
c. Smith was a product of Chicago’s influential Irish political machine.
d. He lost the election because he failed to carry the heavily industrialized states in the urban Northeast.
a
Which of the following statements characterizes the Republican victory in the 1928 election?
a. Hoover, a political unknown in comparison to Smith, picked up votes by attacking Smith’s reputation as a progressive.
b. Given America’s prosperity, it was unlikely that any Democrat could have defeated Herbert Hoover.
c. Hoover carried all the heavily industrialized states and large cities.
d. Hoover attracted the votes of many immigrant Catholic women.
b
Which of the following concepts championed black racial pride and cultural identity in the 1920s?
a. Back to Africa movement
b. Lost Generation
c. Harlem Renaissance
d. Jazz Age
c
Which of the following statements was true of the Harlem Renaissance?
a. The most visible part of the Harlem Renaissance to most whites was jazz music.
b. Most of its participants had no significant appeal outside the black community.
c. Most participants were not Americans by birth, but hailed from Trinidad and Jamaica.
d. For generations, critics dismissed the participants’ work as race-based and old-fashioned.
a
Which of the following describes 1920s jazz?
a. It was popular among black southerners but failed to gain acceptance among white northerners.
b. Jazz represented a synthesis of African American music forms such as ragtime and the blues.
c. Jazz was rarely recorded or performed publicly because of discriminatory laws against African Americans.
d. It expressed, among other things, black Americans’ desire to assimilate with the white population.
b
The most celebrated jazz soloist of the 1920s was the trumpeter
a. Zora Neale Hurston.
b. Duke Ellington.
c. Bix Beiderbecke.
d. Louis Armstrong.
d
The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) recommended that black Americans
a. resort to violence if necessary to achieve racial justice.
b. work more aggressively through the court system to end segregation.
c. pressure Congress to set aside a state for a black separatist society.
d. return to Africa to obtain the justice unavailable to them in the United States.
d
What was the significance of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in the 1920s?
a. The UNIA created the Harlem Renaissance.
b. It was the only biracial organization of its day.
c. It represented a major black artistic movement.
d. It left a legacy of activism among working-class blacks.
d
The growing pan-Africanism movement that began to emerge among blacks during the 1920s was spurred in part by
a. black men’s military service during World War I.
b. nativist whites’ efforts to deport blacks.
c. the anticolonial movements that had transformed Africa.
d. the dismal American economy of the 1920s.
a
Which of the following terms did American writer Gertrude Stein use to describe Americans who had experienced World War I firsthand?
a. The Silent Generation
b. Baby Boomers
c. The Greatest Generation
d. The Lost Generation
d
Which of the following statements describes the American literary figures of the 1920s, such as Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald?
No answer provided
a. They rejected American materialism, complacency, and anti-intellectualism.
b. These authors promoted a “rags to riches” vision of American individualism.
c. These white authors deeply resented the rise of the Harlem Renaissance.
d. They were strong boosters of America’s victory in World War I and in the country’s prosperity.
a
Throughout the 1920s, the sector of the American economy in the worst shape was
a. agriculture.
b. coal.
c. railroads.
d. manufacturing.
a
Which of the following statements characterizes American business during the 1920s?
a. American businesses concentrated their marketing efforts exclusively in the United States.
b. Family-run businesses, rather than oligopolies or monopolies, became the norm.
c. The two hundred largest corporations controlled almost half of the national nonbanking wealth.
d. The number of mergers dwindled to almost nothing as businesses stopped consolidating.
c
Which of the following sectors of American society saw the greatest amount of improvement in the 1920s?
a. Industrial output
b. Working conditions
c. The distribution of income
d. Race relations
a
A major weakness of the 1920s economy was the
a. lack of credit.
b. unequal distribution of wealth.
c. soaring cost of farm products.
d. lack of cooperation between business and government.
b
Which of the following industries drove the creation of American consumer culture in the 1920s?
a. Advertising
b. Film
c. Fashion
d. Railroads
a
Which of the following statements characterizes consumer spending during the 1920s?
a. Higher incomes discouraged borrowing.
b. Installment buying boosted consumerism.
c. Credit cards fueled spending.
d. Americans emphasized thrift.
b
Which of the following statements describes the role of automobiles in the American economy of the 1920s?
a. Cars’ affordability meant that most Americans could buy them.
b. The car industry bankrupted the railroads during the 1920s.
c. Cheap gasoline spurred Americans to migrate to the West.
d. The auto industry played a major role in stimulating prosperity.
d
The flapper, an icon of American culture, represented
a. the lifestyle of most women in the United States.
b. an effort by women to emulate Mary Pickford.
c. the emancipated woman of the 1920s.
d. a return to traditional, prewar values.
c
What was the outcome of the stock market crash of October 1929?
a. Unemployment fell as more and more people entered the workforce to earn extra money.
b. The federal government paid billions of dollars to bank customers who lost their deposits.
c. Only high-rolling Wall Street investors actually lost money during the months that followed the crash.
d. Many middle-class Americans without stock investments lost their life savings when banks failed.
d
How did American consumers respond to the economic situation in the early 1930s?
a. Facing the possibility of hard times and unemployment, most Americans cut back.
b. The drop in prices stimulated a major buying spree for middle-class spenders.
c. Many increased their spending in hopes of stimulating the faltering economy.
d. Falling production rates meant that few goods were available for Americans to purchase.
a
How did the Great Depression affect women’s participation in the workforce in the early 1930s?
a. Despite bans on women’s employment, their workforce participation increased.
b. Traditional women’s jobs went to men, driving women out of the workforce.
c. White women were unemployed at a much greater rate than black women.
d. Prohibitions on hiring women led to falling rates of women’s employment.
a

