Political Science Practice Exam

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
One of the Recommendations of the Great Compromise was a ______________ _____________.
bicameral legislature
Under the New Deal more control went to the _____________ ___________.
federal government
What describes the common standard for Supreme court justices?
All have law degrees
The Constitution has much language that is vague and often hard to interpret for
exact meaning. How have the problems created by such language been solved?
Through the practice of judicial interpretation in state and federal courts.
Since 1975, Americans’ confidence in the Congress, the presidency, business, and
industry has ________.
declined
Which department responsible for national security sits closest to the president inthe
hierarchical bureaucracy?
the department of defense
The function of political ideology that provides standards with which to judge social
conditions, political institutions, and events is ________.
evaluation
The Pentagon Papers dealt with ________.
a documented history of United States involvement in the Vietnam War that the government wanted kept secret
The ________ has direct control over the appointment of thousands of federal jobs.
the president
President Obama’s approval of California’s limits on greenhouse gasses that were
stricter than the EPA’s national limits is an example of ________.
progressive federalism
In a winner-take-all primary the candidate who gets the most votes in a state secures
all of that state’s _______.
delegates
What is the budgetary process sometimes called?
appropriations
Which of the descriptions below best characterizes the most significant concern over
judicial activism?
That the justices can use their personal preferences to set policy.
What is the central function of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission?
It is to investigate complaints and enforce rules about workplace discrimination.
Congress’s so-called “implied powers” are directly derived from ________.
enumerated powers
In 1944, the Supreme Court declared race a suspect classification that demanded
strict judicial scrutiny. How did this rule affect Korematsu v. U.S., which challenged
the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II?
The internments were ruled permissible because of the threat these nationals posed during wartime.
According to critics of pluralism, which of the following is most likely to take advantage of the American political system?
a wide range of diverse and and competing interest groups
When the Supreme Court upheld a state law requiring police officers to retire at a
certain age, it meant that ________.
the Supreme Court was placing age in the non-suspect classification category
Which political institution was most responsible for putting civil rights goals on the
nation’s policy agenda?
the courts
Which president ordered a blockade of southern ports without congressional
approval?
Abraham Lincoln
Political knowledge and political participation have a reciprocal effect on each other
because ________.
the two elements reinforce each other
Which of the following lists best describes the working conditions in the Senate?
More prestige, minority party plays a larger role, leaders have only a few formal powers, nonhierarchical, members may serve on two or more major committees.
During his first term, Barack Obama subscribed to a system of ________, in which policy matters are decided at the federal level when a consensus on federal standards can be reached, and otherwise deferred to the states.
progressive federalism
Representatives from nine of the thirteen colonies met in New York City to write a
detailed list of violations by the crown. This 1765 meeting is known as the ________.
stamp act congress
If a township mayor and the state governor worked with a national government
agency to solve a problem with large implications, such as a failing energy grid, it
could be said that the problem is being solved through ________.
cooperative federalism
According to the Constitution, what is the main purpose of a vice president?
to succeed the president in case of death or incapacitation.
Sandra Day O’Connor was a Supreme Court justice appointed by President Reagan
who believed in ________.
states’ rights
Local governments do not have powers under the Constitution. They are governed
by state governments as detailed in ________.
Dillon’s Rule
What is the contribution limit to a candidate per election under BCRA?
2,500
The political opinions of women and men are most likely to be very divergent on ___
_____
social issues
In order to be legal, a search warrant must specify ________.
the area to be searched and what police are searching for
The Constitution was ratified by ________.
each state
To improve electability, the candidate will hire a(n) ________ who brings technologies, strategies, and services to the campaign.
campaign consultant
The United States’ first written constitution was known as the ________.
The Articles of Confederation
The full faith and credit clause________.
requires states to honor each others official acts
The ________ has the power of impeachment.
House of Representatives
Which of the following campaigns may be eligible for public funds?
Presidential campaigns
The Supreme Court has considered the constitutional right to keep and bear arms __
______.
both a collective right and an individual right to self-defense.
Which of the following is an example of speech or press that is currently unprotected
by the First Amendment according to the Supreme Court?
