POLS1010-Exam 4 (Final)

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What best describes the structural makeup of the legislature in the United States?
Bicameral; Two house legislature (The House of Representatives and The Senate).
Which branch or chamber of government was specifically created to closely represent the people’s views?
The House of Representatives
How often are House members elected?
Every two years — After each decennial (10 year) census
Which constitutional amendment shifted the power to elect senators from state legislatures to popular elections?
The 17th Amendment
In 2010, how much did it cost on average, to make a successful bid for the U.S. Senate?
$5.6 million
Which factors make it more likely that incumbents will prevail in congressional elections?
1. Stronger name recognition
2. Greater access to attention from the media
3. The franking privilege
4. Greater campaign contributions
5. Casework on behalf of constituents in the home district
How often does reappointment and redistricting of seats occur in the House of Representatives?
Every 10 years — in the year ending in zero
The practice of redrawing electoral boundaries for political advantage is known as what?
Gerrymandering
Which powers are granted by Congress by the Constitution?
Enumerated Powers
–To make laws, declare war, to raise an army/navy, coin money, regulate commerce, establish Federal courts, override a presidential veto, to make all laws necessary and proper, to carryout the above mentioned powers (this is known as the elastic clause)
Because of the elastic clause, Congress exercises how broad/narrow a scope of authority?
A broad-scope of authority
What are the sources of congressional power and authority?
The Constitution, Supreme Court decisions, the media, and the people
Within the instructed delegate model, how do elected representatives act?
They vote in keeping with the constituents’ views — even if those views contradict the legislator’s personal views
What was an important consideration for the Framers during the shaping of congressional functions?
Limited government, Checks and balances, Separation of powers, Creation of the federal system
Most representatives in Congress employ which type of decision/voting model in their approach to governance?
Trustee Model
When a member of Congress advocates on behalf of a constituent who has an issue with a bureaucratic agency, he or she is playing the role of what?
Ombudsperson (this is called casework)
What is the process called by which Congress “checks” the executive branch to ensure that laws are being administered in keeping with legislators’ intentions?
Oversight
What are the tools that Congress uses to “check” the executive branch?
Congressional hearings, Confirmation hearings, Investigations, Budgeting appropriations,
Identify the correct chronological order of a legislative bill’s passage, from introduction through committee review(s):
1. Introduction
2. Committee Review
3. House and Senate Approval
4. Conference Committee reconciliation
5. Presidential Approval
Permanent committees that exist from one session of congress to another with a defined legislative jurisdiction are known as what?
Standing committee
Committees that include members of both chambers of Congress are known as what?
Joint committees
In an attempt to block the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the former Republican senator from South Carolina Strom Thurmond spoke for 24 hours 18 minutes on the Senate floor. This set the record for the Senate’s longest what?
Filibuster
In what position in the line of presidential succession is the Speaker of the House?
Second in line — following the Vice President
Which leader acts as a go-between the leadership and the majority party members in the house?
Majority whip
Who is the constitutional president of the Senate?
The Vice President of the United States
The reciprocal practice of trading votes is widely used in Congress and is known as what?
Logrolling
In what month does the general presidential election campaign usually begin?
January
How many electors must a presidential candidate secure in the Electoral College to be elected president?
270 out of the 538 electoral votes (The majority)
What majority is needed for Congress to check presidential power by overriding a presidential veto?
2/3 Majority Vote
Which president issued more vetoes than any other during his tenure?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
What are the party roles performed by the president?
1. Chief Economist – names key economic managers
2. Party Leader
3. Chief Legislator – the main initiator of bills, has veto power
4. Chief Diplomat – signs treaties, appoints ambassadors
5. Commander-in-Chief – commands all military
6. Chief Executive – administers the Federal Government
7. Chief of State – The ceremonial part – i.e. lighting the Christmas tree
8. Chief Crisis Manager
As Chief Diplomat, what functions does the president perform?
