PMP 5th – Chapter 9 – Project Resource Management
• The type and number of project team members can change frequently as the project progresses.
• Project team members may also be referred to as the project’s staff.
• While the specific roles and responsibilities for the project team members are assigned, the involvement of all team members in project planning and decision making can be beneficial.
• Early involvement and participation of team members adds their expertise during the planning process and strengthens their commitment to the project.
2 Acquire Project Team
3 Develop Project Team
4 Manage Project Team
• This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team.
• For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities can be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager.
• Professional and ethical behavior
• As additional team members are acquired, their experience levels, or lack thereof, could increase or decrease project risk, creating the need for additional risk planning updates.
• When activity durations are estimated, budgeted, scoped, or planned prior to identifying all project team members and their competency levels, the activity durations may be subject to change.
– The key benefit of this process is that it establishes project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and the staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release.
• Important consideration should be given to the availability of, or competition for, scarce or limited human resources.
• Project roles can be designated for persons or groups. Those persons or groups can be from inside or outside the organization performing the project.
• Other projects may be competing for resources with the same competencies or skill sets.
• Given these factors, project costs, schedules, risks, quality, and other areas may be significantly affected.
• Effective human resource planning should consider and plan for these factors and develop human resource options.
2 Activity resource requirements
3 Enterprise environmental factors
4 Organizational process assets
The information used for the development of the human resource management plan includes:
• The project life cycle and the processes that will be applied to each phase,
• How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives,
• A change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled,
• A configuration management plan that documents how configuration management will be performed,
• How integrity of the project baselines will be maintained, and
• Needs and methods of communication among stakeholders.
• The preliminary requirements regarding the required people and competencies for the project team members are progressively elaborated as part of the Plan Human Resource Management process.
• Existing human resources,
• Geographical dispersion of team members,
• Personnel administration policies, and
• Marketplace conditions.
• Templates for organizational charts and position descriptions;
• Lessons learned on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects; and
• Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team and within the performing organization.
3 Organizational theory
4 Expert judgment
• matrix, and
• subsidiary project management plans such as the risk, quality, or communication plans
• OBS (Organizational Breakdown Structure)
• RBS (Resource Breakdown Structure)
• The resource breakdown structure is helpful in tracking project costs and can be aligned with the organization’s accounting system.
• It can contain resource categories other than human resources.
• On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level RAM can define what a project team group or unit is responsible for within each component of the WBS, while lower level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities.
• “lead” and “resource” designations
• Usually in outline form, the documents provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications.
• The documents are known by various names including position descriptions and role-responsibility-authority forms.
• These documents can be used as templates for future projects, especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned.
• Networking can be a useful technique at the beginning of a project.
• It can also be an effective way to enhance project management professional development during the project and after the project ends
• luncheon meetings,
• informal conversations including meetings and events,
• trade conferences, and
• It is important to recognize that different organizational structures have different individual response, individual performance, and personal relationship characteristics.
• List the preliminary requirements for the required skills;
• Assess the roles required for the project based on standardized role descriptions within the organization;
• Determine the preliminary effort level and number of resources needed to meet project objectives;
• Determine reporting relationships needed based on the organizational culture;
• Provide guidelines on lead time required for staffing, based on lessons learned and market conditions;
• Identify risks associated with staff acquisition, retention, and release plans; and
• Identify and recommend programs for complying with applicable government and union contracts.
– These meetings leverage a combination of other tools and techniques to allow for all project management team members to reach consensus on the human resource management plan.
• For example, the risk register lists risk owners, the communication plan lists team members responsible for communication activities, and the quality plan designates those responsible for carrying out quality assurance and quality control activities.
• Project organization charts
• Staff management plan
– Examples of project roles are civil engineer, court liaison, business analyst, and testing coordinator.
– Role clarity concerning authority, responsibilities, and boundaries should be documented.
– Examples of decisions that need clear authority include the selection of a method for completing an activity, quality acceptance, and how to respond to project variances.