Fighting words
Which of the following statements about independent regulatory commissions is
accurate?
Regulatory commissions today do not enjoy the same freedom from political pressures that the commissions created before 1960 enjoy.
Under the evaluation function of ideologies, ideologies_________.
provide standards for evaluating social conditions and political institutions
and events
Why do push polls continue to be used by candidates despite their unscientific,biased purpose?
Trying to give voters negative opinions of opposing candidates is a common
political tactic.
If false or biased information about public policies and political leaders is provided
by the news media, ________ cannot be said to exist.
popular sovereignty
In 2012, the average population of a U.S. House district was ________.
more than 700,000
The most powerful predictor for candidate preference among voters is ________.
political party identification
What is one way in which interest groups educate the public?
Produce issue-oriented ads
Which of the following is the most likely reason that a polling firm would use a filter
question as part of a survey?
To identify respondents who lack knowledge about the issue
Based on Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society, funds from the national government given to state or local governments are referred to as ________.
grants
Collective goods are those that cannot be withheld from anyone. Which of the
following is an example?
clean air
What was the importance of the landmark Supreme Court case Brown v. the
Board of Education?
State-mandated segregation of public schools was declared unconstitutional
Lobbying refers to ________.
influencing public policy by contacting public officials
In 1991, the Supreme Court upheld a state ban on nude erotic dancing in Indiana,
on the basis that it qualified as ________ according to the state’s standards, and
thus was unprotected by the First Amendment.
obscenity
A process by which presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a
judicial vacancy occurs to block a nomination simply by registering their objection is
called ________.
senatorial courtesy
Under ________ government, a small group of elite exercise unlimited power over
individuals in all aspects of life.
totalitarian
Which of the following cases of the Supreme Court continues to generate the most
controversy?
Roe v. Wade
Concern about civil rights protections for women and racial minorities ________.
was a comparatively late development in the United States, and most major advances were not evident until well into the twentieth century
A key member of a candidate’s staff is the ________, who runs the operation at
both the state and national levels and may be the only paid staffer.
campaign manager
Colonial leaders believed that one of the greatest dangers of the abusive use of
government power would be ________.
destroying individuals’ liberty
The importance of the equal protection clause is demonstrated by its ________.
widespread use by the civil-rights movement through the court pathway
Who does the bulk of the voter canvassing for a campaign?
volunteers
Women, American Indians, and Latinos all used the ________ pathways to gain the right to vote and to produce laws against discrimination in employment, education, and other contexts.
grassroots mobilization and court
How might the Twenty-Second Amendment affect a popular president’s tenure in
office?
By preventing them from running for reelection
Why did the Framers create the electoral college?
Because they didn’t trust the masses to elect the president directly
A person who identifies as a ________ believes that the state should have extensive
control over the personal and economic liberties of its people.
statist
The enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act is an example of ________, as states
normally could control education legislation under the Tenth Amendment.
preemption
The Supreme Court case NY Times v. Sullivan established the free speech standard to
include all but ________.
civil rights violations
The drawing of a legislative district’s boundaries to benefit a party, group, or
incumbent is referred to as ________.
gerrymandering
With regard to American federalism, the impact of the Civil War was to ________.
enact the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to reunite the country
Throughout their tenure, most presidents have tended to ________.
lose popularity
By law, Congress cannot pass federal programs without debating on how to pay for
them under ________,
the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
An advantage of in-person surveys is that ________.
surveyors can interact with respondents on a more personal basis, resulting in higher completion rates
Which of the following is an example of a case that cannot be reviewed by the U.S.
Supreme Court?
A state court decision based solely on state law and its original intent
Opinion makers ________.
seek to communicate their political ideas to others
How did the Federalists address fears about an all-powerful, centralized
government to sway opinion toward ratifying the Constitution?
They promised to create a bill of rights.
The separation of powers in the national government outlined in the Constitution is a
foundation of our government. It mandates separate legislative, executive, and
judicial branches. Which of the following is an essential characteristic that makes
the system effective?
The branches are constitutionally equal and independent.
