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OT FOUNDERS*** – HIST Fall2_Term2

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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (1)
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Born in Hobart, New York October 13, 1871. Died 1942. She attended training courses in curative occupations in 1908 at the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (linked to Hull House). MOTHER OF OT
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (2)
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Social worker by trade and ‘mother of OT’. She taught coursework at Hull House in Chicago. After training, worked in state hospitals in MI and NY.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (3)
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1912: Asked by Adolf Meyer to direct new OT department at Henry Phipps Psychiatric clinic and Johns Hopkins in MD. Here she began ‘habit training’.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (4)
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In 1917 Eleanor became the general superintendent of occupational Therapy services. Eleanor organized the first professional school for OT practitioners, the Henry B. Favill School of Occupations. She was president of the National Society for the Promotion of OT.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (5)
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In 1922 Eleanor established the headquarters of the AOTA. Her home was unofficial headquarters. She held each office within the association.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (6)
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Eleanor believed in order to restore health you must overcome disorganized habits. Her view of occupation consisted of patients receiving direct activity 24 hours a day from a variety of personnel.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (7)
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Idea of habit training was to overcome disorganized habits via habit training and construct new healthy ones with the goal to restore health. The day should be a balance of rest, play, occupation, and exercise. She believed in moral treatment principles.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (8)
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Eleanor still has an effect on the practice of OT today. Habit training is a foundational theory in how everyday routines can be modified to achieve independence. Believed that life should be SIMPLE and ROUTINE.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (9)
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She also began an unemployment agency and had family members who were disabled – father was injured in Civil War.
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (10)
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Believed that occupational therapists should be trained to provide therapy and maintain their own profession (vs. nurses providing occupational therapy)
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (11) – WHAT WOULD SHE THINK ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE TODAY?
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Eleanor would be surprised about the advancement of technology, and therapy is no longer twenty four hours a day. Proud to know that the highest honor in occupational therapy is to receive the Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lectureship at the Annual AOTA Conference
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Eleanor Clarke Slagle (12) – WHAT WOULD YOU ASK HER?
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1) Are you surprised about the growth of the OT profession? 2) How do you feel about Susan Tracy’s view that only nurses should be administering occupational therapy? 3) Would you change the name of this field? 4) What occupations are meaningful to you?
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Herbert Hall (1)
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Born March 12, 1870. Lived in Manchester, NH. Died February 19, 1923. Received medical degree from Harvard and was an MD who studied ‘nerves’. Graduated in 1895. In early 1900s started a treatment facility in MA for patients with neurasthenia using arts and crafts as treatment techniques.
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Herbert Hall (2)
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NOT at original meeting of OT founders, but considered a founder anyway. 4th president of the AOTA
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Herbert Hall (3)
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Incorporated the (adapted) arts and crafts movement into treatment, wrote extensively in medical journals, studied neurasthenia and the ‘rest cure’ (was opposed to this), made equipment and kits for hospitals and asylums, invented “work-cure medical treatment”.
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Herbert Hall (4)
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Thought the ‘work cure’ would have a normalizing effect to help people regain health as opposed to ‘rest cure’. WORK AS TREATEMENT vs TREATMENT AS WORK. Treatment at the time seemed to be ‘rest’ but he opposed this. Began providing crafts on a limited basis from bed and as patient grew stronger, the level of activity would increase until the patient could go to the workshop.
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Herbert Hall (5)
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Believed “every human should have physical and mental occupation” and “sick minds, bodies, and souls may be healed through occupation”.
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Herbert Hall (6)
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Received grants from Harvard University to study ‘occupations’, neurasthenia. ($1000!)
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Herbert Hall (7)
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Published article in Keramic Studio in 1909 that discussed a pottery program. Published book Handicrafts for the Handicapped.
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Herbert Hall (8)
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Opened therapeutic handicraft shop in Marblehead, MA and promoted weaving, wood carving, metal work and pottery. Crafts had a universal appeal.
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Herbert Hall (9)
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Identified principles that are still used today such as GRADED ACTIVITY and ENERGY CONSERVATION.
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Herbert Hall (10) – WHAT WOULD HE THINK ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE TODAY?
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He would be surprised how medically advanced OT is today in regard to ADLs – less crafts; how far the OT field has expanded. Many options for treatment of patients and the many conditions that OT treats. How simple devices are still used (i.e. sock aide).
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Herbert Hall (11) – WHAT WOULD YOU ASK HIM?
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What is the “rest cure”? What types of faulty living habits caused neurasthenia? Why more common in women? What interventions/equipment would you suggest to best treat patients? What advice would you give a new practitioner? What would you change about the practice of OT?
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Alfred Meyer (1)
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Born September 13, 1866 in Switzerland and died March 1950 in Baltimore, MD. Came to the U.S. in 1892
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Alfred Meyer (2)
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Author of several books including “Psychology: A Science of Man”.
