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patho ch 5 Essay

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____ 1. What is a benign neoplasm originating from adipose tissue called?
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Lipoma
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____ 2. What are malignant neoplasms arising from connective tissue cells called?
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Sarcomas
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____ 3. Which of the following is a characteristic of a benign tumor?
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Cells appear relatively normal.
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____ 4. Which factor provides the basis for grading of newly diagnosed malignant tumors?
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degree of differentiation of the cells
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____ 5. A warning sign of possible cancer would be any of the following EXCEPT:
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sudden development of fever, nausea, and diarrhea
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____ 6. The common local effects of an expanding tumor mass include:
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1. obstruction of a tube or duct 3. cell necrosis and ulceration
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____ 7. Which of the following does paraneoplastic syndrome refer to?
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the effects of substances such as hormones secreted by the tumor cells
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____ 8. Which term refers to the spread of malignant cells through blood and lymph to distant sites?
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metastasis
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____ 9. One reason for staging a malignant tumor at the time of diagnosis is to:
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determine the best treatment and the prognosis
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____ 10. The process of carcinogenesis usually begins with:
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an irreversible change in the cell DNA
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____ 11. What would be an external source of ionizing radiation?
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gamma rays delivered by a cobalt machine
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____ 12. Radiation therapy destroys:
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primarily rapidly dividing cells
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____ 13. The most critical adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are:
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thrombocytopenia and leucopenia
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____ 14. Chemotherapy usually involves a combination of drugs in order to:
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1. reduce the adverse effects 3. be effective in more phases of the cell cycle
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____ 15. Why does ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis?
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Specific signs rarely appear until after secondary tumors have developed.
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____ 16. Select the correct pair representing a malignant tumor and its marker:
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colon cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
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____ 17. Antiangiogenesis drugs act on a malignant tumor by:
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reducing blood flow and nutrient supply to tumor cells
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____ 18. The development of neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer means:
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the patient is at high risk for infection
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____ 19. Malignant brain tumors:
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spread to other parts of CNS
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____ 20. Identify the common dose-limiting factor for chemotherapy:
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bone marrow depression
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____ 21. Glucocorticoids are often prescribed during a course of chemotherapy and radiation because:
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inflammation around the tumor may be reduced
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____ 22. Vomiting frequently follows a chemotherapy treatment because:
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the gastrointestinal tract is irritated the chemicals stimulate the emetic center
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____ 23. What type of normal cells are often damaged during chemotherapy and radiation treatments?
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epithelial cells
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____ 24. Remission for cancer is generally defined as a period in which:
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signs and symptoms are absent
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____ 25. All of the following are correct statements about skin cancers EXCEPT:
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They are difficult to diagnose and treat.
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____ 26. High risk factors for cancer include:
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1. human papilloma virus 2. chronic irritation and inflammation 3. repeated sun exposure 4. high family incidence
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____ 27. The term apoptosis refers to:
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programmed cell death
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____ 28. The warning signs for cancer include:
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all the above are warning signs.
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____ 29. A classification process that applies to a specific malignant tumor and describes the extent of the disease at a given time is called:
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staging
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____ 30. Benign tumors can often be differentiated from malignant tumors because benign tumors:
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are encapsulated and slow-growing
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____ 31. Benign tumors in the brain are often life-threatening because they:
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they create excessive pressure within the skull