– Team members operate best when their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities.
• The plan is updated continually during the project to direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions
• Resource calendars
• Staff release plan
• Training needs
• Recognition and rewards
• will the human resources come from within the organization or from external, contracted sources?
• Will team members need to work in a central location or can they work from distant locations?
• What are the costs associated with each level of expertise needed for the project?
• How much assistance can the organization’s human resource department and functional managers provide to the project management team?
• This bar chart illustrates the number of hours a person, department, or entire project team will be needed each week or month over the course of the project.
• The chart can include a horizontal line that represents the maximum number of hours available from a particular resource.
• Bars that extend beyond the maximum available hours identify the need for a resource leveling strategy, such as adding more resources or modifying the schedule
• When team members are released from a project, the costs associated with those resources are no longer charged to the project, thus reducing project costs.
• Morale is improved when smooth transitions to upcoming projects are already planned.
• A staff release plan also helps mitigate human resource risks that may occur during or at the end of a project.
• The plan can also include ways to help team members obtain certifications that would support their ability to benefit the project.
• To be effective, recognition and rewards should be based on activities and performance under a person’s control.
• For example, a team member who is to be rewarded for meeting cost objectives should have an appropriate level of control over decisions that affect expenses.
• Creating a plan with established times for distribution of rewards ensures that recognition takes place and is not forgotten.
• Recognition and rewards are part of the Develop Project Team process
• It is important that the following factors are considered during the process of acquiring the project team:
• The project manager or project management team will be required to reflect the impact of any availability of required human resources in the project schedule, project budget, project risks, project quality, training plans, and the other project management plans as required.
• Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project may affect project schedules, budgets, customer satisfaction, quality, and risks. It could decrease the probability of success and ultimately result in project cancellation.
• If the human resources are not available due to constraints, economic factors, or previous assignments to other projects, the project manager or project team may be required to assign alternative resources, perhaps with lower competencies, provided there is no violation of legal, regulatory, mandatory, or other specific criteria.
• These factors should be considered and planned for in the planning stages of the project.
2 Enterprise environmental factors
3 Organizational process assets
4 Virtual teams
5 Multi-criteria decision analysis
2 Resource calendars
3 Project management plan updates
• Project organization charts indicating the number of people needed for the project, and
• Staffing management plan delineating the time periods each project team member will be needed and other information important to acquiring the project team
• Personnel administration policies such as those that affect outsourcing;
• Organizational structure as described;
• Location or multiple locations
• This situation can occur if the project is the result of specific people being promised as part of a competitive proposal, if the project is dependent upon the expertise of particular persons, or if some staff assignments are defined within the project charter
o Functional managers to ensure that the project receives appropriately competent staff in the required time frame, and that the project team members will be able, willing, and authorized to work on the project until their responsibilities are completed,
o Other project management teams within the performing organization to appropriately assign scarce or specialized human resources, and
o External organizations, vendors, suppliers, contractors, etc., for appropriate, scarce, specialized, qualified, certified, or other such specified human resources. Special consideration should be given to external negotiating policies, practices, processes, guidelines, legal, and other such criteria.
• The project management team’s ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating staff assignments, as do the politics of the organizations involved
• This can involve hiring individual consultants or subcontracting work to another organization
• Can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face.
• The availability of electronic communication such as e-mail, audio conferencing, web-based meetings and video conferencing has made such teams feasible.
• Communication planning becomes increasingly important in a virtual team environment.
• Additional time may be needed to set clear expectations, facilitate communications, develop protocols for resolving conflict, include people in decision-making, and share credit in successes
• Add special expertise to a project team even though the expert is not in the same geographic area,
• Incorporate employees who work from home offices,
• Form teams of people who work different shifts or hours,
• Include people with mobility limitations or disabilities, and
• Move forward with projects that would have been ignored due to travel expenses
• The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules
• Creating a reliable schedule depends on having a good understanding of each person’s schedule conflicts, including vacation time and commitments to other projects, to accurately document team member availability
• Teamwork is a critical factor for project success, and developing effective project teams is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager.