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Alfred Meyer (3)
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Professor at Johns Hopkins and first director of the Phipps Clinic (psychiatric clinic).
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Alfred Meyer (4)
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Practiced as a psychiatrist. Went to University of Zurich. Moved to the US in 1892 and began working at University of Chicago.
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Alfred Meyer (5)
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Former president of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 1921, he delivered a keynote speech at the 5th annual meeting of the NSPOT that was later published in the first OT journal.
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Alfred Meyer (6)
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Developed original philosophy statement for occupational therapy.
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Alfred Meyer (7)
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He appeared to thoroughly understand the importance of rehabilitation due to his studies in neurology. His beliefs were congruent with moral treatment.
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Alfred Meyer (8)
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Wanted to improve and enhance health within the mind, body and soul throughout the environment.
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Alfred Meyer (9)
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Agreed with Eleanor Clarke Slagle regarding habit training (they met at Hull House in Chicago). Mental illness was a disruption in day to day meaningful activities.
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Alfred Meyer (10)
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His views on occupation were that life is a rhythm made up of other rhythms and the 4 main components were work, play, rest, sleep.
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Alfred Meyer (11)
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Meyer believed that mental problems were a result of personality problems which were often caused by experiences that an individual had with trauma, environmental issues, or social problems.
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Alfred Meyer (12)
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Meyer believed that a person’s mental health could be affected by their daily life, environment, and habits. He believed that community services should be available to assist individuals with dealing with the stresses of everyday life.
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Alfred Meyer (13)
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Encourages us as OT practitioners to not just know the diagnosis or what happened to cause a disease/disability, but the whole person we are treating. Not every treatment would work for every person with the same problem.
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Alfred Meyer (14)
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Humanism and holism!
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Alfred Meyer (15)
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“Occupation is, with good right, the most essential side of hygienic treatment of most insane patients.”
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Alfred Meyer (16) – WHAT WOULD HE THINK ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE TODAY?
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He would be surprised about how far OT has evolved and how moral treatment has had significant placement within the practice today – yet we are still struggling to prove the importance of occupation.
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Susan Tracy (1)
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Born 1864 and lived in Massachusetts. Nursing instructor and very involved in arts & crafts movement. Brought OT ideas to hospitals.
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Susan Tracy (2)
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Wrote first known book on occupational therapy: Studies in Invalid Occupations. Manual for Nurses and Attendants. (1918). Describes selection and practical use of occupations using arts and crafts. Also observations and experiences with different kinds of patients.
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Susan Tracy (3)
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During WWI, trained nurses in occupations in order to work with returning disabled soldiers. Called them ‘occupational nurses’. Realized need to ‘occupy’ soldiers returning from war when unable to get out of bed. Felt there was confusion after WWI regarding occupation and vocation.
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Susan Tracy (4)
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“The aim of occupation is to get the man well; that of vocational training is to provide him with a job. Any well man will look for a job, but the sick man is looking for health”. (Bing, p. 316)
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Susan Tracy (5)
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“The patient is the product, not the article he makes” (Bing, p. 316).
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Susan Tracy (6)
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In 1889 performed nursing training at Homeopathic Hospital in MA
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Susan Tracy (7)
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In 1905 she was hired to work at the Adams Nervine Asylum in Jamaica Plains, MA.
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Susan Tracy (8)
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1918 – Research paper – 25 mental tests derived from occupations
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Susan Tracy (9)
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Served as chair on the Committee of Teaching Methods.
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Susan Tracy (10)
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Believed that nurses (only) were qualified to practice in occupations.
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Susan Tracy (11)
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She distinguished herself by applying moral treatment principles to acute conditions (vs. chronic).
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Susan Tracy (12)
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She emphasized the importance of ENGAGING patients properly in occupations, by correctly matching activities to interest and grading occupations to capacities. Use common sense and observation. The purpose of providing this treatment was not to make money, but provide healing.
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Susan Tracy (13)
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She made patients who were hospitalized engage in activity vs. being idle. Believed in getting the man ‘well’ and then vocation training can get them a job.
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Susan Tracy (14)
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NOT at the original meeting of NSPOT – but VERY influential on the profession at its inception. May have made the first universal cuff (?)
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Susan Tracy (15) – WHAT WOULD SHE THINK ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE TODAY?
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Activities she used such as arts and crafts are still being used today.
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Susan Tracy (16) – WHAT WOULD YOU ASK HER?
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What types of arts and crafts activities did you use with patients? Are you an AOTA member? What was WWI like? Why did you believe only nurses were qualified to practice OT? Where were you at the first meeting of the NSPOT??
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George Edward Barton (1)
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Born March 7, 1871 and lived in Boston with his family. Also studied in London.
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George Edward Barton (2)
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Worked as an architect. Interested in the effect that the environment had on individuals. Fascinated with movement and measurement.
