When answering ⇒ multiple-choice
questions, look for answers that are opposites.

When answering ⇒ true-false
questions, be wary of items that use absolutes.

When taking a test, only guess when the odds of gaining points ___ the odds of losing points.

visualize yourself in the test situation.
The third step in cognitive restructuring is to

aptitude tests.
Overall learning ability is measured by

California Psychological Inventory
Which personality test is designed to detect the “normal” personality traits?

The typical gender stereotype of a woman is of being emotional and of a man as being patient.

For most people, gender roles are a part of who they are and how they see themselves instead of a role played as in theater.

genes; hormones
Biologists believe that gender differences result from the role of ⇒ genes; hormones
and ____________________.

primary; secondary
Males and females differ in both ⇒ primary; secondary
and ____________________ sex characteristics.

According to psychologists, women tend to select their mate based on

Biological and psychological views of gender typing do little to help us understand why males and females behave because it is hard to identify where the differences originate.

Sigmund Freud psychoanalytic theory argues that gender typing can be explained in terms of observation and imitation.

Social-learning can occur without reinforcement through observation and imitation of others with whom people commonly interact.

traits and behaviors
At a young age, children develop ideas about ___ they consider to be either male or female.

Gender-schema theorists suggest that as soon as children learn their gender they begin to seek information about gender-typed traits.

Gender Schema
Cluster of traits associated with one sex or the other

Gender Schema
A cluster of characteristics associated with one sex or the other.

passed on to future generations
The genetic view of gender typing states that genes resulting in gender traits are able to survive because they are _____.

all of the above
According to the lecture, which of the following could be a symptom of stress?

Self-confidence affects people’s abilities to withstand stress.

According to the lecture, there is a more conscious awareness when responding to stress versus reacting to stress.

Biological factors have no effect on how a person responds to stress.

did all of the above.
In a study of business executives, those who were able to withstand stress the best most likely

a real or perceived loss
The psychological view on mood disorders focuses on __________.

Rigid and critical family atmospheres have be linked to individuals suffering from schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia typically does not develop until late adulthood.

If one parent has schizophrenia, there is a 50% chance their child will inherit the disorder.

According to biological theories, schizophrenia is explained by the id being overwhelmed by urges from the superego.

Personality Disorders do not run in families.

dissocative amnesia
Is characterized by sudden memory loss

Physical symptoms can include rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, trembling and sweating

conversion disorder
A change or loss of physical function in a major part of the body

dissocative fatuge
Disorder characterized by forgetting personal information and past events and relocating and taking on a new identity.

simple fatuge
Anxiety disorder involving a persistent excessive or irrational fear of a particular situation or object

Intense, persistent feelings of anxiety caused by traumatic experience

active listening
A therapist using ____________________ techniques repeats, rephrases, and asks for clarification of the statements made by a patient.

In person-centered therapy, the therapist acts as a _______________ of the patient.

Person-centered therapy is most helpful for

schools and collage consulers
Person-centered therapy is practiced widely by

In person-centered therapy the client works with the therapist in a ___ effort.

Reach full potental
The primary goal of humanistic therapy is to help individuals

make desisions
School and college counselors will use person-centered therapy to help students

self awareness and acceptance
In humanistic therapy, people can reach self-actualization by developing a positive

Carl Rodgers
Person-centered therapy was developed by

The humanistic approach to therapy requires the client to take the back seat in therapy and to allow the therapist to discover their problems for them.

Like psychoanalysis, the humanistic approach to therapy works best for those with

The humanistic approach assumes that all people have a natural tendency to undermine their true potential.

aversive conditioning
Therapy that replaces a positive response to a stimulus with a negative response

rational emotive therapy
Therapy that involves identifying and challenging false assumptions

Someone who has a fear of water may gradually lose that fear through the cognitive therapy technique of systematic desensitization.

successive approximations
Series of behaviors that gradually become more similar to a target behavior

illogical thinking
When faulty assumptions about situations create emotional and behavioral problems.

selective abstraction
When a person looks in the mirror and all they can see is a mole they have on their face, they are falling victim to

Aaron Beck’s model of therapy falls into which category?

learn disiverably behavors
Operant conditioning helps a person

albert ellis
Rational-emotive behavior therapy was developed by

counter conditioning
Systematic desensitization and modeling are techniques used in

rewarding and workin up to target behavor
The technique of successive approximations changes behavior by

drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery.
The three major biological treatments for psychological disorders are

Antidepressants are also prescribes by physicians to treat

memory impairment
One reason electroconvulsive therapy is a controversial form of biological therapy because it causes _________.

prefrontal lobotmy
Brain surgery used to treat people with severe psychological disorders

prefrontal lobes and the thalamus.
Psychosurgery involves cutting nerve pathways in the brain between the

serotonin or noradrenaline
Antidepressant drugs are used to increase the levels of ___ being released.