• Project managers should create an environment that facilitates teamwork.
• Project managers should continually motivate their team by providing challenges and opportunities, by providing timely feedback and support as needed, and by recognizing and rewarding good performance.
• High team performance can be achieved by using open and effective communication, developing trust among team members, managing conflicts in a constructive manner, and encouraging collaborative problem-solving and decision-making.
• The project manager should request management support and/or influence the appropriate stakeholders to acquire the resources needed to develop effective project teams.
• Today project managers operate in a global environment and work on projects characterized by cultural diversity. Team members often have diverse industry experience, multiple languages, and sometimes operate in the ”team language” that is a different language or norm than their native one.
• The project management team should capitalize on cultural differences, focus on developing and sustaining the project team throughout the project life cycle, and promote working together interdependently in a climate of mutual trust.
• Developing the project team improves the people skills, technical competencies, and overall team environment and project performance.
• It requires clear, timely, effective, and efficient communication between team members throughout the life of the project.
• Improve feelings of trust and agreement among team members in order to raise morale, lower conflict, and increase team work; and
• Create a dynamic and cohesive team culture to improve both individual and team productivity, team spirit, and cooperation, and to allow cross-training and mentoring between team members to share knowledge and expertise
2 Project staff assignments
3 Resource calendars
3 Team-building activities
4 Ground rules
6 Recognition and rewards
7 Personnel assessment tools
2 Enterprise environmental factors updates
• Project staff assignment documents identify the people who are on the team
• Items such as rewards, feedback, additional training, and disciplinary actions can be added to the plan as a result of ongoing team performance assessments and other forms of project team management
• Skills such as empathy, influence, creativity, and group facilitation are valuable assets when managing the project team
• If project team members lack necessary management or technical skills, such skills can be developed as part of the project work.
• on-the-job training from another project team member,
• mentoring, and
• Informal communication and activities can help in building trust and establishing good working relationships.
• One of the most important skills in developing a team environment involves handling project team problems and discussing these as team issues.
• The entire team should be encouraged to work collaboratively to resolve these issues.
• To build effective project teams, project managers should obtain top management support, obtain commitment of team members, introduce appropriate rewards and recognition, create a team identity, manage conflicts effectively, promote trust and open communication among team members, and, above all, provide good team leadership.
• As an ongoing process, team building is crucial to project success.
• While team building is essential during the front end of a project, it is a never-ending process.
• Changes in a project environment are inevitable, and to manage them effectively, a continued or a renewed team-building effort should be applied.
• The project manager should continually monitor team functioning and performance to determine if any actions are needed to prevent or correct various team problems.
• projects with team members who have worked together in the past could skip a stage.
• The duration of a particular stage depends upon team dynamics, team size, and team leadership.
• Project managers should have a good understanding of team dynamics in order to move their team members through all stages in an effective manner
• Discussing ground rules allows team members to discover values that are important to one another.
• All project team members share responsibility for enforcing the rules once they are established
• Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room, places to post schedules, and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community.
• While co-location is considered a good strategy, the use of virtual teams is sometimes unavoidable
• Award decisions are made, formally or informally, during the process of managing the project team through project performance appraisals.
• It is important to recognize that a particular reward given to any individual will only be effective if it satisfies a need which is valued by that individual.
• Cultural differences should be considered when determining recognition and rewards.
• Only desirable behavior should be rewarded.
• However, the team members should not be punished for poor planning and consistently unrealistic expectations imposed by senior management.
• Win-lose (zero sum) rewards that only a limited number of project team members can achieve, such as team member of the month, can hurt team cohesiveness.
• Rewarding behavior that everyone can achieve, such as turning in progress reports on time, tends to increase support among team members.
• People are motivated if they feel they are valued in the organization and this value is demonstrated by the rewards given to them.
• Generally, money is viewed by most as a very tangible aspect of any reward system, but other intangible rewards are also effective.