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George Edward Barton (3)
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Experienced both tuberculosis (1901) and partial amputation leading to left sided weakness. Was frustrated by limitations and dedicated to becoming independent and overcoming his disability.
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George Edward Barton (4)
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Opened Consolation House in 1914 for convalescent patients in Clifton Springs, NY. Occupation was used as treatment there.
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George Edward Barton (5)
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Leader of Britain’s arts and crafts movement.
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George Edward Barton (6)
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Coined term OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY. Liked therapy vs ‘re-education’ because he wanted to have the “health-giving side emphasized”.
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George Edward Barton (7)
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George Edward Barton illustrates Occupational Therapy as, “the science of instructing and encouraging the sick in such labors as will involve those energies and activities producing a beneficial therapeutic effect”
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George Edward Barton (8)
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Was interested in the response of the human body to therapeutic occupations. Wanted to reform conditions in asylums (using moral treatment principles). Re-emergence of moral treatment!
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George Edward Barton (9)
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Believed occupation should produce similar effects to medication.
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George Edward Barton (10)
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Believed that people should be discharged and become independent. People were being discharged from the hospital and a burden on families. Felt that occupations can shorten stay and improve conditions while in hospital.
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George Edward Barton (11)
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Modeled idea of occupational therapy’s goal to re-educate and re-introduce the injured back into their rightful place in society.
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George Edward Barton (12)
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Helped form first NSPOT which is not AOTA. Hosted first ‘convention’ at Consolation House and became first president of NSPOT in 1917.
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George Edward Barton (13)
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Wanted to make life worthwhile for someone living with a condition (such as himself) and teach others to overcome disabilities. Measured movement and matched corresponding occupation with the motion.
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George Edward Barton (14) – WHAT WOULD HE THINK ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE TODAY?
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Technology and how the profession has grown and become more popular. OT still helps individuals ‘fight through’ disability and get back to their occupations.
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George Edward Barton (15) – WHAT WOULD YOU ASK HIM?
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How did your personal experience influence your strong beliefs on the importance of occupation? What attracted you to the observing the conditions within asylums?
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (1)
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He was born July 24, 1868 and he lived in Philadelphia (Chestnut Hill). He was nephew of Benjamin Rush – ‘father of American Psychiatry’. Died December 1966 in Baltimore, MD.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (2)
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“Father of Occupational Therapy” but preferred the term ‘occupation therapy’.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (3)
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Graduated from Haverford College and University of Pennsylvania for medical school. Married Edna Hogan – nursing superintendent at CHOP. 3 children. Was a psychiatrist at Sheppard Pratt where he became interested in mental illness and treatment via occupation.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (4)
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Published over 120 articles. Wrote his first publication in 1915 called “Occupational Therapy: A Manual for Nurses”. Included the ideas to keep patients focused, divert them from negative thoughts, use daily activity for rehabilitation. Wanted to build body of evidence via publishing for OT. Because it was a ‘new’ concept, lack of material to support.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (5)
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Developed 9 CARDINAL RULES to guide OT as it developed. Founding group of Maryland Psychiatric Society and charter member of Baltimore co. Medical Association which began in 1896.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (6)
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He was a psychiatrist. He published Occupational Therapy: A manual for nurses. He was treasurer and president of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational therapy and edited the association’s journal for 21 years.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (7)
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Also published “Reconstruction Therapy” in1919 and “Prescribing Occupational Therapy” in 1928.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (8)
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He believed in scientific investigation for the treatment of patients. Believed that introducing activities you could gain an individual’s attention and interest.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (9)
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Patients would make more rapid progress if attention is concentrated on doing and gaining pleasure. Patients must be engaged in interesting and meaningful activities.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (10)
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Occupation should be both physical and mental. Should be enjoyable. Should have at least 2 hobbies – one outdoor and one indoor.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (11)
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Occupation is as necessary to life as food and drink! It is constructive, positive, and meaningful. Not just ‘keeping a patient busy’.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (12)
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Bright colors are pleasing to patients. Cutting and sewing helped take their mind off inner problems. Recognized that occupation had value and also that people must be trained to carry it out in order to be successful. Was a quilt maker!
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (13)
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“Dunton wanted the soon-to-be-separate profession of occupational therapy “accorded the attention and respect” that he felt it deserved” (Occupational Therapy: the First 30 Years, pg. 61)
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (14) – WHAT WOULD HE THINK ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE TODAY?
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Might be surprised by the different interventions and many means for communication as well as the fact that there are OTAs and OTs now! Why did OT move away from arts and crafts? How we changed it to quality of life instead of just work.
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William Rush Dunton, Jr. (15) – WHAT WOULD YOU ASK HIM?
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Why would he name it “occupation” instead of “occupational”? How does he feel about being the “father of occupational therapy”? Why did he see benefits in quilting?