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Parts of Speech & Punctuation Rules

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noun
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Names a person, place, thing, animal, and idea
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pronoun
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Replaces or renames a noun
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verb
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Expresses action or state of being
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adjective
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Modifies a noun or pronoun by describing or limiting
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adverb
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Modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverbs
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conjunction
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Connects words, phrases, and clauses
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preposition
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Little words that begin prepositional phrases
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interjection
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Expresses strong emotion or surprise
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independent clause
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expresses a complete thought with a subject, verb, and a main idea and can stand alone as a sentence “The dog ran”
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dependent clause
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does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence because it only has a subject and a verb “When the dog ran”
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phrase
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any group of words that is missing either a subject or a verb
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clause
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a group of words with a subject and a verb
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prepositional phrase
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is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words in between: example: Who lives IN THAT HOUSE?
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appositive phrase
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consists of an appositive & its modifiers (these books, THE ONES THAT ARE OVERDUE, are mine)
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verbal phrase
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A group of words considered as a single unit that includes a verbal and its complement(s) and/or modifier(s)”built of bamboo”
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verbals
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words that appear to be verbs, but are acting as some other part of speech
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participle
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a verbal used as an adjective “The smiling cat ran quickly”
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gerund
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a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun. “Running is a great sport”
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infinitive
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A form of a verb that generally appears with the word ‘to’ and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb. “To run is exhilarating”; “I have people to meet”; “To win, you must earn points”
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simple sentence
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A sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause “The singer bowed to her adoring audience”
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compound sentence
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two dependent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction “The singer bowed to the audience, but sang no more encores”
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complex sentence
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a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause “You said that you would tell the truth”
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compound-complex sentence
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at least one dependent clause and two or more independent clauses “The singer bowed while the audience applauded, but she sang no more encores”
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loose sentence
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a type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses; it gives a feeling of what’s happening now and can make sense before the entire sentence is complete “We reached Edmonton/that morning/after a turbulent flight/ and some exciting experiences”
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periodic sentence
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The opposite of loose sentence, a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect of a periodic sentence is to add emphasis and structural variety, along with reflection on a past event. It is also a much stronger sentence than the loose sentence. (Example: After a long, bumpy flight and multiple delays, I arrived at the San Diego airport.)
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parallel structure Sentence
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Two or more words, phrases, or clauses that are similar in length and grammatical form; it shows equal ideas for emphasis and rhythm “He was walking, running, and jumping for joy”
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chiasmus sentence
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In rhetoric, a verbal pattern (a type of antithesis) in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first with the parts reversed. (“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”)
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antithesis sentence
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A rhetorical term for the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases or clauses.
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isocolon sentence
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A rhetorical term for a succession of clauses or sentences of approximately equal length and corresponding structure.”It takes a licking, but it keeps on ticking!”
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juxtaposition
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In composition, the placing of verbal elements side by side, leaving it up to the reader to establish connections and impose a meaning. It also creates an effect of surprise or wit”But it is inevitable that they will keep changing the doors on you, he said, because that is what they are for; and the thing is to get used to it and not let it unsettle the mind. . . .”
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tone shifts
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Key Words(especially conjunctions) “but, nevertheless, however, although”; Changes in line length; Paragraph divisions; Punctuation “dashes, periods, colons”; Sharp Contrasts in diction
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balanced structure
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phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue or their likeness in structure, meaning, or length “He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside still waters”
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natural order of a sentence
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involves constructing a sentence so the subject comes before the predicate “Oranges grow in California”
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inverted order of a sentence
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involves constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before a subject “In California grow oranges”
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split order of a sentence
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Divides the predicate into two parts with the subject coming in the middle “In California oranges grow”
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significance of an ellipses
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a trailing off; equally etc.; going off into a dreamlike state
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significance of italics
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for emphasis
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significance of an exclamation point
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for emphasis and emotion
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significance of a dash
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interruption of a thought; an interjection of a thought into another
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significance of a semicolon
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parallel ideas; equal ideas; a piling up of detail
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significance of a colon
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a list; a definition or explanation; a result
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significance of capitalization
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for emphasis
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telegraphic sentence
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shorter than 5 words in length Hint: Would you wanna type it on a ______?It’s easier to type things on a _____if they’re short……
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short sentence
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approximately 5 words long
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medium sentence
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approximately 18 words in length
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long and involved sentence
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30 words or more
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Compound Sentence
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Use a comma before the conjunction if the conjunction joins two complete sentences.
