Physio Exam #2 [Neurochemistry] Part I

question

3 effects of neurotransmitters
answer

1. the combination of neurotransmitter being released 2. the type of receptors (there can be several) 3. where in the brain the neurotransmitter is being released
question

3 principles of identifying neurotransmitters
answer

1. associations-thoughts/feelings/behaviors associated with neurotransmitter can help distinguish one from another 2. categories-of chemical structure 3. excitatory or inhibitory- effect
question

3 categories for neurotransmitters
answer

small molecule, peptides, and other
question

3 small molecules
answer

acetylcholine, amines, and amino acids
question

where are small molecules made and released?
answer

made in terminal button; released into synapse
question

acetylcholine
answer

stimulates muscles in brain, less acetylcholine in dementia patients
question

amines
answer

stimulating/arousing effect in body
question

5 amine neurotransmitters
answer

dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, histamine, serotonin
question

amino acid
answer

amine group + carboxyl group (simply bigger than amines)
question

2 amino acids
answer

glutamate and GABA
question

glutamate overview
answer

most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitters, prevalent in learning, too much glutamate means amnesia
question

GABA
answer

shuts down nervous system, calming
question

peptides
answer

chain of amino acids, play a role in feeling an emotion, helps to link CNS with immune system
question

3 types of neurotransmitters in the “other” category
answer

lipids, nucleosides, gases
question

lipids
answer

fats, endocannabinoids (they modulate other neurotransmitters)
question

example of nucleoside
answer

adenosine
question

2 examples of gases
answer

nitric oxide (dilates blood vessels) and carbon monoxide
question

2 Small molecule neurotransmitters
answer

acetylcholine and [mono]amines
question

synthesis of acetylecholine
answer

acetate and choline (acidic foods and dairy)
question

breakdown of acetylcholine
answer

acetylcholinesterase
question

4 actions of acetylcholine in the PNS
answer

1. activates muscles 2. nicotinic receptors (excitatory) 3. muscarinic receptors (ach inhibits the heart) 4. block ach=slow everything down
question

what blocks the binding of ACHE?
answer

kurari
question

what blocks muscarinic receptors?
answer

atropine
question

4 actions of ACH in the CNS?
answer

1. memory and learning 2. sleep and arousal 3. higher ACH in the parasympathetic 4. higher ACH = depression
question

what part of the CNS is acetylcholine the key NT?
answer

hippocampus (memory and learning) and RAS (sleep and arousal)
question

3 types of [mono]amine?
answer

catecholamine, indolamine, histamine
question

3 kinds of catecholamines?
answer

dopamine, norepinephrine. epinephrine
question

2 kinds of indolamines?
answer

serotonin and melatonin
question

what is amenergic transmission?
answer

amines moving through the body
question

what is the synthesis of catecholamines?
answer

tyramine to DA to NE to E
question

what breaks down catecholamines?
answer

MAO
question

4 things about dopamine
answer

1. found in sympathetic ns 2. inhibits prolactine 3. high DA= impulsive decisions 4. low DA= no perseverance
question

dopamine: affect
answer

pleasure
question

dopamine: sleep
answer

dopamine decreases during sleep
question

dopamine: learning and memory
answer

optimal level
question

norepinephrine
answer

sympathetic ns, arousal and alertness
question

norepinephrine: affect
answer

active emotions, aggression
question

norepinephrine: disorders
answer

high NE = panic attacks & irritable, low NE= depression
question

norepinephrine: learning & memory
answer

optimal level
question

norepinephrine: eating
answer

decreases ability to digest, high NE = decreased eating
question

epinephrine
answer

primary NT of the sympathetic ns
question

epinephrine: affect
answer

general anxiety, passive emotions
question

epinephrine: learning and memory
answer

optimal level, increased E=increased cortisol=interfere w/ memory
question

what is serotonin synthesized from?
answer

tryptophan
question

what interferes with tryptophan/serotonin?
answer

phenylalanine
question

where is tryptophan made?
answer

small intestines
question

serotonin: psych disorders
answer

1. decreased serotonin = depression/suicide 2. increased serotonin = OCD 3. receptors in medial pre-frontal cortex which regulates emotions
question

serotonin: affect
answer

1. partly inhibits dopamine 2. increased serotonin = decreased pleasure 3. decreased serotonin = increased aggression, fear, anxiety 4. increased estrogen = increased fat = decreased serotonin
question

serotonin: eating and drinking
answer

low serotonin = carb eating, high serotonin = low bone density and nassau
question

serotonin: arousal
answer

calming/relaxing, deepens S sleep (physical), shortens D sleep (mental)
question

serotonin: drugs
answer

hallucinogenic drugs bind on serotonin receptors

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member