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Penn Foster Vet Tech- Behavior

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Ethology
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The study of animal behavior
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Natural Selection
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The process that awards survival and reproductive success to individuals and groups best adjusted to their environment
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Charles Darwin
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a British scientist (1809-1882) revolutionized much of the study related to biology and ethology. He laid the foundation for classical ethology,which asserts that much of what animals know is instinctive, or innate.
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Innate
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Instinctive
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nature-nurture controversy
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The crux of two opposing schools: classical ethology, which views animal behavior as primarily instinctive, and animal psychology, which views animal behavior as primarily learned
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operant conditioning
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The type of conditioned learning that associates a certain activity, known as the operant, with punishment or reward.
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operant
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Functioning or tending to produce effects
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stimulus-response theory
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The psychological school of thought stating that all complex forms of behavior, including emotions, thoughts, and habits, are complex muscular and glandular responses that can be observed and measured.
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unconditioned response
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A simple reflex behavior
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unconditioned stimulus
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Sensory input that produces a simple reflex behavior.
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wobble
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A training maneuver designed to disorient a bird by abruptly dropping the hand it’s perched upon
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spraying
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Staining vertical surfaces with a strong-smelling urine.
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sociobiology
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The study of the biological bases of social behavior.
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social behavior
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The ways individual members of the same species interact with one another.
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sensitive period
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A specific stage early in an animal’s life when imprinting occurs
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recognition of individuals
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The process that allows animals to distinguish their place in a social context broader than their relationship with primary caregivers.
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postparturition
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After giving birth to offspring
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instrumental learning
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Learning by trial and error
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instinct
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A complex of unlearned responses characteristic of a species
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imprinting
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The acquisition in the very young of certain fixed action patterns. Experts now conclude that imprinting allows newborns to recognize one or both parents or parental substitutes as individuals
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house soiling
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Urinating or defecating inside the home
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habituation
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The process of learning that certain objects and events have little bearing on survival and can thus be ignored.
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function
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In ethological terms, survival value
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fixed action patterns
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A term used by early ethologists to describe stereotypical or predictable behaviors of a species.
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evolution
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The scientific theory that characterizes all related organisms as descended from common ancestors.
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dance
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A complex pattern of movements performed by a bee that directs other bees to a food source.
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conditioned stimulus
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Sensory input unrelated to a simple reflex behavior
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classical ethology
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The ethological approach asserting that much of what animals know is instinctive or innate.
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classical conditioning
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The type of conditioned learning that associates stimuli occurring at approximately the same time or in roughly the same area based on Pavlov’s experiments
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breaking litter box training
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When a cat urinates or defecates someplace other than its litter box.
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behaviorism
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The ethological approach that states behavior is learned rather than genetically programmed
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behavior modification programs
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Training courses that use rewards and reprimands to stimulate changes in behavior
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Ivan Pavlov
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Russian physiologist (1849-1936. First scientist to question the role of instinct.While studying the process of digestion in dogs, Pavlov discovered that his laboratory animals automatically began to salivate at the sight of food. salivation was an involuntary or unconditioned response. The simple sight of food itself formed an unconditioned stimulus. Discovered that animals could learn to build novel associations between various stimuli, and therefore develop novel responses to their environment
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School of animal psychology
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was founded on Pavlov’s discovery that animals could learn to build novel associations between various stimuli, and therefore develop novel responses to their environment. Behaviorism became the dominant school of animal psychology.
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John B. Watson
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American psychologist. proposed an approach to psychology based on objective laboratory procedures. His experiments led him to formulate a stimulus-response theory of psychology, which holds that all complex forms of behavior, including emotions, thoughts, and habits, are complex muscular and glandular responses that can be observed and measured. Watson claimed that emotional reactions are learned in much the same way as other skills.
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What are the two general categories of conditioned learning Behaviorists recognized?
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classical conditioning and operant conditioning
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B. F. Skinner
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American psychologist (1904-1990) expert on the mechanism of operant conditioning. A classic example of experiments he devised involved teaching a rat to press a bar for food. Such conditioning used specific environmental responses to shape the rat’s behavior to a specific task.
