Physical Science Test 2 review

figure 5-1 shows a portion of a blank periodic table. identify the segments labeled a and b
A is period and B is a group.
moving from left to right across a row of the periodic table, what increases by exactly one from element to element
Atomic number
the standard on which the atomic mass unit is based is the mass of a
Carbon 12 atom
the atomic mass of an element is
a weighted average of the masses of an element’s isotopes
which list of elements contains only metals
Tin, Copper, Cesium
at room temperature, none of the metals are in what state?
gases
which general statement does NOT apply to metals
Most metals are brittle
group 7A of the periodic table contains the
most reactive nonmetals
Atoms of the most reactive elements tend to have
one or seven valence electrons
as you move from left to right across a period, the number of valence electrons
increases
the tendency of an element to react is closely related to
the number of valence electrons in atoms of the element
a member of the boron family has three valence electrons, while a member of the nitrogen family has
five
which statement is NOT true about the elements fluorine, chlorine, and iodine
They are similar to noble gases
which of the following group 1A elements is most reactive
cesium
which of the following group 7A elements is the most reactive
Fluorine
to keep them from reacting, some highly reactive elements are stored in
argon
which element is found in most of the compounds in your body except for water
carbon
which of the following groups contain three elements with stable electron configurations
Helium, xenon, neon
typically, atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve
a stable electron configuration
study the electron dot diagrams for lithium, carbon, fluorine, and neon in figure 6-1. choose the statement that correctly identifies the most stable of the elements
Neon is mosst stable element because its highest occupied energy level is filled.
the formation of an ionic bond involves the
transfer of electrons (An ionic bond is the bonding between a non-metal and a metal)
which of the following statements correctly describes the substance with the formula KI
There is a 1-1 ratio of potassium ions to iodide ions
in the compound MgCl₂, the subscript 2 indicates that
there are two chloride ions for each magnesium ion
which of the following compounds does NOT contain molecules?
NaCl
when two atoms of the same nonmetal react, they often form a (an)
diatomic molecule
in a polar covalent bond
electrons are not shared equally between atoms
the elements most likely form more than one type of ion are the
Transition Metals
Fluorine, F, forms a binary ionic compound with Lithium, Li. What is the name of this compound?
lithium fluoride
the name “iron (II)” indicates that a compound contains
Iron ions with a charge of 2⁺
Beryllium, Be, and chlorine, Cl, form a binary ionic compound with a one-to-two ratio of beryllium ions to chloride ions. The formula for the compound is
BeCl2
In the name “carbon dioxide” the prefix of the second word indicates that a molecule of carbon dioxide contains
two oxygen atoms.
which phrase best describes a metallic bond?
The attraction between a metal cation and a shared pool of electrons
which statement about metals is true?
Electrons in a metal lattice are free to move
an alloy that contains mainly iron and carbon is
stainless steel
hydrochloric acid, HCl, is added to the solid NaOH. After the reaction is complete, NaCl dissolved in water remains. What are the products of this chemical reaction?
NaCl and H2O
which of the following does NOT state what the arrow means in a chemical equation?
Conserves
which of the following is a chemical equation that accurately represents when sulfur and oxygen react to form sulfur trioxide
2S+3O2–>2SO3
Which of the following is a balanced chemical equation for the synthesis of NaBr from Na and Br₂
2Na + Br₂ –> 2NaBr
Methane , CH₄, burns in oxygen gas to form water and carbon dioxide. what is the correct balanced equation for this reaction
CH₄(g) + 2 O₂(g) → CO₂(g) + 2 H₂O(g)
when magnesium carbonate, MgCO₂, reacts with nitric acid, HNO₃, magnesium nitrate and carbonic acid form. carbonic acid then breaks down into water and carbon dioxide. Which two types of reactions take place in this process?
double-replacement and decomposition
In a compound, chemical energy is contained in the
Bonds
Which of the following is true about what happens during a chemical reaction
bonds of the reactants are broken, and bonds of the products are formed
in terms of energy, how would you classify the following chemical reaction? 2Cu + O₂ → 2CuO + 315 kJ
exothermic
The total amount of energy before and after a chemical reaction is the same. Thus, energy is
conserved
in general, if the temperature if the temperature of a chemical reaction is increased, the reaction rate
increases
which of the following is not a property of an acid
doesnt feel slippery
a base is defined as a compound that produces
hydroxide ions in solution
which of the following is NOT a common property of bases
Reacts with metals.
the products of the neutralization reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium hydroxide are
Magnesium chloride and water (a.k.a. dihydrogen oxide)
the salt that is formed during the reaction between potassium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid is
KCl
an acid can be defined as
a proton donor, A substance that yields hydrogen ions (H⁺) when dissolved in water.
distilled water has a hydronium ion concentration of 1×10⁻⁷M. What is the pH of a distilled water?
7
A compound has a pH of 6 in solution, where very little of it has ionized. the compound is a
weak acid
which of the following are examples of strong electrolytes
Strong acids and strong bases.
what is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles or energy or both
radioactivity
what type of nuclear decay releases energy but not a particle
gamma decay
when radium-226 decays to form randon-222, the radium nucleus emits a (an)
alpha particle
Carbon-14 forms nitrogen-14 by
beta decay.
the half-life of tritium, or hydrogen-3, is 12.32 years. After about 24.6 years, how much of a sample of tritium will remain unchanged
one fourth
the half-life of a radioisotope is the amount of time it takes for
the amount of time it takes for half the sample to decay.
Which of the following particles is smaller than the rest
electon
during nuclear fission, great amounts of energy are produced from
very SMALL amounts of mass
suppose 3 neutrons are released by an atom in the first stage of fission reaction in another nucleus of the material. if all the neutrons cause other nuclei to fission, how many atoms will have undergone fission after 2 more stages of the chain reaction?
27
Which of the following is an advantage of using nuclear power plants to produce electricity
Nuclear power plants do not pollute the air.