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Personality Theories Test

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We research theories of personality to:
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Describe their use for real-world problems
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Which of the following statements can be used to sum up personality?
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Personality is how we perceive ourselves & also how others perceive us
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Around 1500, the Latin word persona was used to refer to:
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A mask used by actors in a play
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The personality of an individual is _____.
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A unique cluster of characteristics
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Which of the following is true of people using social networking sites, such as Facebook?
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a. They tend to portray an idealized self-image of themselves b. They feel they are able to express their true selves c.They have a tendency to present themselves as much more emotionally stable
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In the past, _____ were more likely to be used in research on personality theory.
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White men
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Which of the following is true of the assumptions made by early personality theorists?
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Personality theories were valid for all people, regardless of gender and race
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Identify a cultural difference between individualism and collectivism.
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The levels of anxiety and depression have been found to be lower in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic ones
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Which question best clarifies the meaning of validity?
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Does the test measure what is intended to measured?
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The most widely used self-report personality test is the:
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
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Projective techniques are used to assess personality by:
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Having individuals associate personal needs, fears, & values onto an ambiguous stimulus
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The Rorschach Inkblot Technique:
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Is rated lower than the MMPI in validity research
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The Thematic Apperception Test was developed by:
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Morgan & Murray
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In the context of the clinical method used in personality research, a _____ refers to a detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources.
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Case study
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In experimental research, the _____ variable is the one manipulated by the experimenter.
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Dependent
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The correlational method of research:
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Measure the relationship between two variables
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Which of the following is true about the role of theories in the study of personality?
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Theories help us to understand, predict, & change behavior
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True or false: Self-report inventories remain the most objective approach to personality assessment.
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True
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Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality and system of therapy for treating mental disorders is known as
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Psychoanalysis
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According to Freud, _____ are the motivating forces that drive behavior and determine its direction.
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Instincts
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Which of the following is the exclusive source of energy for human behavior?
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Id
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According to Freud, what are the two primary types of instincts?
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Life & death
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According to Freud, _____ serve the purpose of survival of the individual and the species by seeking to satisfy the needs for food, water, air, and sex.
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Life instincts
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According to Freud, _____ is the form of psychic energy, manifested by the life instincts, that drives a person toward pleasurable behaviors and thoughts.
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Libido
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Freud regarded _____ as our primary motivation.
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Sex
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The _____ includes all the sensations and experiences of which we are aware at any given moment.
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Conscious
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The preconscious:
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Is the storehouse for our memories, thoughts, & perceptions
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Of the three levels of personality, the _____ strives for immediate satisfaction of its needs and does not tolerate delay or postponement of satisfaction for any reason
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Id
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In children, temper tantrums, manipulating parents, and destructive behaviors are formed in the:
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Anal stage
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The purpose of Freud’s techniques of dream analysis and free association:
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Is to evaluate, asses, or find the unconscious
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All of the following are associated with Freud’s investigation of the unconscious except:
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Questionnaires
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Freud’s research can be criticized for all of the following points except:
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He did not look deeply into the psyche
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Freud’s concepts of the ego, id, and libido:
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Have a high degree of objectivity
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Much research on the nature of the unconscious involves _____ in which stimuli are presented to people below their level of conscious awareness.
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Subliminal perception
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Which of the following Freudian ideas has not been supported by research?
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The personality being subject to little change after age five
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Identify a true statement in the context of Loftus’s studies concerning false memories
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a. A therapist could implant false memories knowingly or unknowingly b. A person’s memories can’t always be judged as true c. “Repressed” memories of childhood may not be accurate in reality
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Which of the following statements is true of Anna Freud?
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She became the only one of Freud’s six children to follow in his path
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Anna Freud’s analytic work was with:
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Children
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What were Sigmund Freud’s views on Anna’s work on child analysis?
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He believed she developed her views out of her own independent experience
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Anna Freud is known for her theory of:
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Ego psychology
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Which of the following is true of Freud’s system of psychoanalytic therapy?
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Psychoanalysis as a therapeutic technique has declined in popularity, particularly in the United States
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Which of the following is true of the system of psychotherapy, which was developed by Sigmund Freud?
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Fewer people are choosing the expensive, long-term approach Freud developed
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All of the following are valid criticisms of Freudian psychoanalysis except that:
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Freud failed to consider the impact of biological forces
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Which of the following is a criticism of Freudian psychoanalysis by personality theorists?
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To develop a theory of human personality, only the healthy, positive human qualities need to be studied
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True or false: Much of Freud’s personality theory revolves around the necessity of inhibiting or suppressing our sexual longings.
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True
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Carl Jung’s childhood experiences included:
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Personal loneliness plus the martial conflicts & mental instability of his parents
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Jung broke from Freud’s concepts because:
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He decided to follow his own ideas and viewpoints on personality
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What is the term given by Carl Jung for “personality”?
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Psyche
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All of the following are principles explain the functioning of psychic energy except _____.
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Differentiation principle
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Which of the following best describes Jung’s principle of opposites?
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The conflict between polarities is the primary motivator of behavior & generator of psychic energy
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According to Jung’s principle of entropy, if a perfect balance of psychic energy is attained over all the aspects of a personality:
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The personality would have no psychic energy
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According to Jung, the _____ is the conscious aspect of personality.
