PHARMACOLOGY ATI TEST

Digoxin (lanoxin)Antidysrhythmic
Side Effect: Blurred or doubled vision
GuaifenesinSide Effect: Can cause drowsiness
Estrogen (premarin)Side Effect: Increase Risk of Thromboembolism with shortness of breath, severe headache, vomiting.
Sudden acute pain in the calves, legs, chest, abdomen

Doxepin (Sinequan)Anticholinergic
Side Effect: Urinary retention, constipation, drying of nasal/oral secretions, Increased Heart Rate
Albuterol (Proventil)Sympathomimetic; Adrenergic beta-2 agonist
Contraindicated; with MAOI – can increase action of albuterol leading to hypertension crisis.
Beta blockers – can inhibit the therapeutic effects
USE: invert canister, shake before use, rinse mouth after use, with new inhaler perform test spray.
Levothyroxine (T4) essay writer in ukIndication: HYPOthyroidism in relation to dysfunction of hypothalamus, pituitary or thyroid gland
Cephalosporins (Keflex)Allergy to cephalosporins is considered a precaution for taking penicillins
Phenobarbital (Barbiturates)Interventions for anticonvulsant therapy; assess for respiration, depression, excess sedation from toxic effects, Intravenous (IV) at less than 50 mg per minute, avoid extravasation (alkaline can cause skin damage)
Sumatriptan (Imitrex)USE: When migraine symptoms appear and again in 1 hour if symptoms persist
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Pharmacological AdministrationINTRAVENOUS
NARCAN (OPIOID ANTAGONIST)
Therapeutic action: improvement of respiratory rate
Baclofen (Lioresal)Therapeutic action: Decreases frequency and severity of muscle spasms
Erythromycin (Erythrocin)Macrolide
Side Effect: Liver Toxicity
Insulin: (high dose) U-5005 times stronger than u-100 – divide dosage ordered by 5
Spirinolactone (Aldactone)Potassium sparing diuretic
Avoid foods with high potassium such as salt substitutes
Chloroquine phosphate (Aralen)Indication: Malaria prevention
Use: Take weekly starting 1 week before departure and continued for 4 weeks after return
Heparin (anticoagulant)Use with ALTEPLASE for acute Myocardial Infarction
Warfarin (Coumadin)Use: Long term prophylaxis of thrombosis
Antidote: Vitamin K
Clopidogrel (Plavix)Use: Reduce long-term risk of clotting w/atherosclerosis and recent MI of CVA
Alteplase (Activase)Antithrombolytic
Use: Acute MI/ CVA (has short half-life)
Methylphenidate (Concerta)USE: Narcolepsy
Precaution: Avoid caffeine
Testosterone IMIf used to correct delayed puberty, assess bone maturation with bi-annual x-rays of hand and wrist; monitor liver function; can increase hypoglycemia, potentiate sleep apnea, exacerbate heart failure due to fluid retention
Diphenoxylate and Atropine (Lomotil)Caution: With Renal impairment, decreased elimination of Atropine thereby increasing anticholinergic effects of atropine like confusion
Loperamide (Imodium)Use: Anti-diarrheal (poorly absorbed from GI tract; difficulty crossing the blood-brain barrier)
Methylcellulose (Citrucel)Bulk-forming agent with minimal Side Effects
Psyllium (Metamucil)Bulk-forming agent with minimal Side Effects
Acetazolamide (Diamox) – diureticIndication – edema, epilepsy, acute mountain sickness, glaucoma (decrease intraocular pressure due to decreased amounts of aqueous humor in the eye)
Contraindication: allergy to sulfonamides
Metoprolol (Lopressor) – Beta BlockerHold dose for dyspnea (sign of exacerbation of Cardiac Heart Failure)
Propanolol (Inderal) – Beta BlockerUSE: Dysrhythmia, hypertension, angies
Side Effects: bronchoconstriction, bronchospasm, can block glycogenesis
Norgestrel (Ovrette)USE: Contraception
Side Effects: Excess progestin, weight gain from increased appetite; deficiency of progestin; late breakthrough bleeding, amenorrhea, excess estrogen that leads to edema
Medroxyprogesterone (Provera) – female hormoneContraindication: smoking/tobacco products
RISKS: Thromboembolism and Cardiovascular complications
Interventions: use additional contraceptive measures with antibiotic therapy
IM Injection Sitelocate dorsogluteal site
Nausea – therapyAntiemetic plus cool damp cloth to forehead, neck and wrists
Allopurinol (Zyloprim)Indication: Gout
Mechanism of Action: decreases serum uric acid levels and urinary uric acid secretion
Precaution: avoid foods that acidify urine such as CORN
Tuberculosis (TB) multi-drug TherapyIsoniazid (INH)
Rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol – to deal with resistant strains
Lisinopril (Zestril) ACE InhibitorsSide Effects: dry/persistent cough for 1 to 2 weeks from increased bradykinin
Synergistic drugsEffects of giving both drugs are more than the effect of individual drugs taken separately
Furosemide (Lasix) – loop diureticsIntervention: Check Blood Pressure before giving to determine baseline.
Can cause decreased blood pressure due to decreased circulatory volume by relaxing venous smooth muscle.
Ticlopidine (Ticlid)Indication: Prevent coronary artery thrombosis
Intervention: Check platelet count
PRBC (packed red blood cells)Used as blood replacement when fluid overload is a concern
IV (intravenous) medicationsIntervention: Assess site for redness and swelling before adminisration
Collagenase (Santyl)USE: Debride Ulcers
InterferonUSE: Prevent viral replication
Isotretinoin (Accutane)Contraindication: Pregnancy with two forms of birth control due to teratogenic effects
VaccineAdvice of live versus attenuated or killed vaccine: long lasting active immunity versus partial (passive)
Epoetin Alfa (Procrit)Indication: Treat anemia
Side Effects: Headache, Hypertension, seizures in relation to (Hct) hematocrit rises too quickly
Urofollitropin (Fertinex)Dosage: administration IM based based in preceding cycles
Side Effect: ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Hypertensive crisisSigns and Symptoms: Flushed skin, headache, visual changes
Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)Indication: Prevent liver damage following acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose. Most effective if given shortly after ingestion; some protection up to 24 hours.
Montelukast (Singulair)Indication: prevent asthma exacerbations
Dose: Daily at bedtime
Side Effects: Well tolerated
Metoclopramide (Reglan)Has increased sedation when given with Morphine
Mannitol (Osmitrol) – diureticsCaution with patients with heart disease. Can precipitate CHF and pulmonary edema
Opiate OverdoseCauses Respiratory Depression.
Narcan Antidote shorter acting. May need less than 1 dose
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)Precaution: Avoid other CNS depressants such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, kava kava
AnaphylaxisSigns and Symptoms: bronchoconstriction, angioedema, hypotension
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