Pathophysiology Infection, Immune & Inflammation

question

the third line of defense
answer

immune response, specific
question

Response in which there is increased blood flow to the site of an injury
answer

vascular response
question

Type of response that alerts the products of healing to attend to the site of injury
answer

cellular response
question

Part of vascular response to accommodate increased blood flow to the site of the injury
answer

dilate
question

(vascular response) lining of the blood vessel loosens to allow cells to easily move from the vessel into the injured tissue
answer

permeable
question

Plasma derived chemical mediators
answer

Complement, kinin, clotting systems
question

Watery fluid that accumulates at the site of injury
answer

exudate
question

An important inflammatory mediator, a leukocyte that is responsible for the production and immediate inflammatory mediators through a response of degranulation. (\”first responders\”)
answer

Mast cell
question

When the mast cell breaks apart and releases inflammatory mediators in the form of extracellular granules
answer

Degranulation
question

A white blood cell that contains granules that acts in the same manner as mast cells
answer

Basophil
question

mediators released by ________ include histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins
answer

Mast cell
question

Inflammatory mediators associated with arachidonic acid
answer

Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane
question

A process of moving certain cells to the site of injury – attracts specific types of cells
answer

Chemotaxis
question

Three steps needed for a successful cellular response
answer

Chemotaxis, cellular adherence, cellular migration
question

Attraction and binding, essential for effective phagocytosis
answer

Adherence
question

Process in which cells can move between and through endothelial junctions
answer

Diapedesis
question

Local manifestations of inflammation
answer

Heat, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function.
question

Systemic manifestations of inflammation
answer

Fever, fatigue, weight loss, headache, lethargy, inc leukocytes
question

Infection associated with breakdown of tissues and formation of pus
answer

Abscess
question

overwhelming infection where pathogenic bacteria gain access to bloodstream
answer

Septicemia
question

Stimulates inflammation, opsonization, and lysis of foreign cells
answer

The complement system
question

Three steps in treatment of inflammation
answer

Reduce blood flow, decrease swelling, block the action of chemical mediators
question

Three steps of healing and tissue repair
answer

Inflammatory, proliferative, remodeling
question

Covers the wound – first step of healing and tissue repair
answer

Inflammatory phase
question

Cleans the debris and restores structural integrity – second step of healing and tissue repair
answer

Proliferative phase
question

Resolution, regeneration, replacement – third step of healing and tissue repair
answer

Remodeling phase
question

Complication of wound healing. Open lesion of the skin prone to infection
answer

Ulcers
question

Complication of wound healing. Deficient scar formation, in which the wound splits open, often at a suture line
answer

Dehiscence
question

Complication of wound healing. Hypertrophic scars that result from excessive collagen production at the site of injury
answer

Keloids
question

Formation of granulomas and scarring often occur
answer

Chronic inflammation
question

2nd degree: Blistering occurs in this type of burn
answer

Deep partial burn
question

3rd Degree: Redness, eschar, edema, and exudate characterize this type of burn
answer

Full thickness burn
question

Diagnostic criteria used for burns
answer

Rule of nines. Face, hands, feet or groin are MAJOR burns.
question

Bacterial infection of the blood
answer

Sepsis
question

A process of mechanically removing debris, including necrotic tissue, from the wound.
answer

Debridement
question

You get a paper cut and experience pain at the site. This response is related to: A. Increased perfusion at the site B. Increased exudate and chemical mediators at the site C. Bacteria that have entered the wound D. Vasoconstriction at the site
answer

B
question

Inflammation is ultimately needed to: A. Increase inflammatory mediators at the site to vasoconstrict the area B. Increase platelets at the site for clotting C. Restore functional cells D. Prepare the site for healing
answer

D
question

Type of healing where the wound is closed with all areas of the wound connecting and healing simultaneously (ex. paper cut)
answer

Primary intention
question

Type of healing where the wound heals from the bottom up. Slower and more involved process (ex. open crater-like wound)
answer

Secondary intention
question

A major difference between the acute and chronic inflammatory response is that in chronic inflammation: A. Inflammatory mediators are released B. Neutrophils are much more prominent C. Granulomas form around certain invaders D. Granulation tissue is present
answer

D
question

Which is not a local manifestation of acute inflammation: A. Edema B. Redness C. Loss of function D. Leukocytes
answer

D
question

The hospitalized burn patient want to know why you need to remove his dressings every day. You explain that removing the dressings promotes: A. Debridement B. Infection C. Skin function D. Drying and exudate
answer

A
question

Which of the following is the most common cause of acute gastritis? A. Poor gastric perfusion B. Too much stomach acid C. Ingestion of aspirin, alcohol, or other chemicals D. H. Pylori infection
answer

D
question

First line of defense
answer

non-specific, mechanical barrier, skin and mucous membranes an secretions
question

Second line of defense
answer

non-specific, phagocytosis and inflammation.
question

What are characteristic of the inflammatory response?
answer

1. It is a non-specific response to injury. 2. It is activated when first line of defense is inadequate. 3. It can be initiated by the activation of the complement system.
question

What leukocyte functions as the first phagocytic responder during the inflammatory process?
answer

neutrophils
question

WBC Differential shifts
answer

Shift to the left: increase bands % and WBC, neutrophils. Bands are immature neutrophils.
question

Inflammatory Exudates
answer

Serous – water, consists of primarily fluid, some proteins, and white blood cells Sanguinous – bloody Serosanguinous – mostly serous with some red blood cells present (may be pinkish but still watery) Fibrinous – thick, sticky, high cell and fibrin content Purulent – thick, yellow-green, contains more leukocytes, cell debris, and microorganisms
question

Potential complications of inflammation
answer

infections, deep ulcers, muscle spasms, local complications.
question

Tissue repair
answer

resolution: Minimal tissue damage, regeneration: Damaged tissue replaced with cells that are functional, and replacement: Functional tissue replaced by scar tissue & Loss of function.
question

pharmacologic treatment
answer

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): Aspirin Acetaminophen: Tylenol Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), Naproxen sodium (Aleve) Glucocorticoids: Corticosteroids (Prednisone)
question

Pyrogenics
answer

cytokines and prostagladins

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member