• Most project team members are motivated by an opportunity to grow, accomplish, and apply their professional skills to meet new challenges.
• Public recognition of good performance creates positive reinforcement.
• A good strategy for project managers is to give the team all possible recognition during the life cycle of the project rather than after the project is completed.
• Team performance assessment criteria should be determined by all appropriate parties and incorporated in the Develop Project Team inputs.
• This is especially important in contract-related or collective bargaining projects.
• High-performance teams are characterized by these task-oriented and results-oriented outcomes.
• As a result of conducting an evaluation of the team’s overall performance, the project management team can identify the specific training, coaching, mentoring, assistance, or changes required to improve the team’s performance.
• This should also include identification of the proper or required resources necessary to achieve and implement the improvements identified in the assessment.
• These resources and recommendations for team improvement should be well documented and forwarded to the appropriate parties.
• This is especially important when team members are part of a union, involved in collective bargaining, bound by contract performance clauses, or other related situations.
• performance on project schedule (finished on time), and
• performance on budget (finished within financial constraints).
• Improvements in competencies that help the team perform better as a team,
• Reduced staff turnover rate, and
• Increased team cohesiveness where team members share information and experiences openly and help each other to improve the overall project performance.
• As a result of managing the project team, change requests are submitted, the human resource plan is updated, issues are resolved, input is provided for performance appraisals, and lessons learned are added to the organization’s database.
• Project managers should provide challenging assignments to team members and provide recognition for high performance
2 Project staff assignments
3 Team performance assessments
4 Issue log
5 Work performance reports
6 Organizational process assets
2 Project performance appraisals
3 Conflict management
4 Interpersonal skills
2 Project management plan updates
3 Project documents updates
4 Enterprise environmental factors updates
5 Organizational process assets updates
• Roles and responsibilities
• Project organization
• The staffing management plan
• By continually assessing the project team’s performance, actions can be taken to resolve issues, modify communication, address conflict, and improve team interaction
• Bonus structures,
• Corporate apparel, and
• Other organizational perquisites
• The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues
• constructive feedback to team members,
• discovery of unknown or unresolved issues,
• development of individual training plans, and
• the establishment of specific goals for future time periods.
• complexity of the project,
• organizational policy,
• labor contract requirements, and
• the amount and quality of regular communication
• Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict.
• Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships.
• When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution.
• If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution.
• Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach.
• If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.
• The success of project managers in managing their project teams often depends a great deal on their ability to resolve conflict. Different project managers may have different Conflict resolution styles
• Conflict is a team issue,
• Openness resolves conflict,
• Conflict resolution should focus on issues, not personalities, and
• Conflict resolution should focus on the present, not the past
• Time pressure for resolving the conflict,
• Position taken by players involved, and
• Motivation to resolve Conflict on a long-term or a short-term basis
• Confronting/Problem Solving
• Using appropriate interpersonal skills aids project managers in capitalizing on the strengths of all team members.
• There is a wide body of knowledge about interpersonal skills that is appropriate to project work and non-project work.
• Effective Decision Making
• High levels of active and effective listening skills,
• Consideration of the various perspectives in any situation, and
• Gathering relevant and critical information to address important issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust
• Follow a decision-making process,
• Study the environmental factors,
• Develop personal qualities of the team members,
• Stimulate team creativity, and
• Manage opportunity and risk
• Personnel skill updates
• Templates, and
• Organizational standard processes
• Preventive actions are those that can be developed to reduce the probability and/or impact of problems before they occur. These actions may include cross-training to reduce problems during project team member absences and additional role clarification to ensure all responsibilities are fulfilled
• outsourcing some of the work, and
• replacing team members who leave
• cross-training to reduce problems during project team member absences and
• additional role clarification to ensure all responsibilities are fulfilled
• This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team.
• For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities can be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager
• Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results.
• Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.
• Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives.
• The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else
• People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.
• Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
• People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
• The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
• In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised
• issues deadlines and ultimatums
• distant and detached
• aloof and arrogant
• short temper
• issues instructions, directions, edicts
• issues threats to make people follow instructions
• demands, never asks
• does not participate
• does not team-build
• unconcerned about staff welfare, or morale
• proud, sometimes to the point of self-destruction
• one-way communicator
• poor listener
• fundamentally insecure and possibly neurotic
• vengeful and recriminatory
• does not thank or praise
• withholds rewards, and suppresses pay and remunerations levels
• scrutinises expenditure to the point of false economy
• seeks culprits for failures or shortfalls
• seeks to apportion blame instead of focusing on learning from the experience and preventing recurrence
• does not invite or welcome suggestions
• takes criticism badly and likely to retaliate if from below or peer group
• poor at proper delegating – but believes they delegate well
• thinks giving orders is delegating
• holds on to responsibility but shifts accountability to subordinates
• relatively unconcerned with investing in anything to gain future improvements
• The work itself
• Relationship with Supervisors and Peers
• Work Conditions
• Laissez Faire
3. Social / Belonging
5. Self-Actualization (top of pyramid)
• Sexual satisfaction
• Protection from harm
• Disease and violence
• Group Membersip
• Respect from others
• Self confidence
• Full realization of potential
• Self development
• Problem and resulting conflict can come up again and again
• One party trys to force a resolution on another
• Usually done if conflict is escalated
• Win-lose situation, one party wins at the expense of another
• Reduce emotions that existing in a conflict
• Emphasize agreement, deemphasize disagreement
• Goal of one party may be compromised for the needs of another
• Give and take approach
• Conflicting parties meet face to face and try to work out their disagreements
• Both parties win – lasting resolution to a conflict
• Need for achievement
• Need for authority and power
• Need for affiliation
The ability to gain support, because project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing valued organizational rewards such as salary, promotion, bonus, and future work assignments
• Based on the perception that the leader can deliver
The ability to gain support, because the project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing penalties that they wish to avoid. Penalty power usually derives from the same source as reward power, with one being a necessary condition for the other.
• Sometimes difficult to determine the difference between reward and coercive power.
• Is conformity to group norms in order to gain acceptance (reward power) different from conformity as a means of forestalling rejection (coercive power)?
• The relationship that develops between the leader and the follower is different
• Reward power brings leaders and follower together. We will accept you if you conform
• Coercive power decreased the attraction. We will reject you if you don’t conform but if you do we will not accept you.
• Leader must induce restraining forces to keep the follower in the field of play in order to make coercive power work.
• Otherwise, the follower, under threat of punishment, leaves, making the probability of receiving punishment too low to be effective.
The ability to gain support, because project personnel perceive the project manager as being officially empowered to issue orders
• Legitimacy is a function of internalized norms or values (Culturally based and vary with culture, upbringing etc)
• Legitimate power stems from followers internalized values that dictate that the leader has the right to influence and the follower has the obligation to accept the influence
• Social Structure (Group, organization, society; Relationship between offices rather than persons)
• Delegation by a legitimizing agent (Your boss by the vice president)
• Culturally derived LP frequently has broad range.
• Organizationally derived LP has a specific narrowly defined range
The ability to gain support, because project personnel feel personally attracted to the project manager or her project
• Follower is highly attracted and will have a desire to become closely associated with the leader.
• The follower identifies with, believes , behaves and perceives as the leader does.
• Different than reward or coercive power because the leader doesn’t exercise these even when he could.
• Referent power is independent of the leader. The follower is often not aware of the power the leader is exerting over the follower
• Strength of power depends on how much the leader knows or the perception of how much he knows
• Informational influence based on the characteristics of the stimulus
• The Dominator
• The Devil’s Advocator
• Deflates the status and ego of other team members
• Always acts aggressively
• Professes to know everything about project management
• Tries to manipulate people
• Will challenge those in charge for a leadership role
• Refuses to support project management unless threatened
• Acts more of a devil than an advocate