PlS 100 Chapter 13

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
A judge that makes a legal decision on a case today may look at past case law and follow the concept of
precedent.
Justices are guided by the concept of _______in making legal decisions.
stare decisis.
The main difference between the federal appellate court and federal district court is that
federal appellate courts do not use juries or cross-examination.
There are _________federal appellate courts.
thirteen
The case that struck down a Texas law outlawing abortion was
Roe v. Wade.
Today the Supreme Court hears about ________ cases a year.
80
Since Alexis de Tocqueville’s study of America in the 1830s, the prestige of lawyers and courts has
decreased.
Cases involving acts of terror, insider trading, and immigration would be heard by
federal trial courts.
he person being sued in a civil case is known as the
defendant
Most state judges
are elected by the public.
The Korematsu case was significant because it was
one of the first cases to use the strict scrutiny test.
A person charged with theft will face the rules and consequences under
criminal law.
One of the unusual things about the courts is that
the Constitution never specified the number of Supreme Court justices.
Specialized courts hear cases on
tax disputes.
Specialized courts are often referred to as the
third judiciary.
The idea that the president can withhold sensitive national security information from Congress or the courts is known as an
executive privilege.
Everson v. Board of Education was a case that addressed the
establishment clause
A statement on behalf of the justices voting in the minority is called the
dissent
The Supreme Court process of selecting a case is known as
rule of four.
The outcome of McCullough v. Maryland affirmed the principle that
the federal government is superior to state governments.
The famous case that denied a Florida recount in the 2000 presidential election was
Bush v. Gore.
The case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson was
Brown v. Board of Education.
The outcome of Schenck v. United States was
the clear and present danger test.
Judicial cases today may be important tomorrow because they establish the concept of
precedent.
McCullough v. Maryland was important to court development because
it evoked the necessary and proper clause to block the state of Maryland from taxing the bank of the United States.
Court approval ratings are similar to those of
the president.
The role of the circuit courts is to
review the trial record of cases decided in district court.
District court judges are appointed by the
president.
Mapp v. Ohio addressed concerns over the
Fourth Amendment.
The principle that enables the courts to check the other two branches of government is known as
judicial review.
If there was a breach of justice by a member of the military, that case would be heard by
a military judge.
The longest-serving chief justice in US history was
John Marshall.
Gideon v. Wainwright was one of the first in a series of landmark judicial decisions addressing
the rights of defendants in criminal proceedings.
It is possible to move a case from the state level to the federal level by
appealing the case to the highest state court of appeals.
The statement “When there is doubt about what the Constitution holds or implies, the Supreme Court makes the call” refers to the principle of
judicial review.
Someone adversely affected or suffering imminent harm would satisfy the concept of
standing.
Muller v. Oregon was a case that
addressed the number of hours women could work.
The case of Marbury v. Madison and the principle of judicial review was set forth by which Supreme Court justice?
John Marshall
The person bringing the suit in a civil case is called the
plaintiff.
After Marbury v. Madison, which of the following occurred?
The Court did not overrule an act of Congress until the Missouri Compromise in 1854.
“Stand by the things decided” is the definition for which Latin term?
stare decisis
A justice that agrees with the majority opinion but for different reasons has
a concurrent opinion.
The idea that the Supreme Court can take a vigorous or active approach when reviewing the other governmental branches is a form of
judicial activism.
The outcome of Plessy v. Ferguson was
the separate but equal policy.
The principal issue in Dartmouth College v. Woodward was
property rights.
The principle of judicial review is traced back to the case of
Marbury v. Madison.
In Brown v. Board of Education, the court stated that
separate schools are inherently unequal.
Which of the following is true?
More than 80 percent of federal judges are white.
Lochner v. New York addressed the concern over
workers’ rights.
Judicial review allows the courts to
check the executive and legislative branches, if they have exceeded constitutional authority.
Appellate courts hear cases from the
lower courts.
Plessy v. Ferguson stated that the Fourteenth Amendment was
not designed to enforce social equality.
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation differed from the Lochner case because the Court supported
workers’ rights.
According to Alexander Hamilton, the weakest of the three branches of government was
the courts.
The case that addressed the right of the president to use executive privilege was
United States v. Nixon.
Specialized court judges differ from regular federal judges in that
they are not appointed for life.
Texas and California have _______than other states.
more district courts
The Lochner era (1910-1940) was an era in which the courts
denied workers’ rights.
The idea that judges are influenced by their peers in making legal decisions reflects the principle of
collegiality.
The outcome of National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius was that
Congress had the power to tax, which upheld President Obama’s health care reform.
The official statement of the Court is known as
the majority opinion.
Federal courts differ from the executive and legislative branches of government because they
do not have an electoral base.
The idea that a corporation was viewed as a legal person meant
judicial restraint.
The concept of judicial federalism means
that there is both a federal and a state court system in the United States.
Judicial review is __________in the Constitution.
not mentioned
The issue of whether enemy combatants could receive a fair trial was decided by
the Supreme Court.
Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Railroad was significant because
the courts treated corporations as legal persons.
The high-profile cases National Federation of Independent Businessv. Sebelius (Obamacare) and Roe v. Wade(abortion) were similar in that
they both began in state courts.
Today there are ______district courts.
ninety-four
The chief justice during the Brown v. Board of Education case was
Earl Warren.
Political scientists have generally found that justices’ decisions are most closely tied to
their political ideologies.
The main way(s) to select a judge is
all of the above
The fact that the Supreme Court has struck down statutes that supported segregation policy is a form of
judicial activism.
A district court is a
federal trial court.
The idea that the court should overturn the elected branches of government reluctantly is called
that corporations were protected under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Which of the following is essential for having a case heard by the Supreme Court?
all of the above
The case that forced Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II was
Korematsu v. United States.
A way of resolving disputes, without going to court, in which a third party helps negotiate a settlement is called
mediation.
Most industrial nations rely on mediation in
noncriminal cases.
A brief submitted by a person or group that is not a direct party to the case is called
amicus curiae.
The ultimate arbiter of all cases is the
US Supreme Court.
The early English legal system was known as
common law.
The famous case that denied civil rights to former slaves was known as
Dred Scott v. Sandford.
The Terri Schiavo case went on appeal in Atlanta, which is part of the
Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals.
Supreme Court justices are in session
for nine months.
The concept of judicial federalism means
that there is both a federal and a state court system in the United States.

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