Prolonged use of antipsychotic drugs may cause problems in balance and coordination and produce __________.

sharing and personal feelings
Which of the following is not something that would make a good therapist?

free association, dream analysis, and transference.
The three techniques of psychoanalysis are

successive approximations
Series of behaviors that gradually become more similar to a target behavior

ego-support value.
Friends who agree with and support us, thus making us feel better about ourselves, provide

ego-support value.
The reward value we give to others when we send greeting cards is most likely

social cognitionThe subfield of ⇒ social cognition studies how we perceive, store, and retrieve information about social interactions.
field of study that focuses on how we perceive, store, and retrieve information about social interactions

social cognition
The subfield of studies how we perceive, store, and retrieve information about social interactions.

social psychology
field of psychology that seeks to explain how our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors are influenced by interactions with others

stimulation value.
Your friend Ron is an excellent guitarist who often asks you to come hear him play. In terms of reward values for friendship, he has

alll of above
People are more likely to be friends with someone who is physically attractive, because they are considered to be more

A friend who is able to give you his or her time and resources to help you acheive your goals has utility value

social cognitionk
The study of how one perceives, stores, and retrieves information about social interaction is

According to the lecture, nonverbal communication includes how a person says and does things as well as what they are NOT saying and doing.

social perceptions
The ways in which we perceive other people are known as our ____________________.

According to the lecture, the recency effect increases only positive feelings towards another person.

The types of touch people use to communicate are similar across all cultures.

Nonverbal communications
Our posture and the distance we keep from others are examples of

Actor observer bias
You observe a stranger acting in an aggressive manner and assume the person is aggressive due to dispositional factors. This may not be a true reflection of the strangers personality and can be explained by the _____.

The findings of psychologist suggest that love is something you seek and create.

The tendency to marry someone who is from one’s own social group is referred to as

passionate love.
The type of love that is sensual, all-consuming, and very intense is called ⇒

generational identity
The tendancy for members of different generations to think differently about things refers to the ________________.

Sternberg believed that a person going through divorce suffers from “separation shock”.

Endogamy refers to the tendancy to marry someone from one’s own social group. Homogamy refers to the tendancy to marry someone with similar attributes.
Explain the difference between endogamy and homogamy.

The three components of romantic love identified by Zick Rubin are need, caring, and

Which of the following is NOT a component of love according to Rubin?

Hatfield believed that when passionate love subsided, it could grow into romantic love.

Fundamental error
A common mistake in which people overestimate the influence of internal factors on a person’s behavior and underestimate the influence of external factors

Psychological studies consistently support the popular notion that opposites attract.

Generational identity
Refers to the tendency for members of different generations to think differently about things

People like to be together to reduce uncertainties about themselves.

Actor-observer Bias
Tendency to attribute the behavior of others to personality, or internal, factors

Compassionate love
Love that includes friendship, liking someone, mutual trusting, and wanting to be with them

Group Polarization
The theory that group discussion reinforces the majority’s point of view and shifts group members’ opinions to a more extreme position.

Which of the following is NOT a feature that distinguishes a group from an aggregate (nongroup)?

Personal sacrifice is a factor that increases group commitment.

group structure
The study of considers the roles various members play in the group and how these roles are interrelated.

One key to holding large groups together is direct communication among members of the group.

A leader is charismatic, provides individualized attention to group members, and is able to enthuse and intellectually stimulate group members.

social inhibition
Not performing well in front of a crowd may result from

A good way for the group to avoid poor decision making is to insist that the group’s leader make all the decisions.

social facilitation
Giving a better performance in front of a crowd may result from

The set of principles, attitudes, and defined objectives for which a group stands.

Social Functions
Responses directed toward satisfying the emotional needs of members.

A diagram that represents relationships within a group, especially likes and dislikes of members for other members.

both a & c
Your family would be an example of a(an)_____

In Harold Leavitt’s experiment on communication patterns, the slowest at solving the problem but the happiest group was the

When we give in to social pressure in our public behavior but do not change our private beliefs, occurs.

Solomon Asch’s experiment was designed to test to one’s peers.

Experiments that have the potential to cause harm to the participants must be screened by research committees before the American Psychological Association will allow its members to conduct the experiments.

As a group grows in size, the less likely people are to conform.

In the experiment, those acting as prison guards quickly became intoxicated with power.

Conducted an experiment that caused ordinary people to act in extraordinary ways.

Solomon Asch
Designed what has become a classic experiment to test conformity to pressure from one’s peers

Stanley Milgram
Conducted the most famous investigation of obedience in 1963.

He developed an experiment in which participants administered shocks to individuals if they did not correctly recite a list of words

have learned to follow orders.
People obey authority because they _____.

If someone is familiar with a task presented to them, they are more likely to conform.

social loafing
Social loafing occurs in groups when a person does not work as hard because the workload is shared with others and the individual contributions are less noticeable.

