-coincidences occur that often lead to mistaken conclusions about what causes certain conditions and what treatment appears to be effective.
-one strategy is to determine prevalence
-one strategy is to determine incidence
Three important parts:
1)the level or degree of behavior change with different interventions
2)the variability of change
3)the trend of change
1)baseline is established
2)change in independent variable
3)treatment is withdrawn
**although case studies often involve treatment, they don’t include any effort to learn whether the person would have improved without the treatment. A withdrawal gives researchers a better sense of whether or not the treatment itself caused behavior change.