“The 1920s were characterized by strong hostility to government. . . . Antistatist sentiment permeated the decade; newspapers, journals, and congressional debates reverberated with stories of the evils of federal government expansion. Critics of federal power emphasized bureaucracy . . . to invoke images of a pervasive . . . presence that strangled local and individual initiative. These critics linked federal regulatory boards . . . federal highway programs, agricultural extension, women’s suffrage, and prohibition as parts of a ubiquitous trend of encroaching federal power. Reflecting both the heritage of the war and the Red Scare, they argued that at worst this trend would lead to . . . Bolshevism, at best to bureaucratic paternalism that would . . . rob individuals of their freedom and self-reliance.”

— Lynn Dumenil, historian, The Modern Temper:
American Culture and Society in the 1920s, 1995

The development described in the excerpt was a direct reaction against which of the following phenomena?
a. The reforms associated with progressivism
b. The American Socialist Party
c. The United States’s unilateral foreign policy
d. The practice of welfare capitalism

a

“The 1920s were characterized by strong hostility to government. . . . Antistatist sentiment permeated the decade; newspapers, journals, and congressional debates reverberated with stories of the evils of federal government expansion. Critics of federal power emphasized bureaucracy . . . to invoke images of a pervasive . . . presence that strangled local and individual initiative. These critics linked federal regulatory boards . . . federal highway programs, agricultural extension, women’s suffrage, and prohibition as parts of a ubiquitous trend of encroaching federal power. Reflecting both the heritage of the war and the Red Scare, they argued that at worst this trend would lead to . . . Bolshevism, at best to bureaucratic paternalism that would . . . rob individuals of their freedom and self-reliance.”

— Lynn Dumenil, historian, The Modern Temper:
American Culture and Society in the 1920s, 1995

The ideas described in the excerpt were most similar to those promoted by which of the following groups from an earlier period of U.S. history?
a. The Populist Party of the 1890s
b. The Antifederalists of the 1780s and 1790s
c. The Republican Party during the 1860s and 1870s
d. The Whig Party of the 1830s and 1840s

b

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