A person experiencing is releasing anger or aggression by expressing powerful negative emotions.

A person’s aggressive behavior can be influenced by , such as serotonin.

Critics of using catharsis to control aggression suggest that releasing aggression is a diffusion of responsibility.

By the age of 18, the average American has witnessed an estimated 200,000 acts if violence on television.

frustration-aggression hypothosis
According to the, a failure to obtain something expected leads to aggression.

Unselfishly helping others, often at a cost or risk, for reasons other than rewards.

diffusion of responsibility
When the presence of others lessens an individual’s feelings of responsibility for his or her actions or failure to act.

occurs when people lose their sense of self and follow group behaviors

All of the following except __________ factors, are contributers to aggression.

social loafing
the tendancy to work less hard when sharing the workload with others

frustration-aggression hypothesis.
The hypothesis that the failure to obtain something leads to aggression is the

cognitive factors
Which of the following theories of aggression suggests that the media is responsible for teaching aggressive behavior to children?

He developed an experiment where participants took on the roles of prisoners and guards. The guards became intoxicated with power, and the experiment ended

behavior that you engage in because of direct or indirect group pressure

social inhibition
performance declines in the presence of others

occurs when we respond to the request of another person without necessarily changing our beliefs

He developed an experiment in which participants administered shocks to individuals if they did not correctly recite a list of word

emergencies requiring cooperation led to the groups coming together.
In the Robber’s Cave experiment

The three main elements that make up are beliefs or opinions about something, feelings about that thing, and tendencies to act toward that thing in certain ways.

classical conditioning
Attitudes may be formed through when a new stimulus is paired with an existing stimulus that already causes a certain reaction.

What are the three elements of an attitude?
The three elements of attitude are (1) belief or opinion (2) feelings, and (3) a tendancy to act in certain ways.

operant conditioning
We acquire attitudes through when we receive praise, approval, or acceptance for expressing certain attitudes.

Theodore Newcomb
The studies of suggest that people tend to adopt the likes and dislikes of groups whose approval and acceptance they seek.

One of the best measures of attitude is

cognitive evaluation
When a student lists the pros and cons of a political reform measure on the ballot, he is using

a mental shortcut to form an attitude

Which of the following statements about attitudes is NOT true?

Theodor Newcomb
According to __________, people tend to adopt the likes and dislikes of groups whose approval and acceptance they seek.

Culture influences the formation of our attitudes.

When a person describes himself or herself, rarely will attitudes be included in the description.

Attitudes play a role in determining behavior.

cognitive dissonance
A person who acts one way but thinks another will likely experience

In a study in which participants were led to believe that they had injured or hurt other participants in some way, they tended to use to convince themselves that the victim deserved the injury.

When members of certain groups are treated unequally occurs.

The main processes involved in forming or changing attitudes are compliance, identification, and

accepting the attitudes of another person or group as one’s own

cognitive consistency.
People tend to subscribe to newspapers that uphold their own political attitudes out of a need for

counterattitudinal behavior
Behavior that contradicts one’s private attitude often used as a tool of persuasion.

The process of incorporating the values, ideas, and standards of others as a part of oneself.

self-fulfilling prophecy
A belief, prediction, or expectation that operates to bring about its own fulfillment.

counteradditudional behavior
process of taking a public position that contradicts one’s private attitude

Attitudes are formed or changed through the following ways except __________.

deciding what someone will be like before you actually meet him or her

a change of behavior to avoid discomfort or rejection and to gain approva

self fulfiling profacy
You believe all conservative people to be cold and aloof. When you meet a conservative you keep your distance, then the person

The central route of persuasion focuses on feelings while the peripheral route of persuasion focuses on logic.

peripheral route
The for persuasion relies on emotional appeals, emphasizing personal traits or positive feelings.

Strategies such as the “foot-in-the-door” technique are aimed at influencing the

inoculation effect
The t motivates people to defend their beliefs more strongly and thus learn to resist persuasion.

a change of behavior to avoid discomfort or rejection and to gain approval

cognitive dissonance
experience of conflicting thoughts, attitudes, beliefs, or feelings

Disharmony between two people’s views that results in indifference

comparable worth
the concept that women and men should receive equal pay for jobs calling for comparable skill and responsibility

The psychoanalytic approach to therapy and change are based on the theories of

Overlearning helps a person cope with test anxiety by

Which of the following is not a Nature of Emotions?

defence mechanisms
Unconscious methods the ego uses to avoid things that may cause anxiety

Trait descriptions must be

People like to be together to reduce uncertainties about themselves.

attrivution theory
Explanation of other people’s behavior based on dispositional or situational factor

In humanistic therapy, people can reach self-actualization by developing a positive

One of the limitations of the learning approach is its

social acceptance
Basic biological needs include everything EXCEPT

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