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Introductory Phrases/Clauses
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ALWAYS set off introductory adverb clauses(begin with subordinate conjunctions) and introductory participial phrases. Clue- Usually set off an introductory phrase if it is more than 4 words
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Items in a Series
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Use a comma to set off items in a series unless a conjunction is used. Note- the comma before the last item in a series (by the conjunction) is optional.
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Parenthetical Expressions
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Set off parenthetical expressions (a side remark that adds information or shows relationship between ideas)- use commas
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Adjectives
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Use a comma to separate 2 or more adjectives preceding a noun if the word order can be reversed and if the word “and” can be substituted for a Note- do not place a comma between the last adjective and the noun
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Nouns of direct address
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Always set off using commas. Ex: Monica, close the door.
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Non-essential Phrases/Clauses
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Set off non-essential appositives, appositive phrases, participial phrases and adjective (who/whom, which) clauses with commas. Note- “That” phrases are usually essential and do not need commas
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Dates/Addresses
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Use a comma to separate the date and year. If the date only consists of a month and year, no comma is needed. Between each item of a address put a comma except for the state and zip code or after the house number.
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Surnames
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Put a comma between the last name and title(surname) and after the title when its in the middle of a sentence. Exception: Do not use a comma if the title is Roman numerals. Ex: John Smith, M.D., will be our guest speaker.
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Prepositional phrases
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Use commas to set off 2 or more introductory prepositional phrases in a row or one long (5 or more words) introductory prepositional phrase. Do not set off one short introductory prepositional phrase UNLESS it needs a comma for clarity.
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Mild Interjections
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Always set off with commas. Ex: Well, he’s not coming anymore.
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Semicolons
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Semicolons are used to: 1. Separate related independent clauses 2. Separate items in a series if the elements of the series already includes commas 3. Separate the independent clauses in a compound sentence other commas are needed in either of the independent clauses 4. Separate sentences in a series if one or more of the sentences is long
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Colons
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Colons are used: 1. After a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas 2. After a salutation in business letter 3. Between hours and minutes in time notation 4. Between chapter and verse in biblical references
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Apostrophe
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Apostrophes are used: 1. To form possessives of nouns 2. To show the admission of letters (Ex: he’s…he is) 3. To indicate certain plurals of LOWERCASE letters. Note- DO NOT use an apostrophe for possessive pronouns or for noun plurals (Ex: it’s and its do not mean the same thing)
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Quotation Marks
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Quotation Marks are used to: 1. Enclose DIRECT quotations. Note- commas and periods are always placed inside the quotation marks. Colons and semicolons are placed outside. Placement of question marks and exclamation points depend on the situation. 3. Enclose slang words, technical terms, invented words, dictionary definition of words, any expressions that are unusual in standard English.
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Italics/Underline
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Italics/Underlines are used with: 1. Titles of long works (books, works of art, long poems, periodicals, television programs, spacecrafts, trains, etc.) 2. Foreign words that haven’t been adopted into English 3. Words/letters/symbols/numerals used as words themselves
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Hyphens
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Hyphens are used to: 1. Join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a noun. However, compound modifiers behind a noun are not hyphenated. 2. Compound numbers 3. Avoid confusion or an awkward combination of letters 4. With prefixes ex-, self-, all-; with the suffix -elect; between a prefix and a capitalized word; and with figures/letters 5. To divide words at the end of a line if necessary, and make the break only between syllables.
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Dash
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Use a Dash to: 1. Emphasize a point or to set off explanatory comment 2. Before and after an appositive phrase that already includes commas 3. In informal writing use the dash to indicate an abrupt break in thought/speech
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Parenthesis
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Used for extra, nonessential material included in a sentence. Note- DO NOT use parenthesis if the information enclosed is important or if omission of this information changes the basic meaning and construction of the sentence
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Brackets
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Used within quotations before and after words that are added to clarify what the other person has said/written
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Ellipsis
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Used to indicate that you deleted material from an otherwise word-for-word quotation.