________ can informally amend the Constitution.
Judicial interpretation
The boards directing independent regulatory agencies, such as the Securities and
Exchange Commission, ________.
serve staggered terms so that no one president can replace the entire board or
commission
Which of the following events is attributed to dual federalism?
The Great Depression
Which of the following is an example of a power possessed by the president that acts
as a check on Congress?
Vetoing bills passed by Congress
Party strength was affected when social services were taken over by ________.
the government
According to the Supreme Court, classifications based on race are to be subject to _
_______.
strict scrutiny
In the context of the federal government, departments ________.
are large organizations responsible for a broad policy realm
Which of the following is an example of something that most Americans associate
with bureaucracy?
impersonality
What best describes the Supreme Court’s primary considerations?
Interpreting the Constitution, and affording due process to protect individual
rights
Which of the following choices best describes the role of the Marshall Court in
American government?
The Marshall Court helped to define the constitutional relationship between state and national power, and also created an ongoing role for the Supreme Court in federalism.
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s involvement in the congressional budgetary process paved
the way for the creation of the ________.
Office of management & Budget
Edmund Burke once said, ‘Your representative owes you, not his industry only,
but his judgment; and he betrays you, instead of serving you, if he sacrifices it to
your opinion.’ This statement is an example of which type of representation?
trustee representation
________ was the first permanent European settlement in North America.
Jamestown
The framers of the constitution created two separate houses of Congress, each of
which they expected would serve two different constituencies. Which constituency
was the Senate expected to serve?
states interests
The paradox or irony of democracy is the ________.
potential for conflict between majority rule and individual freedom
Appellate courts usually ________.
review the legal procedures of a case
Federal and state government disputes are heard by ________.
supreme court
The Department of Transportation hires an outside company to build roads for a
new highway. This is an example of ________________.
private contracting
The battle between the two major political parties, Democrats and Republicans,
for control of public offices is ________.
party competition
Who is largely responsible for redrawing congressional district lines?
state legislators
Richard Nixon left office by what method in 1974?
he resigned
Which party approves the budgets for different agencies?
congress
The self-imposed limitation on judicial power by judges deferring to the policy
judgments of elected branches of government is called ________.
judicial restraint/ review
Which of these is an example of a legal distinction most likely to receive strict
scrutiny from the Supreme Court?
A racial distinction in a marriage law
The communications director is responsible for ________.
the candidates media strategy
As of 2010, 40 percent of Americans under age 25 are members of a minority group. What predictions can be made based on this evidence?
b. The influence of minorities on American politics and culture will increase.
In creating a national government with a system of checks and balances, the
Framers sought to ________.
limit the ability of any branch of the national government to become too
powerful
The Nolan Chart helps to classify citizens’ political beliefs on two key dimensions:
________.
economic and personal freedom
104. Near v. Minnesota was a landmark First Amendment decision further developing the
________.
incorporation doctrine
105. Which of the following choices is the most in keeping with the founders’ view of
establishing justice in the United States?
congress creates the judiciary branch
Arguments between supporters of Affirmative action and their opponents can best
be summed up by what dichotomy?
equality of opportunity versus equality of results
Most bureaucrats have some leeway in their ability to make choices regarding the
best way to implement congressional intentions through administrative ________.
discretion
Which of the following is an example of a conservative justice’s opinion?
One that tends to favor judicial restraint and overrules liberal decisions
The first piece of legislation requiring employers to give men and women equal pay
for equal work was ________.
the Equal pay act
Which of the following is TRUE about political action committees (PACs)?
They must report their contributions to the Federal Election Commission.
Which of the following are the so called Civil War Amendments?
13,14,15
Senators receive special perks and benefits while performing their official duties.
Which of the following is an example of one of these privileges?
A Senator can send materials through the mail at no cost, something called the franking privilege.