Appoints ambassadors, signs treaties, recognizes other countries (Executive agreements with other countries without the Senate’s approval)
Executive agreements are considered to be in force for how long?
ONLY during the administration of the president who negotiates the agreement
What are the powers vested in the president by the Constitution?
Expressed Powers
Inherent Powers
What presidential role(s) are/is most ceremonial and symbolic?
Chief of State
Most would-be presidents choose their vice presidential running mate based on their desire for an approach that provides diversity and maximizes electoral appeal across the United States. What is this approach called?
Balanced Ticket
Who was the first black secretary of state?
Colin Powell
The National Security Council (NSC) is a group of top foreign policy advisors and relevant cabinet officials that advise the president on foreign policy and national security issues. Who is the official chair of the NSC?
The president
Which constitutional amendment, passed in 1967, determines the course of action in the case of a president being?
The 25th Amendment
What are the presidential powers granted by the Constitution officially called (statutory?, inherent?, justiciable?, or?)?
Expressed Powers
What are the presidential powers codified in Article II of the Constitution?
-Veto power
-Serves as commander-in-chief of the U.S. armed forces
-Appoint heads if the executive departments, ambassadors, Supreme Court Justices, people to fill vacancies that occur during the recess of the Senate, and other positions
-Enter into treaties, with 2/3 consent of the Senate
-Give the State of the Union address to Congress
-Convene the Congress
-Receive ambassadors of other nations
-Commission all officers of the United States
Which constitutional clause has been cited by presidents as the basis for their assertion of inherent powers?
Take Care Clause
Thomas Jefferson’s decision to initiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 was an early example of the exercising of what type of presidential power?
Inherent Powers
President Bush’s high approval ratings after his response to the September 11 attacks are an example of what type of effect?
Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect
Which president initiated the New Deal, a series of social programs that dramatically transformed people’s views of the role of the federal government?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
What event led to a deep decline in popular perceptions of the presidency?
Watergate Scandal
During impeachment, which federal body conducts the TRIAL of the president?
The Senate
During the Civil War, President Lincoln suspended the civil liberties of alleged agitators and drafted state militias into national service. He did this using what set of powers that are used during times of national crisis?
Emergency Powers
What are presidential powers granted by congress officially called?
Statutory Powers
What are presidential powers that have been granted by decisions of the Supreme Court officially called?
Emergency Powers
Since 1960, which vice presidents succeeded in becoming president?
Lyndon Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George Bush
Those workers who do the work of government but don’t get a government paycheck, are known as what type of bureaucrats?
Shadow Bureaucrats
According to Max Weber, bureaucracies possess which features?
-A division of labor
– Specialization of job tasks
-Hiring systems based on worker competency
-Standard operating procedures
-Hierarchy with a vertical chain of command
Before the establishment of the civil service system in 1883, what system of hiring was used to staff the federal bureaucracy?
Patronage
What is the name given to the book, published every four years, that lists the federal positions available through the presidential patronage?
The Plum Book
The assassination of which president by an unsuccessful seeker of a patronage position spurred passed of the Pendleton Civil Service Act in 1883?
James Garfield
The Pendleton Civil Service Act introduced a civil service system for the national government based on what type of hiring principle?
Merit-Based “Civil Service System”
The civil service system created by the Pendleton Civil Service Act is guided by which hiring principle(s)?
Open Competition
Competence
Political Neutrality
In 1939 Congress passed the Hatch Act, which did what?
Limited civil servant’s rights to engage in political activity
The process by which the federal government shifts greater responsibility to state and local governments, thereby putting the implementation of national policy in the hands of state and local bureaucrats, is known as what?
Devolution
What title is given to the top political appointee who heads each of the national government’s 15 (except the department of justice)?
Cabinet Secretary
Which is the newest of the national government’s 15 departments?
The Department of Homeland Security, -post 9/11
What best describes the business or role of an independent regulatory agency?
Regulate specific areas of the economy, but are not under direct control of the President or a department
Which type of federal agency or entity is expected to make enough money to cover its’ own costs?
