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Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

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Cryotherapy
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The use of extreme cold in surgery or other medical treatment
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Diathermy
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A medical and surgical technique involving the production of heat in a part of the body by high-frequency electric currents, to stimulate the circulation, relieve pain, destroy unhealthy tissue, or cause bleeding vessels to clot
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Erythema
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Reddening of the skin
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Fluidotherapy
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The application of warmed cellulose particles suspended in forced dry air to heat an injured or painful body part, esp. prior to muscle strengthening or range-of-motion exercises
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Gait
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A person’s manner of walking
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Goniometer
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A protractor device that measures range of motion
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Hydrotherapy
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Hydrotherapy, or water therapy, is the use of water (hot, cold, steam, or ice) to relieve discomfort and promote physical well-being
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Mobility Aid
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A mobility aid is a device designed to assist walking or otherwise improve the mobility of people with a mobility impairment
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Physical Therapy
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The treatment of disease, injury, or deformity by physical methods such as massage, heat treatment, and exercise rather than by drugs or surgery
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Posture
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A position of a person’s body when standing or sitting
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Range of Motion
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A measurement of movement around a joint
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Therapeutic Team
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A group of physicians, nurses, medical assistants, and other specialists who work with patients dealing with chronic illnesses or recovery from major illnesses
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Thermotherapy
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The application of heat to the body to treat a disorder or injury
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Traction
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The pulling or stretching of the musculoskeletal system to treat dislocated joints, joints afflicted by arthritis or other diseases, and fractured bones
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Principles of Cryotherapy
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– Prevention of swelling by limiting edema, or fluid accumulation in body tissue – Control of bleeding by constricting blood vessels – Reduction of inflammation by slowing blood and fluid movement in the affected area – Provision of an anesthetic effect for pain by reducing inflammation – Reduction of pus formation by inhibiting microorganism activity – Lowering of body temperature
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Every 20 minutes
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How often should you use Cryotherapy in the first hour?
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Dry Cold Applications
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Includes ice bags, ice collars, and chemical ice packs
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Ice Bag
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Rubber or plastic bag with a locking lid
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Ice Collar
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Rubber or plastic kidney-shaped bag, specially curved to fit around the back of the neck
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Chemical Ice Pack
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Flat, cold plastic bag containing a semifluid chemical
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Wet Cold Applications
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Include cold compresses and ice massage
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Cold Compress
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Cloth or gauze pad moistened with ice water
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Ice Massage
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May be an ice cube wrapped in a plastic bag or water frozen in a paper cup
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Principles of Thermotherapy
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– Relief of pain and congestion – Reduction of muscle spasms – Muscle relaxation – Reduction of inflammation – Reduction of swelling by increasing the fluid absorption from the tissues
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Dry Heat Therapies
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Include chemical hot packs, heating pads, hot-water bottles, heat lamps with infrared or ultraviolet bulbs, and fluidotherapy
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Chemical Hot Pack
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Disposable, flexible pack of chemicals that becomes hot when you activate it by kneading it or slapping it
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Heating Pad
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Flat pad with electrical coils between layers of soft fabric
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Hot-Water Bottle
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Flat, flexible, plastic or rubber bottle with a stopper
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Heat Lamp
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Uses an infrared or ultraviolet bulb to provide heat
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Moist Heat Applications
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Includes hot soaks, hot compresses, hot packs, and paraffin baths
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Hot Soak
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The patient places the affected body part in a container of plain or medicated water that has been heated to no more than 110 F
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Hot Compress
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Piece of gauze or cloth suitable for covering a small area. Soaked in hot water.
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Hot Pack
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Large canvas bag filled with a heat-retaining gel that is used on a large body area
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Paraffin Bath
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A receptacle of heated wax and mineral oil.
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Ultrasound
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Projects high-frequency sound waves that are converted to heat in muscle tissue
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Shortwave
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Radio waves that travel through the body between two condenser plates and are converted to heat in the tissues
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Microwave
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Uses microwaves to provide heat deep in body tissues
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Whirlpools
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Water is agitated by jets of air under pressure
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Contrast Baths
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Is separate baths, one filled with hot water and the other with cold water. The patient alternately moves the treated body part quickly from one bath to the other
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Underwater Exercises
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Prescribed for patients with joint injuries, burns, and arthritis- are usually performed in a warm swimming pool
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Active Mobility Exercises
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Are self directed exercises the patient performs without assistance to increase muscle strength and function
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Passive Mobility Exercises
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The physical therapist or a machine moves a patient’s body part. The patient does not actively assist in these exercises
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Aided Mobility Exercises
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Are self directed exercises. The patient performs them with the aid of a device like an exercise machine or a therapy pool
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Active Resistance Exercises
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The patient works against resistance to increase muscle strength
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Isometric Exercises
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The patient relaxes and then contracts the muscles of a body part while in a fixed position
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Electrical Simulation
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Deliver controlled amounts of low-voltage electric current to motor and sensory nerves to stimulate muscles
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Swedish Massage
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Stimulates circulation and lymph flow with five basic strokes that manipulate the body’s soft tissues. The strokes include Petrissage (kneading), effleurage (stroking), tapotement (percussion), vibration, and friction
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Neuromuscular Massage
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Applied to specific muscles and helps release tension and knots, relieve pain and release pressure on nerves, and increase blood flow
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Manual Traction
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The physical therapist uses his hands to pull a patient’s limb or head gently. Pulling stretches the muscles and separates the joints, allowing for greater motion and less stiffening
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Static Traction
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The therapist places a patient’s limb, pelvis, or chin in a harness. The harness is then attached to weights through a pulley system
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Skeletal Traction
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Performed on patients in inpatient facilities whose injuries require long traction time and heavy weights.
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Mechanical Traction
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Uses a special device that intermittently pulls and relaxes a prescribed body part, such as the neck. The therapist sets the time intervals between contractions and relaxations
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Canes
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Provide support and help patients maintain balance.
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Standard Cane
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Best for a patient who needs only a small amount of support.
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Tripod Cane
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Have three legs
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Quad-Base Cane
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Has four legs
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Walkers
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Lightweight, easy to use aluminum frame that is open on one side and has four widely placed, adjustable, rubber tipped legs that can be adjusted to various heights
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Crutches
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Allow a patient to walk without putting weight on the feet or legs by transferring that weight to the arms
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Wheelchairs
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Range from small, folding models to large motorized ones