The president’s appointment of Cabinet members is sometimes slowed by ________.
investigations into nominees past
By passing regulatory legislation for which it has established goals, Congress ______
__.
grants power to regulatory agencies to develop guidelines and enforce
compliance
A Supreme Court justice who agrees with the outcome reached by the majority but not with the legal reasoning behind the decision is likely to ________.
issue a concurring opinion
An agreement among members of a society to form and recognize the authority of a
centralized government that is empowered to make and enforce laws governing the
members of that society is called a(n) ________.
social contract
________ was(were) eventually overturned by Brown v. Board of Education, after
being upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson.
the separate but equal doctrine
The democratic idea that every citizen should have political equality in the electoral
process can be summed up in the expression ________.
one person, one vote
The disturbance theory states that interest groups form when there are threats to the
status quo. Which of the following is an example of this?
A religious advocacy group forms to speak out against the breakdown of the
family.
A________ believes in extensive government control of personal and economic
liberties.
statist
Which of these is an example of a president providing for the common defense?
the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Which is a negative consequence of Americans’ declining trust in government?
Americans increasingly blame the government for society’s woes.
The number of ________ is one explanation for low voter turnout in the United
States as compared to most other industrialized democracies.
elections
Which of the following expanded the government’s right to search private property
without notifying the owner?
The USA PATRIOT Act
Poll taxes, grandfather clauses, and literacy tests were all attempts to limit ________.
African American voting
North Korea, which is ruled by the dictator Kim Jong-Un, has a ________ style
government.
totalitarian
Politically active white women were stung by their exclusion from ________ extension of the right to vote.
15th amendment
The Senate’s role of giving advice and consent to the executive branch is an example
of________.
the system of checks and balances
A candidate running for office first needs to secure the nomination by winning over
voters and party leaders through ________.
the nomination campaign
Which statement about American democracy is true?
The strength of the democracy depends on the participation of the people whose consent gives power to the government
Which of the following is a factor driving the length of a general election campaign?
the timing of state primaries
The ________Court redefined contemporary federalism in the 1980s and 1990s by
limiting the regulatory areas of Congress.
Rehnquist
With whom do lobbyists work most closly?
Representatives who share their interests
Federal district courts are not considered ________.
courts of last resort
Ensuring equal access to voting and securing prohibitions against categorical
discrimination became the central focus of the drive for civil rights in the ________.
20th century
Which of the following factors united citizens at the time of the founding of the United States?
A belief in dual citizenship
The opinion written by a member of the court that disagrees with the result reached
by the court in the case is the ________opinion.
dissenting
The best example of government regulation to promote the general welfare is ______
__.
gathering statistics to calculate the gross domestic product
Under the War Powers Resolution of 1973, the president had to consult Congress
before deploying troops overseas. Although successive presidents have used their
power as commander in chief to forgo such consultation, the Resolution was
adhered to when ________.
President Bush sought congressional approval for the use of force against those
responsible for the 9/11 attacks
The constitutional provision that gives Congress broad powers to legislate beyond its
enumerated powers is called the ________.
necessary and proper clause
The beginning of the Declaration of Independence asserts “that all men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these
rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just power from the
consent of the governed.” This is ________.
their proclamation of Independence
As the U.S. government grew, it instituted new agencies to administer ________ to
enforce rules on trade, commerce, and industry.
public policy
The basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system was established by _____
___.
the Judiciary Act of 1789
What do the Constitution and particularly the Fourteenth Amendment say about
equality?
All Americans are equally entitled to due process in the courts.
Which president “personalized the presidency” by informally addressing the
public through radio?
FDR
146. Which of the following is an example of bureaucratization at work in a government
agency?
Citizens are assured that they will be treated according to established rules by
whomever they talk to.
How does the electoral college work?
Each state determines how it will select its electors; electors then elect the
president.
Despite the popular impression that policy is decided by the president and Congress
and merely implemented by the federal bureaucracy, policy is, in fact, ________.
also made by the bureaucracy
In addition to the increasing population of retirees in America, what is further
compounding problems with Social Security and Medicare?
Proportionally, the number of working age Americans is rapidly declining.
Public opinion polling suggests it is easiest for presidents to achieve congressional
passage of their programs during ________.
the honeymoon period
The system that provides for a sharing of powers between the national government and the state governments is known as
federalism
In Texas, who has the authority to call special sessions of the legislature?
the governor
The Boards directing independent regulatory agencies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission, ______
serve staggered terms, so that no one president can replace the entire board or commission

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