Government corporation
Which type of federal agency/entity that is a hybrid agency that fits into more than one category of federal agency?
The FDA
According to the politics-administration dichotomy, who implements public policy?
Politically neutral and well-trained bureaucrats
What is the second stage in the public policy cycle?
Policy formation
Under what authority do bureaucrats have the power to use their expertise and judgement to implement public policy?
Administrative discretion
What mechanism is used by bureaucrats to determine if their rules have been broken and to impose penalties on violators?
Administrative adjudication
Which groups, individuals, or institutions can hold federal bureaucrats accountable for their actions?
-Through the use of Sunshine Laws and Watchdog Groups
-Through executive control
-Through Congressional oversight and control
-Through Judicial control
-Through internal accountability efforts
Which type of law opens up government functions and documents to the public, ensuring transparency and public access to decision making?
Sunshine Law
What was one of the first laws designed to enhance federal bureaucratic accountability to the people?
The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) of 1946
Which act of congress, passed in 1976, requires most multi-headed national agencies to conduct open, public meetings?
Government in the Sunshine Act of 1976
What are the ways in which Congress encourages bureaucratic accountability?
-Power to pass laws
-Power to confirm or deny presidential appointments
-Power to launch congressional investigations and congressional hearings
What type of clause in a law forces the expiration of a program or policy after a specified number of years without congressional reauthorization?
Sunset Clause
What piece of legislation established the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), which is charged with preventing bureaucratic conflicts of interest?
The Ethics in Government Act of 1978
The Supreme Court predominately acts as a court of what (in terms of different types of jurisdiction)?
The high court of the land
-It serves as the court of last resort in the U.S. Judiciary
The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for what?
It created the 3-tiered federal court system.
-It added district courts and circuit courts to the federal structure
-The 94 District Courts have original jurisdiction
Which early landmark Supreme Court case granted the Supreme Court its most significant power?
Marbury vs. Madison
The authority of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of governmental action is known as what?
Judicial Review
What is common law based on?
which is made principally by judges reaching decisions in cases
The principle of stare decisis, a Latin phrase that means “let the decision stand”, is the basis of the modern legal concept known as what?
Precedent – Previous judicial rulings guide future court decisions.
What is considered the highest form of law?
The U.S. and State Constitutions
Statutes are authored by whom or what?
Congress or a State Legislature
The compilation of all the laws passed by the U.S. Congress is known as the what?
U.S. Code
Who files suit in a case dealing with a violation of criminal law?
The government (i.e. a prosecutor)
In a civil lawsuit, negligence that causes harm to another person’s body or property is known as a what?
Tort
What type of court system exists in the United States? (Single? dual? triple? multiple?
Dual Court System
How many federal district courts are there in the U.S. court system?
13
What is the function of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals?
To review previous decisions made by courts in the federal or state judicial system.
Which special court has come under increased media scrutiny due to its use since the 9/11 attacks?
FISA Courts (Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act)
The leading justice on the Supreme Court, who provides both organizational and intellectual leadership, is known by what title?
Chief Justice
Which Supreme Court appointees were nominated by President Obama?
Sonia Sotomayer and Elena Kagan
Which federal bodies share power in the selection of federal court judges?
The President and The Senate
Senatorial courtesy gives senators of the same political party as the president the right to veto judicial appointments to which level of federal courts?
Federal District Court Judge in the Senators state
A request to the Supreme Court that they review a case that was already decided is done via a(n) what?
Writ of Certiorari
Who is charged with drafting pool memos, which summarize the facts, describe the legal arguments, and make recommendation as to whether the court should take the case?
Supreme Court Clerks
For the Supreme Court to hear a case, how many of the nine justices must vote/want to hear it?
4
Which chief justices led a particularly activist Supreme Court?
Earl Warren
Who or what is given power under the Constitution to grant individual pardons?
The president
Who or what issues articles of impeachment for federal judges?
The House

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