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Ego
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Which of the following applies to the mental attitudes of extraversion and introversion?
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a. The dominant attitude directs a person’s consciousness & behavior b. Only one of the attitudes becomes dominant in a person’s personality c. The non dominant attitude becomes part of a person’s personal unconscious
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Jung proposed eight psychological types, based on the interactions of the:
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Two psychological attitudes & four psychological functions
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Based on Jung’s psychological types, the extraverted intuiting type of person would be:
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Creative, able to inspire others, & able to seize opportunities
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According to Jung, the personal unconscious is:
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A reservoir of material that was once conscious but has been forgotten or suppressed
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According to Jung’s belief, which of the following is responsible for the formation of complexes in the personal unconscious of an individual?
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a. The childhood experiences b. The adult experiences c. The ancestral experiences
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Jung believed that humankind collectively, as a species, store the experiences of all our human and pre-human ancestors in the _____.
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Collective unconscious
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The ancient experiences contained in the collective unconscious are manifested by recurring themes or patterns, which Jung termed _____.
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Archetypes
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Jung proposed all of the following major archetypes except the _____.
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Ego
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Which of the following archetypes contains the basic, primitive animal instincts and has the deepest roots among all?
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The shadow
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Which of the following is true of the shadow archetype?
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The behaviors that society considers evil & immoral reside in the shadow
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Jung believed the full realization of the self lies in the _____.
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Future
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Jung used the term psychic birth for the period when:
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The psyche assumes a definite form & content
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According to Jung’s view, which of the following personality changes must occur in an individual during his or her middle age?
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a. The attitude of the personality must shift from extraversion to introversion b. The psychic energy must be rechanneled to different activities & interests c. The process of realizing or actualizing the self must begin
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Which of the following steps in Jung’s theory of individuation involves one’s acceptance of his or her genuine self that is generally covered by a public face?
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Dethroning the persona
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Which of the following did Jung believe was the most difficult step in the individuation process?
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Recognizing the characteristics of the other sex within the self
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According to Jung, transcendence is the:
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Innate tendency toward unity or wholeness in the personality
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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is:
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A test to access Jung’s psychological types & attitudes
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_____ was the first to emphasize the role of the future in determining behavior.
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Alfred Adler
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Which of the following is true of Jung’s contributions to psychology?
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The word-association test, developed by Jung, became a standard projective technique
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True or false: Jung believed that the most crucial stage in personality development was middle age.
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True
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The theory of individual psychology, which focused on the uniqueness of each person, was proposed by:
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Adler
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Unlike Freud, which of the following did Adler emphasize?
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a. The conscious b. Minimizing the importance of sex c. The uniqueness of the individual
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Which of the following provides the most obvious link between Adler’s childhood and his theory?
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Illness & sibling rivalry
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Identify a true statement in the context of the relationship between Adler and Freud.
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Their association ended in hostility
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All motivation to strive and succeed comes from:
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Attempts to compensate for inferiorities
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According to Adler, all of the following are possible causes of an inferiority complex except:
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Brain neurosis
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Demosthenes overcame his stutter to become a great orator, and Theodore Roosevelt was sickly but later became a model of physical fitness. These are two good examples of:
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Overcoming organic inferiority
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Overcompensating for normal inferiority feelings can lead to a _____.
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Superiority complex
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The urge toward perfection that motivates each of us is what Adler meant by:
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Striving for superiority
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For Adler, if a person believes that all people are basically good, then:
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The person will create unrealistic expectations of his or her environment
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In Adler’s view, fictional finalism:
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Guides our behavior as we strive to become complete
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Adler used all of the following terms as equivalents for “style of life” except:
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Complex
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According to Adler, the development of an appropriate style of life is determined by:
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Our past experiences
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To Adler, the most common style of life is the:
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Getting type
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Adler proposed the concept of social interest to define:
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The innate potential to cooperative with others
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Which of the following is a true statement about Adler’s theory of the order of birth?
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One’s birth order could be determined on the basis of one’s behavior
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According to Adler’s idea involving the order of birth, in which of the following ways is the first-born likely to react to the dethronement caused by the arrival of the second-born?
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a. By developing a behavior problem b. By hating the new baby c. By trying to recapture their former position of privilege
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In the context of Adler’s idea of the order of birth, a person who is competitive and ambitious is most likely to be a(n):
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Second-born child
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In the context of Adler’s idea of the order of birth, the child most likely to develop at a remarkably fast rate is the:
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Youngest child
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Identify a true statement in the context of Adler’s image of human nature.
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Each person possesses the free will to shape the social forces influencing him or her
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Adler believed that dreams:
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Involve feelings about current feelings
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On the Social Interest Index, women who scored high in social interest were also significantly higher in:
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Self-actualization
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Research on second-borns shows that they are:
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More influenced by their older siblings than by parents
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If pampered excessively, last-borns tend to_____ than first-borns and second-borns.
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Have more difficulty adjusting
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As supported by research, in which of the following ways did “only” children differ from children with siblings?
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a. In having higher levels of intelligence b. In being highly industriousness c. In having high aspirations
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Who among the following personality theorists was influenced by Adler?
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a. Gordon Allport b. Abraham Maslow c. Karen Horney
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Adler is considered a forerunner of:
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Group therapy
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True or false: To Adler, the unconscious, not the conscious, was at the core of personality.
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False