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Positive reinforcement
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refers to any immediate pleasant occurrence that follows a behavior
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Negative reinforcement
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refers to any immediate unpleasant occurrence used to create a desired behavior
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Punishment
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it’s used to decrease rather than increase a behavior
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what are the two kinds of punishment?
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positive punishment and negative punishment
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positive punishment
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involves adding an undesirable occurrence to decrease a behavior
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negative punishment
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involves removing a desirable occurrence to decrease a behavior.
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how do you use punishment effectively for behavior modification?
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(a) occur every time the behavior occurs, (b) be applied immediately, (c) be of appropriate intensity, and (d) not be associated with the owner.
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Konrad Zacharias Lorenz
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1903-1989. one of the founding fathers of modern ethology, dedicated much of his research to identifying various kinds of fixed action patterns. discovered that a young animal follows its parents because of auditory or visual cues the parents present. Lorenz realized that any object, including a human being, could elicit the same response by exhibiting the cues. The acquisition in the very young of such fixed action patterns is called imprinting
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what is the critical socialization period in dogs?
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four to fourteen weeks
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what is the critical socialization period in cats?
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two to eight weeks
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what age is a puppy’s first fear period?
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eight to ten weeks of age…Pain, punishment, and adverse attention can cause permanent psychological damage during this two week phase.
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what’s a puppy’s second fear stage?
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when they near puberty…at which time they can also suffer lasting scars that result in permanent fearful behavior
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aggression
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behavior bred from an impulse to harm another being
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what are common behavioral problems with pets?
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canine separation anxiety, aggression, house soiling,
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separation anxiety
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anxiety when separated from the owner
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Conflict-related aggression
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occurs when a dog is exposed to an uncomfortable or uncertain stimulus or conflict. The dog has learned that aggression will allow it to avoid the conflict and uses aggression to lessen its fear of the stimulus. Learning that aggression will avoid the conflict is called avoidance conditioning.
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Fear-induced aggression
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most common type of aggression seen in animal hospitals. occurs whenever an animal is in a position from which it can’t escape, loud noises, children, or even specific individuals.
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Predatory aggression
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differs from other forms of aggression in that the animal won’t first give a warning in the form of a growl or other threatening behavior
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Pain-induced aggression
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related to pain is a protective instinct. Can occur when an animal in pain continues the aggression even after the painful stimulus is gone
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Inter-male aggression
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a natural instinct that’s nearly eliminated by castration
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Territorial aggression
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Dogs tend to be aggressive toward humans that aren’t members of their household. Cats tend to be aggressive toward other cats in their perceived territory.
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Maternal aggression
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rare but can occur in the postparturition period
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appropriate behavioral therapy treatment methods
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Trust, Reward, Reprimand, Consistency
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command-response-reward technique
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involves giving a command and immediately rewarding the desired response every time it’s performed, until the pet responds consistently. Command-response-reward should begin with simple commands before progressing to more difficult ones. Punishment shouldn’t be used with this technique.
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extinction
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involves elimination of a problem behavior by completely removing the reinforcement for the behavior.
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Aversion therapy
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involves creating a relationship between an unpleasant stimulus and an object that an animal may be marking, chewing, or otherwise damaging
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Avoidance therapy
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involves the use of negative reinforcement to diminish a problem behavior. The goal is for the pet to link the behavior with an unpleasant event and then avoid that unpleasant event
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Habituation
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used to treat minor behavior problems. It involves surrounding the animal with the stimulus causing the problem until the animal becomes acclimated to the stimulus and is no longer afraid of it
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Counterconditioning
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can replace an undesirable behavior with a desirable one. The technique involves taking a stimulus linked to a negative emotion and reconditioning, or counterconditioning, the animal by linking the stimulus to a positive emotional response
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Desensitization
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involves diminishing a particular behavior by gradually exposing the animal to the stimulus that produces the inappropriate response
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environmental modification
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For example, a common behavioral problem with cats is breaking litterbox training. We can induce a cat that consistently defecates on carpet to use the litter box by wrapping a piece of carpet around the outer edges of the box. Changing the location of the litterbox or using a different brand of cat litter can also be useful methods of environmental modification
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hormonal therapy
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involves administration of gonadal hormones, in particular, progestin
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Dominance aggression—Aggression
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may occur when an owner attempts to assert dominance over a dog, such as by taking its food bowl or a toy away